Air pollution is big challenge for developing countries. Due to excessive use of motors vehicles, power plants, aircraft, industrial discharge, deposition waste, landfills, dust, burning practices of crops residues and forest trees are the main source of particulate matter in environment. Possible threat mainly on plants include vegetation covering is vanished, decreased seed germination, plant part mainly root and shoot growth badly affects due to process of photosynthesis is affected. Moreover, human health is under the threat of respiratory and cardiac disease due particulate matter. In this study will be executed to monitor different parameters of particulate matter and metal in Iqbal and Madina town of Faisalabad. A survey study will be conducted near the road and fifteen meter away from the road. Study parameters of air will be TSP, PM10 PM2.5 with a special instrument Micro dust pro,.Soil (0-15 and 15-30 depth) and water (ground water, canal water, waste water) 50 samples collected to analyze cobalt (Co) with atomic absorption spectrum with spatial data (coordinates) by GPS will be recorded from the exact site. The sample of water will be analyzed for parameters use is pH, EC ,SAR, RSC, and soil samples for PHs, ECe, SAR, Soil texture and plant sample wet digestion. Trace metal concentration in both soil water and plant will be calculated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Spatial studied will be supported by with Arc GIS 9.1 software and prepared their GIS maps.
Get your grade
or your money back
using our Essay Writing Service!
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE FAISALABAD
Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences
II) a) Date of Admission : 17-09-2012
b) Date of Initiation : 10-11-2012
c) Probable Duration : One Year
a) Name of Student Ikram Arif(2007-ag-2342)
b) Supervisor Dr. Hammad Raza Ahmad
c) Supervisory Committee
1) Dr. Hammad Raza Ahmad (Chairman)
2) Dr. Anwar-ul-Haq (Member)
3) Dr. Hassan Munir (Member)
IV) NEED OF THE PROJECT
The current concern in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is mainly due to its confirmed consequence on human health (Pope et al., 2002; Englert, 2004; Brunekreef and Fosber, 2005; Dockery and Stone, 2007; P rez et al., 2008; Viana et al., 2008) and its key role in climate change (IPPC, 2007; Bytnerowicz et al., 2007). Pakistan agriculture fields are mostly adjacent to the road side just like other countries. Ultimately traffic passes on these roads and their emission is a source of enrichment on vegetation and roadside soils. (Cale and Hobbs, 1991).
Air pollution is an emerging issue in major cities of Pakistan. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals or biological materials that cause discomfort to humans or living organisms, or cause damage to natural environment or built environment, into the atmsosphere.pollutantants can be classified as primary or secondary. Mainly primary pollutants are directly emitted from source, e.g. From volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from motor vehicles exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. They produced when primary pollutants react or interact with particles present in air. Air pollution composed those substance present in system in high level to affect plants human s animals and other building materials.
Complication in phsio-chemical features of ambient aerosols had led to great difficulty in identifying the particulate pollutants that are responsible for the negative effect on human health (Sun et al, 2003).
Anthropogenic activities especially like industries, transportation, continuous discharge, waste disposal of industries which contain toxic material, pesticide use on plants are the main sources of complex level of heavy metal concentration in soil, plant, and atmosphere. Burning of leaded petrol in vehicles are the main important sources of heavy metals. Gasoline contain metals are cadmium (Cd), ), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) are mainly used for transportation lubricating oils, engine parts, tires, galvanized parts especially fuel tank(Falahi, 1984).
Pollution caused by humans is now disturbing the delicate balance of nature on earth Far from being a new problem, pollution has been around centuries. Researches have confirmed that plants leaves can accumulate heavy metals from the atmospheric aerosols (Tomasevic et al., 2005; Uzu et al., 2010) However, as the population, and the growth of industries and car use are the main causes of air pollution today. In Asia rapid, rapid urbanization with the associated growth industries and car use are the main source of air pollutants are expected if current development patterns are expected if current development patterns persistent.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Thus results in rapid growth of infrastructure in cities together with growth in road transport. As a consequence of industrialization, metals and emission from automobiles from various sources such as fossil fuel combustion, sewage sludge, industrial waste and fertilizer, are contaminating the environment. Contamination in biological system with metals has diverted our attention in investigating new horizon to conserve, mange our environment. Superiority of life on earth is concurrent irrefutable to overall quality of environment(Anon, 1995).vehicular emission of trace metals ,incinerators, industrial waste deposition of dust aerosol and other related industrial activities related are gradually adding contamination in environment (Harrisonetal,1981; Culbardetal.,1988; Thornton,1991; Schmacher et al 1997). Urban populations are exposed to metals in suspended particles and these are often well above natural background levels owing to anthropogenic processes. This results in elevated metal concentrations that can pose an important risk to human health (Antonio et al., 2001).
Particulate air pollution composed of solid and liquids particles. These particles directly emitted in the form of diesel soot road agriculture dust, and manufacturing process is also responsible for these particles. Photochemical reaction includes gases, especially sulfur and nitrogen oxides .These gases are byproduct of fuel combustion (Ostro and Chestnut, 1998). In order To safeguard both human health and the environment, it is important to control pollutant emissions at source and recognize and device the most effective reduction measures at local, national and international levels (Aldabe et al, 2011).
There are Quality standards available for air pollution have introduce certain indicators include TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5 as a replacement for concentration of particular chemic al species. Over past decades, the PM indicator has progressively narrowed in particle size range, as the scientific understanding of the association between particulate pollutants and health effects has advanced. (Sun et al, 2003).Organization for Economic cooperation and development (OECD, 2012), report said air pollution will become biggest problem problem and it is responsible for the premature death and the massive killing about 3.6 million people a year by 2050.
Cobalt is a solid silver-grey metal. It is the first transition series of Group 9 of the periodic table. It is a comparatively present in trace amount with concentration found approximately 25 g/g in earth crust (Hamilton, 1994). Cobalt is crucial in rare amounts for humans and other mammals as it is primary component of the vitamin B12 complex. Cobalt is seemingly an important element for the growth of many marine algal species, including dinoflagellates chrysophytes and diatoms ((McLachlan, 1973 and Bruland et al., 1991). Being micronutrient important for some blue-green algae (Holm-Hansen et al., 1954) and it is necessary for microorganism responsible for nitrogen fixing bacteria especially in legumes. Even though its importance in higher, non-leguminous plants is not clearly recognized, there is some evidence of promising effect of cobalt on plant growth (Kabata-Pendias and Pendias, 1984). Cobalt is toxic to humans to terrestrial and aquatic animals and plants, when present in higher concentration.
Pakistan third biggest city is Faisalabad and having a lot of industries Due to this having attributes called as Manchester of Pakistan. Approximately 512 Lahore industrial unit, out of which are 328 textile, 92 engineering complexes and 92 chemical and food processing units. These industries release large quantities of emission into the environment and large quantities of untreated city waste water in to unlined surface drains.
Tools like geostatic, multivariate, statistical methods and geographic information system use for mapping of polluted areas with air born and dust patricles.Saptial analysis carried out with help of power full tools of GIS. There are certain areas where high level of pollution in reference t to vicinity area needs to be identified in order to deliver scientific basis for quality envirmental management. GIS mapping techniques provide maps in order to identify hot spots visually.
By taking into consideration above evidences a probe study will be executed to explore spatial variation near the road and away the road about 15 meter by using different filter and metal concentration (cobalt,Co) in soil, plant and water in hot spot areas of Iqbal and madina town of Faisalabad.
The Present survey study is planned to achieve following objectives;
? To assess the spatial variation near and away the road.
? To check concentration of pollutants in air using different filters.
This Essay is
a Student's Work
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.Examples of our work
? To demark metal concentration in areas.
? To develop GIS data base.
? To design GIS maps, using Arc GIS v 9.1.
? To evaluate trace metals in soil water and plant.
? Mapping of contaminated areas by Arc view GIS software v 9.1.
V) REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Quality air is considered is the fundamental requirement of human, plant and animal. Fine particles in atmosphere are responsible for cancer, chronic respiratory disease and premature death. Moreover, they deposited on leaf surface and interrupt photosynthesis and other development process. Metal toxicity pose serious thereat to natural environment and has been addressed on several occasion in past, but need a special attention owing t fast development in this field of study and health risk associated with pollutant air and metal intake.
Ahmad et al. (2010) survey study of combined estimation of heavy metals pollution along motorway M-2 to assess the road side metal deposition in soil of Rawalpindi .Comprehensive field study is conducted to asses emissions on motor way traffic. Heavy metals like Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr were investigated. For the purpose of this study 50 locations were selected. Soil samples were assembled from 397 quadrates. The field area under study was divided into three regions. The area is divided according to their geographical pattern. Region 1starts from Islamabad to Kallar-Kahar.The characteristics of this area are arid climate, alluvial deposits and rocks. Region 2 stars from Kallar-Kaha to Lilla with characteristics huge amount of salt (salt range) and coal deposits. Region 3 from Lilla to Lahore having fertile productive land of river Indus.It was found that enrichment of metal on the surface of plant was highest near road side and continuously decreases with distance away from road to filed crops. The metals include Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu are highest near road excluding Zn. It was found that metal deposition near the road have maximum deposition of metal particularly Pb and Cd which not beneficial for plants. The metals under investigation were above the thresholds level. Their mean values of Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Cr were 0.5, 81.40, 14.19, 0.46 and 14.61 g g-1 respectively. The traffic emission is responsible for the contamination of adjacent environment by particular transport vehicle. Component analysis proved that motor vehicles are the main source responsible for pollution with respect to Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in roadside soils.
Awan et al. (2011) studies conducted o in four cities of Pakistan for the purposes of determination of ambient total suspended particulates using high volume sampling techniques following heavy metal analysis. The sampling was performed for 24 hours. The concentration fluctuated 568-2074, 1191-3976, 1133-4400 and 112-280 g/m3 for Islamabad, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Bahwalnagar, respectively .The parameter under observation was TSP and its level was found very high in two big industrial cities include Faisalabad and Gujranwala.TSP were also for the determination of Cd, Pb and Zn by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) subsequent digestion by using a mixture of two acids, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. While keeping in view other metals the concentration of Cadmium was slightly greater than (approximately 325 ng/m3) to some extent in all the samples of Faisalabad and Gujranwala. However, the sequence of metal conc. were Cadmium> Lead>Zinc.
Fang et al. (2003) studied that air pollutalatants and metallic concentrations were investigated at the Experimental Farm of Tunghai University (EFTU) sampling location in this study. Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected by using a PS-1 sampler at the farm-sampling site, in central Taiwan, from July 2001 to April 2002. At the same time, PM2.5 and PM2.5 10 were also measured with a Universal sampler from January 2002 to April 2002. Only subjects with the most complete data records on TSP sampling (Ns43) and PM10 sampling (Ns23) were used in this analysis. Taichung Industrial Park, Taichung Kang Road (traffic) and a Hospital Incinerator surround the Experimental Farm of Tunghai University. Atmospheric concentrations of metallic elements were analyzed by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-680yG). The results indicated that the metallic elements Mg, Cu and Mn were the largest components in include the TSP fraction; the metallic elements Fe and Cd were the largest composition in the PM2.5 10 fraction; however, the metallic elements Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni were the largest abundance in the PM2.5 fraction. The atmospheric metallic elements in the TSP, PM2.5 and PM2.5 10 fractions comes from different emission sources, such as soil, traffic, industry and resuspended particles.
Querol et al. (2004) particulate matter studied which is executed in Spain from 1999 to 2001and this studied is carried out in series. Sampling sites were selected according to climate geographic location and anthropogenic sources. A lot of variations from rural background to urban check sites. Particle size determined with help of gravimetric high volume sampler and automatically adjusted device for different particles size Measurements were carried out with gravimetric high-volume samplers and with automatic devices fordi8erent PM grain sizes, focusing on PM10 and PM2.5. A concurrent meteorology study was performed to determine the influence of air masses for the purposes of to diagnosis those particles which are transported to long range distance particularly African dust outbreaks. And to detect long-range transport processes, especially African dust outbreaks, adjusting the PM levels in the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. While, chemical compositions and source distribution analyses were found and discussed as a function of the di8erent monitoring sites and during PM episodes.
Hu et al. (2011) studied that lead is transferred to plant organ through lead present in air in foliar form .The estimated value of lead present in air is still unclear. In this studied aerosol, a wild plant(Aster subulatus) and the soil under studied were collected and lead content was 96.5 63.5 ng m_3 in total suspended particulates (TSP) and the value of size segregated of aerosol(SSA)< 2.10 1m, higher than that in coarser fractions(>2.1m) (6.38 3.71 ng m_3).The level of deposition indicates that aerosol and soil affected mainly due to anthropogenic activities and traffic burden and the lead is more accumulated in fine fractions of size segregated aerosol than coarse one. The level of lead concentration in A.subulatus was found more in roots than leaves and more in leave than stem. There is liner relationship of lead isotopes ratio (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) in soil, plant, and aerosol sample. Binary isotopes model is used to calculate mean ratio206Pb/207Pb ratios in TSP and in SSA, estimated addition of air born lead in plant leaves was found 72.2% and 65% respectively, indicating that lead is present in air is main cause responsible for lead deposition in leaves .Both methods of lead isotopes tracing simple binary lead isotopes model can estimated the level of air born lead into plant leaves may be threat of concern for danger assessment of the experience to airborne Pb pollution.
Zheng et al. (2010) performed an experiment to estimate spatial variation the dust contain metal concentration in street of Huludao,a city of china. There were several smelting industries around Huludao city. The studies conducted on adults and infect to check the effect of cancer caused by of Hg, Cd, Cu and Zn conducted an experiment to evaluate the spatial variation metal concentration in the street dust in Huludao city of China. Huludao city has numerous metal smelting industries. The street dust comprises of Hg 5.212, Pb 3903, Cd 723.2, Zn 79,869 and Cu 1532 mg kg-1. The level of Metal concentration in the sample was much greater as than their concentration in the soil. It was determined that atmospheric aerosols enrichment is the main cause of their dispersion .Moreover, industries and traffic pollution do the same things. Cancer effect is produced in adults and kids due to their exposure to metal through nose mouth and dermal contact with metal through nose, mouth and dermal contact. Children are much more vulnerable to these metals through respiratory tracts.
Raajasubramanian et al. (2011) showed an experiment to check the effect of dust on fertility and productivity as well on some leguminous crops. Experiment was conducted in Tamilnadu, a city of India. The sample of dust collected from site is cement factory garden soil is mixed with help of electro static precipitator. The seed were collected from research center and combination with university of agriculture .The seeds are of Vigna catjung, Vigna mungo, Mill sp., Cajanus cajan, Abelmoschus esculentus, Glycine max, Capsicum annum, and Vigna radiate.Application of dust to these plant when their age was seven days old @ of 10 g kg-1 of pot. Repeat dust application to plants three times a week. An automatic sprayer was used for the purpose of spraying dust. In order to study the fertility status of pollen Alexander method was used. Productivity of plant was study after seven days .Student test was used to investigate. It was determined after studies that dust has harmful effect on open pollinated flower and notes the effect on pollen fertility of some plant and reducing crop yield up to 20 to 30%.
Mico et al. (2008) conducted an experiment to analyze the effect of bioavailability and toxicity of Co regarding root elongation of barley (Hordium Vulagre) was studied. The soil properties affect the bioavailability and toxicity of Co to barley. There are 10 different soils with different soil properties were treated with 7 doses of CoCl2.Soil properties greatly affected by the presence of CO toxicity. By the addition of actual concentration resulting 50% inhibition (EC 50) ranged from 45 to 863 mg kg -1.This indicating that nearly 20- fold variation among soils.Morover, we found Co toxicity in reference to Co concentration and free Co2 activity in soil solution. . The EC50 values disclosed that difference among soils of 17- and 29-fold, established due to Co concentration in soil solution and free Co2 activity, respectively (Hordeum vulgare L.) root elongation was investigated. Ten soils varying widely in soil properties were amended with seven doses of CoCl2. Soil properties greatly influenced the expression of Co toxicity. The effective concentration of added Co causing 50% inhibition (EC50) ranged from 45 to 863 mg kg_1, representing almost 20-fold variation among soils. Furthermore, we investigated Co toxicity in relation to Co concentrations and free Co2 activity in soil solution. The EC50 values showed variation among soils of 17- and 29-fold, based on the Co concentration in soil solution and free Co2 activity, respectively.Co threshold values and particular soil under studied were carried out by single regression Single regressions were carried out between Co toxicity threshold values and selected soil properties. Models found presented that soil effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) and exchangeable calcium were the most stable single forecasters of the EC50 values based on soil added Co.
Luo et al. (2010) studied the transfer and bioavailability of crops from soil to vegetables and rice. Total sample were collected from vegetables and paddy fields were 312. The site was situated in suburban areas of of major cities of Fujian province, situated in china. There were a slight deposition showed that its higher than compared with the back ground values ranged from 3.5 to 21.7 mg kg_1.DTPA extracted 0.1e8.5% is used to calculate total Co. The bi Total and DTPA-extractable Co concurrent with soil pH, CEC, free Fe, total Mn, clay and silt content much more in paddy soils as compared to soil of vegetables field. Edible parts of vegetables contain average Co were 15.4 mgkg_1 .While rice contain15.5 mg kg_1. The ratio of plant Co to soil DTPA-extractable Co, TFDTPA) ranged from 0.003 to 0.126 with a median of 0.049.This was transfer factor. The TFDTPA reduced in the sequence of leafy vegetables> fruit vegetables > root vegetables > rice. With increases of DTPA-extractable co TFDTPA of all the crops were increased. . Rise in pH, CEC, organic matter, clay, silt, free iron and total Mn restricted the soil-to-plant transmission of Co to variable degrees. The transfer of Zn, Cu and Cd, is higher than Co except Pb in same site. Cobalt present in rice and vegetables in the projected areas were considered to be safe for the local resident. This was due to the fact that slight anthropogenic input and low transfer potential to the edible plant organs from soil.
Jayakumar and Jaleel et al (2011) studied and test the ability of heavy metals accumulation particularly Cobalt in legume plants soybean (Glycine max).A pot culture experiment was conducted .For this application of cobalt in pot by soil drenching method. The buildup and taken up of cobalt was checked from the plants parts include root, stem and leaves of tested plants. The results indicated that higher level of Cobalt concentration (Co level (100-200 mg kgG1) in the soil) was found in all parts of soybean plants .On the other hands low concentration of cobalt (50 mg kgG1Co level) in the soil. This showed that there was no significant effect on soil by application of cobalt.
By reviewing all the facts regarding heavy metal pollution in plants, soil and water, is a matter of grave concern. These metals are cancer-causing and their presence in the environment affecting processes occurring in plants includes growth, development and physiological process badly. Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization transport vehicles and anthropogenic activities increases the level in soil, air and the ground water. From these they enter in food chain and cause various diseases and disorder.
VI). MATERIALS AND METHODS
Vegetation, soil and water samples will be collected from Iqbal and Madina Town of Faisalabad. The samples will be collected following a grid size of 4 x 4 km. Particulate Matter (TSP, PM10, PM2.5) concentration in air will be determined at a spot by micro dust pro near the road and away from the road. For PM2.5 and PM10 different filters will be used. Calibration of the instrument will be done after 20 samples. The vegetation samples of crops as per accessibility will be collected from different locations. The collected plants samples will be preserved in plastic bags for analysis. These then will be washed with 1% HCl to remove any unknown contamination and final washing will be done with the distilled water. Plant sample after washing will be dried in air and after air drying, the final drying will be done in oven at a temperature of 65-70 OC. Drying process will continue until constant weight is obtained. These dried samples of plants will be ground to powered form with the help of Wiley mill and persevered in plastic zipped bags. Digestion of the dried plant samples will be done by taking a one gram air dried plant material on hot plate using diacid mixture (HNO3:HClO4). The metal concentration will be determined from these digested samples by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The physiological parameter (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance etc.) of plants will be analyzed in the field by using IRGA without destruction of plant leaves and data obtained from crops will be saved for future use. The data will be taken along roadside and away (20 m) from the road. Soil samples will be collected from the same place where the plant and aerosol samples will be collected at (0-15 and 15-30 cm) depths. These soil samples will be air-dried. These air-dried soil samples will be ground to pass through a 2 mm sieve. Extraction of these soil samples will be performed. From the extracted material, heavy metal will be determined by using ASS. Water samples will include ground water (tube well, hand pump), surface water and waste water will be taken as per availability. Water samples will be taken to laboratory and filtered through Whatman No. 40 and will be analyzed for EC, SAR and RSC (US Salinity Lab Staff, 1954). Metals will be determined from the water samples. For the preparation of GIS maps, GPS will be used to determine the position along the latitude and longitude. Latitude and longitude values obtained from the GPS and metal concentration determined will be used in the GIS software arc v9.1 and base map will be drawn. The recorded data will be subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and LSD test 5 % level of significance (Steel et al., 1997).
VII) LITERATURE CITED
Ahmad, S., A. Wahid and K.F. Akbar. 2010. Multivariate classification and data analysis of vegetation along Motorway (M-2), Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 42(2): 1173-1185.
Antonio, J., F. Espinsa, Rodriguez M. Francisco, B. Rosa, C. Juan and J. Sanchez. 2001. Size distribution of metals in urban aerosols in Seville (Spain). 2001. Journal of Atmospheric Environment. 35: 2595 .2601.
Awan, M.A., S.H Ahmad, M.R Aslam and I.A Qazi. 2011. Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals in Ambient Air of Four Cities of Pakistan.Iranica Journal of Energy and Enviorment. 2(2): 128-132.
Aldabe,J., D.Elulondo , C.Santamaria, E. Lasheras, M. Padolfi, Alastury , X. Queral and J.M Santamaria. 2011. Chemical characterisation and source apportionment of PM2.5 and PM10 at rural, urban and traffic sites in Navarra (North of Spain) Journal of Atmospheric Research. 102: 191 205.
Bruland et all ., 1991
Bytnerowicz, A., K. Omasa., and E. Paolletti. 2007. Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forest: A northern hemisphere perspective.2007. Journal of Environmental Pollution 147: 438 445.
Cale, P. and R. Hobbs. 1991. Conditions of roadside vegetation in relation to nutrient status. Nat. Conserv. 2: 353-362.
Fanga, G.C., C.N. Changb, C.C. Chuc, Y.S. Wua, P. P.C. Fud, I.L. Yangb and M.H. Chenb. 2003. Characterization of particulate, metallic elements of TSP, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 aerosols at a farm sampling site in Taiwan, Taichung. Journal of the Science of the Total Environment. 308: 157 166.
Falahi-Ardakani, A. 1984. Contamination of environment with heavy metals emitted from automotives. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 8: 152-161.
Harrison R.M., D.P.H Laxen and S. J. Wilson. 1981. Chemical associations of Lead,Cadmiumum,Copper, and Zinc in Street Dust Road Side Soils.Enviriomental Science and Technology . 15: 1378-83.
Hashisho Z., and M. Fadel. 2004. Impacts of Traffic-Induced Lead Emission on air, soil and blood lead levels in Beirut. Enviromental Monitring Assess 93: 185-202.
Hamilton, E.I. 1994. The geobiochemistry of cobalt. The Science of the Total Environment. 150: 7-39.
Holm-Hansen, O., G.C.Gebloff and F. Skoog. 1954. Cobalt as an essential element for blue-green algae. Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 7: 665-675.
Hu, X., Y.Zhang, J .Luo, M. Xie, T. Wang and H. Lian. 2011. Accumulation and quantitative estimates of airborne lead for a wild plant(Aster subulatus). Journal of Chemoshpere. 82: 1351 1357.
Jayakumar, K., and C.A Jaleel.2009. Uptake and Accumulation of Cobalt in Plants: a Study Based on Exogenous Cobalt in Soybean. Journal of Botany Resaerch. 2 (4): 310-314.
Kabata-Pendias, A, and H. Pendias. 1984. Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Inc. pp.238-245.
Liu, Y., R.Chen, X. Shen and X. Mao. 2003. Wintertime indoor air levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at public places and their contributions to TSP.Journal of Enviormental International . 30: 189 197.
Luo ,D., H .Zheng, Y. Chen, G. Wand and Fenghua . 2010. Transfer characteristics of cobalt from soil to crops in the suburban areas of Fujian Province, southeast China. Journal of Environmental Management .91: 2248-2253.
Mico , C., H.F. Li, F.J. Zhao and S.P. McGrath. 2008. Use of Co speciation and soil properties to explain variation in Co toxicity to root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in different soils.2008. Journal of Enviromenta Pollution .156: 883 890l.
Ostro Chestnut 1998.
Pope, C.A., R.T. Burnett, R.T, M.J. Thun, M.J., Calle, E.E., Krewski, D., Ito, K and G.D Thurston. 2002. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-termexposure to fine particulate air pollution. Journal of the AmericanMedical Association. 287 (9): 1132 1141.
Querola, X., A. Alastueya, M. M. Vianaa, S. Rodrigueza, B. Arti nanob, P. Salvadorb, S. Garcia do Santosc, R. Fernandez Patierc, C.R. Ruizd, J. de la Rosae, A. Sanchez de la Campae, M. Menendezf and J.I. Gilf . . Speciation and origin ofPM10 and PM2.5 in Spain. 2004.journal of Aerosol Science. 35: 1151 1172.
Raajasubramanian, D., P. Sundaramoorthy, L. Baskaran1, K. S.Ganesh, A.A. Chidambaram and M. Jeganathan. 2011. Effect of cement dust pollution on germination and growth of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Int. Multidisci. Res. J. 1(1): 25-30.
Sun, C.H., Y.C. Lin and C.S Wang. Relationships among Particle Fractions of Urban and Non-urban Aerosols.2003.Journal of Aerosol and Air Quality Research. Vol. 3( 1) pp.07-15.
Saliba, N. A., F. E. Jam, G. E. Tayar, W. Obeid and M. Roumie. 2010. Origin and variability of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) massconcentrations over an Eastern Mediterranean city. Journal of Atmospheric Research. 97: 106 114.
Tomasevic, M., Vukmirovic, Z. Rajsic, S. Tasic , M., Stevanovic, and B. Characterization of trace metal particles deposited on some deciduous tree leaves in an urban area. 2005. Journal of Chemosphere. 61: 753 760
Thornton I. Metal contamination of soil in urban areas. 1991 .In: Bullock P, Gregory Pj,(ed). Soil in the urban Enviorment.Black well.pp.47-75.
U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. USDA Handb. No. 60, Washington, D.C., USA.
Uzu, G., Sobanska, S. Sarret, G. Munoz and M. Dumat. Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts. 2010. Journal of Environmental Science. Technolology. 44: 1036 1042.
Zheng, N.L.J., Q. Wang and Z. Liang. 2010. Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China. Sci. Total Environ. 408: 726-733.
A) Student: Khalid Mehmood
B) Supervisor: Dr. Hammad Ahamd Raza
C) SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE
1. Dr. Hammad Ahamad Raza
2. Dr. Sana ulla _________________________________
3. Dr.Maqsood Ahmad _________________________________
Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences,
University of Agriculture,
FACULTY SCRUTINY COMMITTEE:
(Dr. Hammad Ahmad Raza)
REVIEWED AND WITNESSED:
Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Agriculture,