The Underlying Causes Of Weight Gain Biology Essay

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Proper weight management especially slimming is a hot issue in the society nowadays. While most people are trying to get rid of excess body fat, do these people ever think of what "obesity factors" that keeping them from losing weight?

The under lying causes of weight gain among individuals are vary. An obese individual can be genetically inherited, damage in neurotransmitter and hormones imbalance. Proper weight management can be established by identifying the obesity factors for your weight problems. The tests provided by Optimum Well-Being Laboratories can help you to uncover the specific factors responsible for your unwanted weight gain so that corrective therapies and supplements can be taken.

Stop wasting time and money! Identify the real factors that lead to obese among yourselves. Slim down smartly and effectively!

Weight Management Diagnostic Testing:

Gene Test

Vitalmetabolic

Vitalnutrisensor

Vitalnutri + Premium link to laboratory webpage

Vitalpharm

Vitalprevention

Neurotransmitter Test

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) link to laboratory webpage

Female hormone profile (LH, FSH, Estradiol, Progesterone, TSH, Free T3, Free T4, DHEA-S, IGF-1, Insulin)

Male hormone profile (LH, FSH, Estradiol, Progesterone, TSH, Free T3, Free T4, DHEA-S, IGF-1, Insulin)

Thyroid (T3, T4 and TSH)

Adiponectin

Cortisol link to laboratory webpage

DHEA-S

Insulin

Leptin

Hormone Test

Weig

Weight Management Diagnostic Therapy:

Bio-Identical Hormonal Therapy

Overweight may be causes by decline in sex hormones and anabolic hormone production. Natural supplements whose mechanisms of action are clearly understood are available to help in controlling body weight. Used responsibly and in combination, these nutrients may complement one another and have the potential to yield maximum control over abdominal fat, obesity, and cardiovascular health.

Combination hormonal therapy of testosterone and DHEA in males is a useful strategy for weight loss that can be particularly beneficial when excess body fat has implications for health. Hormonal replacement can provide useful tools for weight loss when diet and exercise efforts have been exhausted. Testosterone and DHEA replacement in men provides benefits in lipids, mood, and physical energy as well, all of which can improve overall health.

Supplements: Super MiraForte Plus Standardized Lignans, 120 capsules link to nutrition webpage

DHEA Hormone For Men, 60 capsulesMale Hormone Restoration

Female Hormone Restoration

Bioidentical estrogens will often be prescribed after blood testing shows deficiencies in estrogen and can be part of a comprehensive hormone restoration program that also includes progesterone cream or bioidentical progesterone, DHEA, pregnenolone, and perhaps testosterone. Women should also discuss hormone cycling with their physicians. During their fertile years, women do not experience stable blood levels of estrogen and progesterone. Rather, estrogen and progesterone levels naturally rise and fall throughout the monthly cycle.

Supplements: Progesterone Cream, 2 oz jar link to nutrition

Ultra Rejuvenight with Melatonin/DHEA/Progesterone, 2 oz (58 g) webpage

PREGNENOLONE, 50 MG 100 CAPSULES

DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone), 15 mg 100 capsules

When thyroid hormone is used to treat hypothyroidism, the goal of treatment is to keep thyroid function within the normal range. Thyroid hormone can also be used to keep the TSH level in the low or low normal, range. This has the effect of turning off one of the signals for thyroid tissue to grow and is known as thyroid hormone suppression therapy. This approach to using thyroid hormone can be used to try and stop thyroid nodules or enlarged thyroid glands from growing.

Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy

Iodine and minerals. Iodine is required by the body to form thyroid hormone, and iodine deficiency can lead to goiter (abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland) and hypothyroidism. Iodine is a health-promoting trace element essential for life. Its primary biological role lies in the production of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).T4 and T3 contain four and three atoms of iodine per molecule, respectively. The thyroid gland actively absorbs iodide from the blood to make and release these hormones into the blood.

Supplement: Iodine Complex, 1000 mcg, 60 vegetarian capsules link to nutrition webpage

Other minerals, including iron and zinc, are essential for normal thyroid hormone metabolism. Coexisting deficiencies of these elements can impair thyroid function. Iron deficiency impairs thyroid hormone synthesis by reducing activity of iron-dependent thyroid peroxidase. Iron supplementation improves the efficiency of iodine supplementation. A study found that TSH has a significant effect on the concentration of iodine, selenium, and zinc in normal and altered human thyroid (Bellisola G et al 1998). The roles of iron, zinc, and copper in the thyroid are less well defined, but reduced intake of all these elements can damage thyroid hormone metabolism.

Zinc. In animal studies, single and multiple deficiencies of iodine, selenium, and zinc have distinct effects on thyroid metabolism and structure (Ruz M et al 1999). In animal studies, zinc deficiency was associated with decreased concentrations of T3 and free thyroxine in serum by approximately 30 percent when compared with zinc-adequate controls (Kralik A et al 1996). Zinc may play a role in thyroid hormone metabolism in patients with low T3 and may contribute to conversion of T4 to T3 in humans (Nishiyama S et al 1994).

Supplement: Zinc Level Optimizer, 30 mg 90 vegetarian capsules link to nutrition webpage

Selenium. Selenium is required for appropriate thyroid hormone synthesis, activation, and metabolism. Adequate selenium supports efficient thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism and protects the thyroid gland from damage caused by excessive exposure to iodide (Zimmerman MB 2002). Long-term selenium deficiency in experimental animal models led to thyroid cell death and scarring after high iodide loads (Kohrle J 1999). Selenium deficiency may seriously influence the generation of free radicals, the conversion of thyroxineT4 to T3, and the autoimmune process (Kohrle J 1999).

Supplement: Advanced Selenium Complex, 200 mcg 100 capsules link to nutrition webpageNutrients to Enhance Thyroid Function

Modern hormone replacement therapy strives to recreate the youthful balance of hormones in the body-and this is where DHEA's value really stands out. Because it is metabolized into other hormones, supplementing with DHEA may allow the body to choose which hormone is needed, then synthesize that hormone from the available DHEA. This may account for the astonishing range of benefits that many researchers attribute to this hormone. DHEA's separate metabolites, including 7-Keto DHEA, have also been shown to have individual benefits, including lowering cholesterol, burning fat, and boosting the immune system.

Supplement: DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone), 15 mg 100 capsules link to nutrition webpage

Nutrients to Enhance DHEA Function

In addition, insulin receptors on cell membranes lose their youthful sensitivity or functionality. "Insulin resistance" is characterized by the relative difficulty of muscle cells and liver cells to take up glucose. Hyperinsulinemia, a condition of high circulating insulin levels, is the body's response to insulin resistance (the attempt to produce more insulin to "drive" more glucose into cells). Nutrients such as chromium, magnesium, and fish oil can help.

Supplements: Opti-Insulin, 90 tablets

Chromium Polynicotinate Complex, 200 mcg 365 capsules

Traditional Anti-oxidant Powder, 16.05 oz link to nutrition webpage

Appetite Controller (stimulant free), 90 softgelsNutrients to Enhance Insulin Function

An extract from a West African plant called Irvingia has been shown to help maintain healthy body weight in four ways which are reversing leptin resistance, increasing adiponectin, inhibiting the fat converting enzyme and reducing carbohydrate absorption.

Supplement: Irvingia 60 vegetarian capsules link to nutrition webpageNutrients to Enhance Adiponectin and Leptin Function

Nutritional Therapy

Iodine and minerals. Iodine is required by the body to form thyroid hormone, and iodine deficiency can lead to goiter (abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland) and hypothyroidism. Iodine is a health-promoting trace element essential for life. Its primary biological role lies in the production of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).T4 and T3 contain four and three atoms of iodine per molecule, respectively. The thyroid gland actively absorbs iodide from the blood to make and release these hormones into the blood.

Supplement: Iodine Complex, 1000 mcg, 60 vegetarian capsules link to nutrition webpage

Other minerals, including iron and zinc, are essential for normal thyroid hormone metabolism. Coexisting deficiencies of these elements can impair thyroid function. Iron deficiency impairs thyroid hormone synthesis by reducing activity of iron-dependent thyroid peroxidase. Iron supplementation improves the efficiency of iodine supplementation. A study found that TSH has a significant effect on the concentration of iodine, selenium, and zinc in normal and altered human thyroid (Bellisola G et al 1998). The roles of iron, zinc, and copper in the thyroid are less well defined, but reduced intake of all these elements can damage thyroid hormone metabolism.

Zinc. In animal studies, single and multiple deficiencies of iodine, selenium, and zinc have distinct effects on thyroid metabolism and structure (Ruz M et al 1999). In animal studies, zinc deficiency was associated with decreased concentrations of T3 and free thyroxine in serum by approximately 30 percent when compared with zinc-adequate controls (Kralik A et al 1996). Zinc may play a role in thyroid hormone metabolism in patients with low T3 and may contribute to conversion of T4 to T3 in humans (Nishiyama S et al 1994).

Supplement: Zinc Level Optimizer, 30 mg 90 vegetarian capsules link to nutrition webpage

Selenium. Selenium is required for appropriate thyroid hormone synthesis, activation, and metabolism. Adequate selenium supports efficient thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism and protects the thyroid gland from damage caused by excessive exposure to iodide (Zimmerman MB 2002). Long-term selenium deficiency in experimental animal models led to thyroid cell death and scarring after high iodide loads (Kohrle J 1999). Selenium deficiency may seriously influence the generation of free radicals, the conversion of thyroxineT4 to T3, and the autoimmune process (Kohrle J 1999).

Supplement: Advanced Selenium Complex, 200 mcg 100 capsules link to nutrition webpageNutrients to Enhance Thyroid Function

Modern hormone replacement therapy strives to recreate the youthful balance of hormones in the body-and this is where DHEA's value really stands out. Because it is metabolized into other hormones, supplementing with DHEA may allow the body to choose which hormone is needed, then synthesize that hormone from the available DHEA. This may account for the astonishing range of benefits that many researchers attribute to this hormone. DHEA's separate metabolites, including 7-Keto DHEA, have also been shown to have individual benefits, including lowering cholesterol, burning fat, and boosting the immune system.

Supplement: DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone), 15 mg 100 capsules link to nutrition webpage

Nutrients to Enhance DHEA Function

Nutrients to Enhance Insulin Function

In addition, insulin receptors on cell membranes lose their youthful sensitivity or functionality. "Insulin resistance" is characterized by the relative difficulty of muscle cells and liver cells to take up glucose. Hyperinsulinemia, a condition of high circulating insulin levels, is the body's response to insulin resistance (the attempt to produce more insulin to "drive" more glucose into cells). Nutrients such as chromium, magnesium, and fish oil can help.

Supplements: Opti-Insulin, 90 tablets

Chromium Polynicotinate Complex, 200 mcg 365 capsules

Traditional Anti-oxidant Powder, 16.05 oz link to nutrition webpage

Appetite Controller (stimulant free), 90 softgels

An extract from a West African plant called Irvingia has been shown to help maintain healthy body weight in four ways which are reversing leptin resistance, increasing adiponectin, inhibiting the fat converting enzyme and reducing carbohydrate absorption.

Supplement: Irvingia 60 vegetarian capsules link to nutrition webpageNutrients to Enhance Adiponectin and Leptin Function

One of the most modifiable of risk factors for obesity is physical inactivity (Grundy et al 1999). To maintain a healthy weight, 30 to 60 minutes of exercise most days of the week is recommended. For weight loss, or for people who have recently lost weight and want to keep it off, the recommendation is between 60 and 90 minutes of exercise most days of the week (MMWR 2002). Nutritional supplements for sports performance can give you a competitive edge. A regular exercise program, combined with the right dietary supplements, helps guard against the loss of muscle mass as well as improves almost every other aspect of our health and wellness. In addition, regular exercise therapy can reduces the insulin level in the body and increases the metabolism of the body. These are essential to help overweight and obese people to lose weight.

Exercise Therapy

A phenomenon known as emotional eating is a condition that many people cope with negative feelings like depression, anxiety, stress, and boredom. People who normally restrain their food consumption lose self-discipline when faced with stressors that seem beyond their control. In fact, several studies have shown that people under chronic stress tend to gain weight over time, due to both stress-related endocrine changes and aberrant coping behaviors that center on food. To achieve successful weight management, it is necessary to overcome the tendency toward emotional eating, while promoting feelings of satiety and inhibiting the body's tendency to store calories as fat. Successful manipulation of neurotransmitters, hormones, and peptides can therefore help prevent episodes of emotional eating, reducing the impact of a stressful lifestyle on your waistline. Management of stress is able to help people reach and maintain an optimal body weight must address the multifaceted biochemical and psychological processes that contribute to excess weight gain.

These stress management include suppressing brain chemicals that trigger the urge to overeat, activating hormones that convey to the brain a sense of satiety and fullness, and optimizing metabolic processes that contribute to increased fat burning and lean body mass. In the long run, continued management of these variables can ensure that you are able to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight that will contribute to a longer life.

Stress Management

Medication alone is rarely enough to cope with overweight problem. Behavior therapy is often recommended to help a people with eating disorder to increase self control and overcome problem behavior. Different forms of psychotherapy, including individual, group and family-based, can help address the psychological reasons for this problem. Some studies suggest that family-based therapies in which parents assume responsibility for feeding their afflicted adolescent are the most effective in helping a person with anorexia gain weight and improve eating habits and moods.

The aim of psychotherapeutic treatment is to teach patients to recognize their own feelings and body signals and to manage the real problems. These patients are unable to recognize their bodily needs and that people with eating disorders have learned to interpret the wrong signals as a need to eat.

The therapy must be directed towards getting the patients to experience how various feelings are expressed in compulsive eating, hunger or craving. Food abusers need to learn to recognize real hunger and separate it from other feelings. They also need to understand, and be aware of, how they function in order to manage their eating in a better way.

Psychotherapy

Hypnotherapy is often applied in order to modify a subject's behavior, emotional content, and attitudes, as well as a wide range of conditions including dysfunctional habits, anxiety, stress-related illness, pain management, and personal development.

The link between hypnotherapy and eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa being cured is a strong one. Hypnotherapy is an effective way to treat an eating disorder without the side effects that drugs may cause.

Hypnotherapy and eating disorders treatment has a high success rate, and is beneficial in many ways:

It helps you figure out the psychological origins of your behaviors so that you can deal with the emotional aspect of your problem.

It will break the negative behavior pattern and institute new, positive eating habits and attitudes.

It will help you improve your self-image, self-esteem and confidence.

It helps you establish a connection between your mind and your body's natural rhythms.

It will give you back control over your lifestyle and nutrition.

Hypnotherapy

(B) Gain Weight

Introduction:

Underweight is another issue that needs to be concerned. People which are underweight have abnormally lower BMI reading. While most people are trying to lose weight, these people are struggle of gaining weight.

There are several factors that can lead to underweight such as malnutrition, maldigestion, malabsorption, dysbiosis and leaky gut which are caused by damage or malfunction of digestive system and allergy of food intake. Besides that, imbalance of hormones such as thyroid (hyperthyroidism) can cause losing of weight other than gaining of weight.

Psychological problems such as aneroxia are responsible for this issue as well. Anorectics have a great fear of putting on weight and have a distorted body image. They see themselves as overweight, even when they are quite underweight. They may eat very little and exercise constantly. Anorexia sufferers often have other psychiatric problems such as depression, generalized anxiety, or personality disorders. The diagnosis of anorexia nervosa requires a prolonged refusal to eat enough food, which leads to deliberate weight loss

The tests provided by Optimum Well-Being Laboratories can help you to uncover the specific factors responsible for your unwanted weight loss so that corrective therapies and supplements can be taken.

Weight Management Diagnostic Testing:

Alpha-1-Antitrypsin

Anti-transglutaminase-antibodies, Anti-gliadin-antibodies in serum

Anti-transglutaminase-antibodies, Anti-gliadin-antibodies in stool

Basic profile intestines

Calprotectin

Colonisation Resistance (b-defensin 2)

Genetic predisposition for Celiac disease

Gliadorphine, caseomorphine

Hippuric acid

Gut bacterial dysbiosis

Methylhippuric acid link to laboratory webpage

Mandelic acid

Phenylglyoxylic acid

Lactoferrin

Malabsorption (a-1-anti-trypsine,Calprotectin)

Maldigestion (Pancreas-elastase, bile acid)

Pepsinogen

PMN elastase

Histamine in stool

Quantitative bacteriological and mycological stool test

1. Digestive Function Test

Food Allergy/ Food Intolerance Test

IgE allergy screen (103 allergens) link to laboratory webpage

IgG4 allergy screen (103 allergen)

Vitalnutrisensor

Vitalnutri + preminm link to laboratory webpage

Vitalpharm

Gene Test

Female hormone profile (LH, FSH, Estradiol, Progesterone, TSH, Free T3, Free T4, DHEA-S, IGF-1, Insulin)

Male hormone profile (LH, FSH, Estradiol, Progesterone, TSH, Free T3, Free T4, DHEA-S, IGF-1, Insulin)

Thyroid (T3, T4 and TSH)

Adiponectin

Cortisol link to laboratory webpage

Insulin

Leptin

Hormone Test

Weight Management Diagnostic Therapy:

The ability to digest and absorb nutrients from our food is essential. Poor digestion and malabsorption of vital nutrients can contribute to problems with degenerative disease, compromised immune status, and deficiency states which lead to loss of weight. Fortunately, advanced enzyme formulations make it possible to enhance digestive health, prevent gastric distress and malnutrition (particularly in the elderly), and while protecting against systemic inflammation.

Supplements: Enhanced Digestive Enzymes, 100 vegetarian capsules link to nutrition webpage

In addition, the impairment of the gut wall which known as leaky gut syndrome can results from maldigestion, food allergens and bacterial overgrowth or imbalances (dysbiosis) which cause the damaged of intestinal lining. A healthy intestinal lining allows only properly digested food particles to pass through so they can be assimilated. At the same time, it also provides a barrier to keep out bacterial products, foreign substances and large undigested molecules. When the intestinal lining is damaged, foreign substances are allowed to pass directly, triggering immune reactions.

Supplement: G.I. Protect, 300 grams link to nutrition webpage

Digestive Enhancement Therapy

When you think about gaining weight you should really think about gaining muscle. The last aspect of weight gain, and this is the most important one, is lifting. A standard workout routine consists of moderate weight being lifted 10-12 times per set. Any one exercise can have from 1-5 sets. In order to gain muscle mass, you need to drastically increase the weight and change your routine to do 3-4 sets of 6-8 reps. This regular exercise therapy can help to increase the metabolic rate in the body which burn off the excess fat and build muscle at the same time. The increase in muscle mass is an essential way to gain weight.

Exercise Therapy

Bio-Identical Hormonal Therapy

Hyperthyroidism is characterized by symptoms such as muscle weakness, nervousness, tremors, sleep difficulties, and weight loss. Affected individuals can also experience thyroid storm-a potentially deadly medical emergency that sends heart rate and blood pressure racing.

Increased thyroid activity may increase cells' need for carnitine, while increasing carnitine loss in the urine. Individuals suffering from hyperthyroidism may therefore require supplemental L-carnitine. In clinical studies, L-carnitine supplementation helped prevent or reverse muscle weakness and other symptoms include weight loss in individuals suffering from hyperthyroidism.

Supplements: Acetyl-L-Carnitine, 500 mg 100 capsules

Optimized Carnitine plus Glycocarn, 60 vegetarian capsules

L-Carnitine Powder, 100 grams link to nutrition webpage

L-Carnitine, 500 mg 30 capsules

Carnitine Replacement Therapy

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