The Types Of Rheology Test Biology Essay


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This chapter elaborates and explains about procedure and method used to fulfill the objectives of this study. The Flow Chart 3.1 shows the detail of project methodology for this study. Good planning should be made to ensure the progress of this study smoothly and perfectly.

This project begins with identifying the problem and objectives of this study. The background of this study should be understood and studied through the literature review. All the information for literature review gained from the journal, articles, book, authorized internet, theses and report from other bodies include newspaper and magazine. Methodology of this study been carried out to ensure everything runs smoothly as planned.

After all the information required obtained, the types of rheology test and the procedures of the test is determined. At the same time ensure all the equipments needed for the test available and in a good condition. Dry fly ash is used to modify bitumen and samples used were collected from Kapar power plant. Bitumen mixed with fly ash by wet process using hot plate and mixing stirrer at 160 °C. After sample preparation is completed, then the rheology test of bitumen samples conducted.

In data analysis, test results from the modified bitumen are compared with the data obtained from the rheology test of the unmodified bitumen for both grade of bitumen used. The conclusion for this study is made based on the comparison of rheology properties between modified and unmodified bitumen.


Information collection

Material collection

Rheology test




Samples preparation

-Bitumen been mixed by wet process using hot plate and mixing stirrer.


Laboratory work

Data analysis and discussions

-Comparison of the result between modified and unmodified bitumen






Figure 3.1: Flowchart of the Project Methodology

3.2 Information Collection

Information related to this study is collected from various types of sources. The reason of this approach is to understand and explore more about the background of this study. Information collected must be sufficient to prevent from lack of information. All the information also should be understood to ensure the direction of study can be carried out accurately. Besides, it also can make the process of this study faster and smoothly. Discussion with lecturers on this study also added in the idea how to conduct this study.

3.3 Material Collection

Two important materials needed for this study, there are bitumen and samples of dry fly ash that used as a additives in bitumen. Bitumen grade 60/70 pen and 80/100 pen used in this study provided by highway engineering lab in UiTM. For the samples of fly ash used taken from Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Power Station at Kapar. Only dry fly ash is taken and used in modification of bitumen.

3.4 Laboratory Work

Laboratory works consists of sample preparation process and conducted rheology test of the bitumen.

3.4.1 Samples preparation

Samples preparation consists of sample for modified bitumen with fly ash and unmodified bitumen as control samples. Bitumen

Two grades of bitumen is used in this study are 60/70 PεN and 80/100 PεN. The total number of sample required is 48 that are 24 for each grade of bitumen. Two samples of bitumen used for each percent of fly ash added in every test conducted.

Table 3.1: Table show No of Samples Used.


Fly Ash

Rheology Tests


of Samples




60/70 PεN

0% (control)




















80/100 PεN

0% (control)




















48 Fly Ash

Modified bitumen was prepared by added by mixing bitumen with various amount of fly ash. Three level of fly ash content were used, namely 2%, 4% and 6% by weight of bitumen. Variation in fly ash added is to get optimum value of additives used.

3.4.2 Mixing Process

Wet process used to add the fly ash in the bitumen. Normal bitumen will be prepared at 160°C. Bitumen was heated in the oven about 150°C. Then bitumen was transferred to the hot plate and stirrer for the mixing process. After the bitumen reach 160°C, fly ash will be added to bitumen. The mixed of fly ash and bitumen using mixing stirrer take about 60 minutes to ensure that fly ash will be well dispersed in bitumen.


Figure 3.2: Picture Show Hot Plate and Stirrer Mixing

3.5 Rheology Test

Rheology test conducted to determine the properties of bitumen. There are penetration test, ductility test and softening point test.

3.5.1 Softening Point Test

The objective of softening point test is to determine the temperature of the bitumen when it becomes soften (AASHTO T 53-80)



Balls-Steel balls 9.5 mm (or 3/8 in.) in diameter, each having a mass of 3.50 ±

0.05 g.

Bath-An 800 ml low form Griffin beaker of heat resistant glass;

Ring Holder-The rings shall be supported on a brass ring holder;



Assemble the apparatus with the rings, thermometer, and ball guides in position, and fill the bath to a depth of 100 to 108 mm (or 4.0 to 4.25 in.) with ethylene glycol;

Maintain the bath temperature at 4 ± 1 C for 15 minutes (Note 4) and using forceps, place a ball previously cooled to the bath temperature in each ball guide.

Heat the bath from below so that the temperature rises at a uniform rate of 5 ± 0.5 C per minute. Avoid drafts, use a shield if necessary

Do not average the rate of temperature rise over the test period. Reject any determination in which the rate of temperature rise does not fall within the specified limits after the first 3 minutes;

Record for each ring and ball, the temperature shown by the thermometer at the instant the material surrounding the ball touches the bottom plate. Make no correction for the emergent stem of the thermometer. If the difference between values obtained in the duplicate determinations exceed 1 C, repeat the test. Image(302)

Figure 3.3: Picture Show Ball and Ring Apparatus

3.5.2 Penetration Test

The objective of Penetration test is to measures the hardness or softness of bitumen (AASHTO T 49-80)



A container

A water bath maintained at a temperature varying not more than 0.1 C from the temperature of the test shall be used

Transfer Dish for Container-When used, the transfer dish for the container shall be a cylinder with a flat bottom made of glass, metal, or plastic.

Thermometers for Water Bath.

Timing Device.

An oven or hot plate.


Place the 50 g weight above the needle, making the nominal total load of 100 g for the needle and attachment. If tests are made with the penetration apparatus mounted in the bath, place the sample container directly on the submerged stand of the penetration apparatus. If tests are made with the sample in the bath and the penetration apparatus outside the bath, place the container on the shelf provided in the bath. Using the above procedures the container shall be kept completely submerged during the entire test. If tests are made using the transfer dish with the penetration apparatus outside the bath, place the sample in a dish filled with water from the bath to a depth to completely cover the sample container. Then place the transfer dish containing the sample on the stand of the penetration apparatus and penetrate immediately. In each case, adjust the needle loaded with the specified mass to just make contact with the surface of the sample. Accomplish this by making contact of the actual needle point with its image reflected by the surface of the sample from a properly placed source of light. Bring the pointer on the dial to read zero. Then quickly release the needle for the specified period of time and adjust the instrument to measure the distance penetrated.

Make at least three penetrations at points on the surface of the sample not less than 10 mm (or 3/8 in.) from the side of the container and not less than 10 mm (or 3/8 in.) apart. If the transfer dish is used, return the dish and sample to the water bath after each penetration. Before each test, clean the needle with a clean cloth moistened with toluene or other suitable solvent to remove all adhering bitumen, and then wipe with a clean dry cloth. For penetration values greater than 200, use at least three needles, leaving them in the sample until completion of the penetrations.


Figure 3.4: Picture Show Standard Penetrometer

3.5.3 Ductility Test

The objective of this test is to measure the ductility of bitumen by using ductilometer. (AASHTO T51)


Ductility mould



Fill the 20 gallon capacity trough with water until the level reaches a point where it will cover the test specimen by at least 2.5 cm both above and below.

Bring the water to the desired test temperature. During the test the water should be kept at the specified temperature within ±0.9°F (±0.5°C).

To adjust the speed of the carriage, move the knurled knob at the end of the sliding gear all the way in for 1/4 cm per minute, half way out for 1 cm per minute and all the way out for 5 cm per minute. Be sure to locate the positioning lever in the proper slot. This will not only locate, but will also lock the gears in their exact alignment.

Place the specimen in position by setting one end of the specimen mold into one of the three mounting pins on the end plate. Set the other end of the mold into the corresponding pin on the movable carriage.

Move the length indicator to the zero position on the scale located on the upper side of the tank by loosening the adjusting screw.

The length indicator will then read the distance the specimen has been pulled apart in centimeters. At the completion of the test return the carriage to the starting position.


Figure 3.5: Picture Show Ductilometer

3.6 Data analysis and Discussion

The results obtain from various tests done for modified and unmodified bitumen are analyzed. Result from both samples been compared to know the effect of fly ash addition on the rheology properties of bitumen. The conclusion is based on the comparison made on samples.

3.7 Conclusion and Recommendation

The last part of this study is conclusion and recommendation stage. Conclusion is a summarization of the result obtained from the entire study. Conclusion also based on the data analysis and discussion stage. Recommendation and suggestion related to this study made for improvement. Recommendation from this project will be used as much as can to produce better outcomes.

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