The Wind Of Change On Marine Microbiologist Biology Essay


The central dogma is backbone of molecular biology stated by Francis Crick. This is a powerful and important description in biological principles. Central dogma is a sequence of process where genomic information is used to make the necessary protein for biological activities, started with DNA and then ends in protein production. It means genetic information is transferred from DNA to protein through various steps such as DNA replication, transcription, translation and protein production. This states that the change of information of nucleic acid to nucleic acid, or from nucleic acid to protein may be possible, but change of protein to protein, or from protein to nucleic acid is impossible (Keyes, 1999; Pukkila 2001). This notation has given an exclusive status to explain cell regulation and to interpretations of the biological processes. Currently in the genome era of genetics, we can use recombinant DNA procedures for gene isolation and manipulation, DNA sequencing and genome analysis (Watson, 1993). Furthermore, active processes such as transcription-factor binding, transcription and translation which can be monitored in real time, offering quantitative descriptions of the central dogma of molecular biology (Li & Xie, 2011).

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Gene DNA plays the main role in evolution, because DNA is frequently compared to a set of blue prints of life as blue prints of protein. Each protein is made of 20 kinds of amino acids linking together and written in DNA. The gene DNA which is a blue print of protein, is just a partial part of genomic DNA. Genomic DNA is DNA which stored in nucleus, indicates information of protein production process. DNA must be folded correctly; the double helix of DNA is joined together with 10 bridges per rotation. The bridge can be categorized into two types and each bridge is made of two of four substances. Each bridge is made of just 4 different substances, which makes a bond within the double helix. They are Guanine and Cyctosine, which make a bridge with 3 linkage and Adenine and Thymine, which make a bridge with 2 linkages. All information for DNA is made of combination of these 4 characters, CGAT. Since too much information about total numbers of characters written down in genomic DNA, some specific enzymes unfold the DNA by transcription process. Therefore, only necessary paid is copied, when it is required. Several enzymes bind to a neighboring regulatory region to develop for transcription. Various enzymes bind to a neighbor regulatory region to prepare for transcription. After preparation a large enzyme, RNA polymerase makes a copy of the gene DNA. At the same time various enzymes working based on the base pairing rules and make an accurate copy of gene DNA. A copy of gene DNA is transcribed and it is called messenger RNA. Following several steps, such as splicing which remove non-coding sequences from mRNA, messenger RNA is completely processed. Then the sequence of this messenger RNA is decoded to produce a chain of amino acids, which called translation. Transfer RNA plays a key role in translating a sequence of base triplets into one amino acid. It contains an anticodon region that cans base pair with the appropriate base on messenger RNA. The corresponding amino acid to a codon is attached to one terminal site of it. Coming out from nucleus, messenger RNA is bound by several enzymes and ready to start the protein synthesis. This complex consisting of two large sub-units is ribosome, that is, the plant for protein synthesis. Messenger RNA is translated into amino acids chain at base of a protein. Transfer RNA transmits an amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain, and relay the chain to the next transfer RNA. When the ribosome reaches a stop codon that indicates a synthetic ends, the polypeptide chain is released to the cytoplasm. Although the synthesis itself is completed at this stage, the shape of chain should be changed into a three dimensional structure in order to have the functions of a protein and with helped various enzymes make a protein. (Alberts et al., 2008)

Presently, the value of molecular biological methods to study the ecology and diversity of microorganisms in natural environments has been applied and many new insights into the structure of uncultivated microbial communities have been founded (Head et al., 1998). Norman Pace's group was take a fundamental advance that accelerated relatively unbiased microbial census and began what is now recognized as molecular microbial ecology (Head et al., 1998; Delong, 2007). Combining molecular measures of species composition and the abundance of biogeochemical important groups with measurement of particular processes and environmental parameters is also now being more widely adopted to unlock some of the mysteries of microbial ecology (Head et al., 1998). Molecular biology improve an understanding the basis of analytical tools in strategies and techniques for analyzing microbial population structures in marine environment. For example, research efforts from a molecular to a global perspective provide a new basis for understanding the biology, ecology and role in global biogeochemical cycles of Trichodesmium, a planktonic marine cyanobacteria take place around the oligotrophic tropical and subtropical oceans which contribute in marine global nitrogen cycle (Capone et al., 1997). Furthermore, some project like GOS (Global Ocean Survey) expedition, CAMERA (Community Cyber infrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis), STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins) and other projects, providing free access to know large information of dataset at this time.

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The application of molecular genetics techniques and approaches is now providing a remarkable new perspective on the diversity of the abundant and ubiquitous bacteria potential as source energy like bacterial containing proteorhodopsin gene assemblages in the oceans. There is now a vast opportunity to explore and to estimate the richness of particular marine microbial containing proteorhodopsin community in marine environment. Implication for the world, a vision of a future. The term of Blue revolution has recently gained popularity to offer a wide range of other profit, such as natural medicine and renewable fuel. Hydrogen produced in marine organisms and this aquatic system is promising approaches to new energy technologies that important to development. The actual approach to affordable blue hydrogen may come from using microorganisms and the other aquatic biomass resources, where bioprocess and genetic engineering is hoped to play a significant function (Takahashi et. al., 2005). Huntley and Redalje (2004) said that the averaged rate of reached microbial oil production from Haematococcus pluvialis is equal to >420 GJ ha −1 yr−1, which beat biofuel production from plantations of terrestrial. The maximum production value achieved to date is equal to 1014 GJ ha−1 yr−1. At this value, it is potential to change reliance on common fossil fuel usage equal to ∼300 EJ yr−1 and terminate fossil fuel emissions of CO2 of ∼6.5 GtC yr−1 using only 7.3% of the surplus arable land designed to be available by 2050. Furthermore, many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of economic biomass (Domac et. al., 2005).

As conclusion, Central dogma as key molecular marine microbiology gives many various implications for building, evaluating and revising that knowledge over time. This principle like a wind of change on marine microbiologist as basic of strategy of molecular biology to identify and track microbes by reading DNA sequences extracted directly from the environment, without the need for cultivation. Finally, using the caesura of lyric song of Wind of Change from group band Scorpions, the author believe that discovery of central dogma is breakthrough to change old paradigms and develop many applications in marine microbiology and this is just the beginning.


The future's in the air

I can feel it everywhere

Blowing with the wind of change

Take me to the magic of the moment

On a glory night