The Skin And Connective Tissue Diseases Biology Essay


SLE is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of joints, kidneys, nervous system, and membranes lining body cavities and often other organs as well. SLE has a tendency toward remissions and kind of multitude of immunologic abnormalities.

There are no age restriction for the disease and may develop at any period of life but appears with highest frequency during the second to fourth decades.

Most affected people are women and very common in black women then white women.

Clinical findings,

Facial erythema (reddening), which is butterfly-shaped rash often seen around neck, nose and the cheeks.

Non deforming arthritis.

Inflammation of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis).

Inflammation of the chest lining (pleurisy).

Central nervous system involvement, in the form of psychosis or convulsions.

Discoid lupus, raised patchy eruption that heals with scarring and atrophy of the skin found anywhere on the body.

Photosensitivity, manifested by unusual skin reaction after exposure to sunlight.

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The treatment

Symptoms are, fever, joint pain, pleurisy, deficiency of white blood cells, and the development of various antinuclear.

Salicylates (aspirin) are used to fewer the pains, especially when joints are involved. In most cases, it is necessary to employ corticosteroid hormones or NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) to reduce inflammation in acute crises of the disease.

The length of the treatment is variable, in some cases up to 20 years long intervals may employ.


Scleroderma sometimes called systemic sclerosis.

The disease is disorder of connective tissue in the skin, joints and muscles. Characterized by inflammatory, fibrotic (increase of the tissue cells), degenerative skin changes.

When the disease was first recognized scleroderma refers to the thickening and tightening of the skin. The disease affects women approximately three times as often as men.

The Symptoms are painless swelling or thickening of the skin of the hands and fingers, pain and stiffness of the joints and Raynaud syndrome which occurs when patient between 30 to 50 years old.

The disease establish extremely slowly.


Cellulitis is an infection of the skin and underlying tissues that can affect any area of the body. Generally starts with broken skin looks like a cut or scratch. It is a bacterial disease which causes inflammation, pain, swelling, warmth, and redness.

Cellulitis can be found in areas of intact skin, especially in people who have diabetes or who are taking medicines.


Cellulitis treated in the hospitals using intravenous (IV) antibiotics.

Skeletal System


Fractures are crossing the middle of the ears and the sinuses allow the microorganisms to enter into the cranial cavity. Fractures of the skull are common, and no treatment is required if they are linear and not depressed.

Fractures of the spine found mostly in the neck, with risk of spinal cord damage. Fractures of the odontoid, the bony peg that forms a joint between the upper two vertebrae of the neck, may compress and severely damage the spinal cord; the odontoid process may also separate with the same consequences in rheumatoid arthritis. Compression fractures at lumbar levels may damage the caudal equine, the tail of nerve roots below the level of the spinal cord, but because of the strength of the ligaments, complications are less common.


Osteomalacia occurs after several pregnancies or in old age. Symptoms are bone pain, weakness, numbness of the extremities, hands/ feet spasms.

Reasons for Osteomalacia

Involuntarily missing the necessary bone minerals (like vitamin D).

Failed function of the organs involved in the absorption or metabolism of the bone minerals.

Frequent ingestion of mineral oil.

Abnormalities in the bone mineralization process.

Treatment includes a very well-balanced diet high in protein and calcium, Vitamin D and fish-liver oils.



The disease is infectiousHYPERLINK "", caused by toxins and produced by HYPERLINK ""the HYPERLINK ""bacillusHYPERLINK ""Clostridium tetani. Clostridium lives in nature and access to the human body by soil trough the wounds. Particularly they are dangerous because, they grow in oxygen-free environment. The most poison is the neurotoxic component, tetanospasmin. Once it has entered the body, the toxin rapidly spreads to the blood, directly to the nerves from there to the nerve system and aim is to attack the motor nerve cells.

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PHYPERLINK ""enicillin kills the organisms and patients are after a few weeks, when the disease is curtailed, the curare treatment is stopped and the patient begins to breathe on his own again.

Achilles Bursitis

Inflammation of a synovial bursa, the lubricating sac located around joints or between tendons and muscles or bones. Bursitis may be caused by infection or injury, by arthritis or gout, by calcium deposition along a tendon or joint, or by minor, usually repetitive irritation. Bursitis commonly affects the knee, the AchillesHYPERLINK "" tendon at the back of the ankle, the elbow, and the bottom of the pelvis.

Treatment of bursitis includes rest, heat, mild exercise, and medications that relieve inflammation and remove calcium deposits.



Basically it is a brain disorder disease that develops in mid- to late adulthood.

Causes irreversible and decline in memory. The disease is characterized in the cerebral cortex of the brain by the destruction of nerve cells a noticeable loss of the brain mass. The disease was first described in 1906 by German neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer.

Stages of the disease

Alzheimer disease is the form of dementia. The first symptom is forgetfulness. The majority of cases the Alzheimer disease develops after age 60.They usually occur without history in the family and it is a genetic factor.


A bacterial infection in the body may be carried to the meninges through the bloodstream itself or from the middle ear or the nasal sinuses.

Basically, it is an inflammation of the meninges that covers membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by viruses, fungi, and protozoa. But bacterial form produces the most life-threatening. The patient usually experiences fever, headache, vomiting, irritability, anorexia, and stiffness in the neck.

The bacteria that can cause meningitis are the meningococcus (Neisseria meningitidis), Haemophilus HYPERLINK ""influenza, and various strains of pneumococci, streptococci, or staphylococci.

The early treatment of meningitis is particularly important before permanently damages the brain. Especially affected in children early ages. Meningococcal meningitis is best treated with penicillin. Cases caused by H. influenzae are treated with ampicillin or chloramphenicol.

Patients usually recover in three to five days, typically without any serious result.



It is a metabolic disorder characterized by the skeletal extremities. It is the result of overproduction of pituitary growth hormone (somatotropin) after maturity, caused by a tumour of the pituitary gland. Hands and feet become enlarged; facial features are exaggerated as the jaw lengthens and the nose and forehead grow thicker; the skin thickens; and most internal organs enlarge.

Symptoms of the disease are headache, excessive sweating, muscle weakness, and high blood pressure. Acromegaly may be treated by surgical removal of the pituitary tumour or destruction of it by X-ray irradiation or liquid nitrogen.


Two types of Gigantism occur in the body.

Androgen deficiency, more common in men than in women. The delays of producing appropriate amounts of the growth hormone.

Pituitary gigantism, affected persons bones are in abnormal condition, influences the height of feet. Muscles may be well developed but later on weakening.

Treatment by surgery or irradiation of the pituitary gland curtails further growth, but stature cannot be reduced once gigantism has occurred.

The Respiratory system


Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the small airways sometimes can be viral disorders. Especially in children occurs the age between one to seven years old.

Symptoms of the Bronchiolitis are,

Noisy breathe during the night sleep and vibrate cough and caused by the vibration of the soft palate and vocal cords, breathing through the mouth and snoring. It is a common, potential and life-threatening condition that generally requires treatment from doctor.


It is a disorder. A rough, hoarse noise produced upon the intake of breath during sleep and caused by the vibration of the soft palate and vocal cords.

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It is often associated with obstruction of the nasal passages, which necessitates breathing through the mouth. Snoring is more common in the elderly because the loss of tone in the oropharyngeal musculature promotes vibration of the soft palate and pharynx.

It is also more common in men than in women, and it occurs most often in obese people.


Varicose Ulcers

The main reasons for ulcers are infection, faulty blood circulation, nerve damage, cancer and trauma. The main symptom of an ulcer is pain.

VaricoseHYPERLINK "" veins are caused by the slow blood circulation in the leg veins under the skin.

When varicose has been under the skin at least for one month it is hard to the touch, the possibility of cancer must be considered.


Caused by prolonged interruption of the blood supply that results from injury or infection include arteriosclerosis, diabetes, Raynaud’s disease, thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger’s disease), and typhus.

Also occurs after freezing the severe burns or prolonged bed rest (bed sores).

It is either dry or moist.

Dry HYPERLINK ""gangrene results from a gradual decrease in the blood supply.

Moist gangrene develops when the blood supply is suddenly cut off, as by a severe burn or an arterial blood clot. If not treated, the infection can spread beyond the wound and cause death.

The treatment of antibiotics and also removal of the tissues to stop the infection separated.



Lymphoma is characterized by malignant tumours of lymphocytes. The disease seems to begin in one lymph node and spread to others.

Symptoms of the disease are enlargement of lymph nodes, the spleen, or both are characteristic.

The lymphomas are classified into two main groups: Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin HYPERLINK ""lymphoma (or lymphocytic HYPERLINK ""lymphoma).

Hodgkin Disease

The cause of Hodgkin disease unknown, but bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, have been suggested. Hodgkin disease has been linked to many cases of previous infection with the Epstein-Barr virus. Hodgkin disease tumours develop from B lymphocytes. Treatment consists of chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of both, depending on the stage of development of the disease.

The disease is named after Thomas Hodgkin in 1832.

Hodgkin disease results in enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen.

Uncommon cancer of the lymphatic system (malignant lymphoma) that is usually found young adults and people 50 years old or older. If the disease is detected in early stages can be controlled by doctor.



It is chronic stomach inflammation of the mucosal layers. in the of the patient. The disease is caused by huge amount of alcohol intake, ingestion of irritating drugs, food poisoning, and infectious diseases.

The symptoms are upper-abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, less appetite, thirst, and diarrhea.

The only treatment necessary is temporary avoidance of food. The ingestion of acids causes a chemical gastritis, immediately emptying and thorough washing of the stomach.

Chronic gastritis may be caused by prolonged use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),


It is a sore on the skin of the stomach.

The main symptom is pain and also digestive disorders, poor appetite.

The main causes of ulcers are infection, faulty blood circulation, nerve damage, trauma and cancer.

Treatment is avoiding acidic drinks and foods, having very often food into the stomach in a day at least 5-7 times meal.


Renal Failure

Acute renal failure occurs when renal function suddenly declines to very low levels, so that little or no urine is formed, and the substances, including even water, the kidney normally eliminates are retained in the body.

There are two main mechanisms that can produce acute renal failure. When the cardiac output is lowered by haemorrhage or by medical or surgical shock, the renal circulation is depressed to an even greater extent.

The second common mechanism of acute renal failure is toxic. Many poisons are excreted by the kidney, and in the process, like other urinary constituents, they become concentrated and thus reach levels in the tubular fluid that damages the lining cells of the tubules.


Characterized by four factors:

The repeated voluntary or involuntary voiding of urine.

Chronological age of at least five, mental age of at least four

Two or more occurrences per month

The absence of a causative physical disorder

The disorder can be caused by stressful life events and poor toilet training.

Treatment includes behavioural education therapy and the use of an alarm to awaken the patient before urination starts.

Treatment by drugs is usually a last choice. Vasopressin as a nasal spray and it is effective on decreasing the produced urine at the night time.



Main symptom is abnormal flow of a whitish or yellowish discharge from the vagina (leukorrhea).

The treatment of vaginitis depends on the cause of the inflammation. Depend on many different microorganisms can produce vaginitis in women.

Among the microorganisms that commonly cause vaginitis are;

Candida albicans,


Trichomonas vaginalis.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Transmission occurs from person to person by direct sexual contact.


This is a systemic disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum.

The bacteria is, T. pallidum, averages 8 to 10 microns (millionths of a metre) in length.

The bacterium requires moisture to exist, so continuous moisture is a necessity for the transfer of the microorganism from one person to another. In the body’s tissues, the spirochete bacteria reproduce and remain present for the lifetime of the infected person unless destroyed by treatment. Syphilis is effectively treated with penicillin, which kills the spirochetes.


Gonorrhoea was named by the Greek physician Galen and is thought to have been known to the ancient Chinese and Egyptians.

Gonorrhoea is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membranes of the genital tract and urethra.

It is caused by the gonococcus, Neisseria gonorrhoeaeâ€"a bacterium found on mucous membranes found in the genital areas. The incubation time for gonorrhoea is usually 3 to 5 days (range 2 to 10 days). The first symptoms in the male are a burn feeling when passing the urine.


The pear-shaped species T. gallinarum causes avian trichomoniasis in the intestine of fowl, especially chickens and turkeys.

Symptoms are diarrhoea, appetite and weight loss.

The method of transmission is not known.

Also in birds, particularly pigeons, T. gallinae causes an often fatal infection in the upper intestine.

T. foetus, in the sheath of bulls and the vagina and uterus of cows, produces bovine or venereal trichomoniasis.

Infection is most often intestinal, but it may occur in other cavities or organs such as the liver.