The sensitivity of bacterial strains to the oil extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds

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A study was conducted by Jha & Srivastavar (2013), the oil was extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds. The bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugosa and Staphylococcus aureus were tested and it is found to be sensitive to essential oils that were studied and it showed a very effective bacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 1.55 to 5.20 mg/mL.

Another study was conducted by Hashim et al. (2012) that focused on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of xanthones that was isolated from the bark of Artocarpus obtusus. There were three xanthones that was isolated and they were identified as the pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A, dihydroartoindonesianin C and pyranocycloartobiloxanthone B. The pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A exhibited antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC3359) and the Bacillus subtilis that was clinically isolated has the inhibition zone of 20 and 12 mm, respectively. However the other two xanthones were found to be inactive.

Morever, Abu Bakar et al. (2008) studied the antioxidant activity of the different parts of bambangan (Mangifera pajang) and tarap (Artocarpus odoratissimus). They analyzed the flesh, kernel and peel from Mangifera pajang; seed and flesh from Artocarpus odoratissimus for its total antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total anthocyanins contents. They found out that the seed of A. odoratissimus contains higher total flavonoid content compared to its flesh. Flavonoids are said to have potential health benefits arising from the antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity. M. pajang and A. odoratissimus have phytochemicals and antioxidant properties, especially in their by-products which are the kernel and the seed and this indicates that they can impart health benefits when they are consumed and it should be regarded as a valuable source of antioxidant-rich nutraceuticals.

The study compared the antibacterial properties of bark and stipule samples of Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jack fruit), Artocarpus hirsutus (Wild jack), and Artocarpus altilis (Bread fruit) extracted with Acetone, Distilled water, Ethanol, Chloroform, Petroleum ether and Benzene against various clinical pathogens like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The antimicrobial activity study was carried out using agar well diffusion method. The results showed that acetone, distilled water, ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and benzene extract from both the bark and stipules of selected Artocarpus species possessed prominent antibacterial activity (Asha & Ben, 2013).

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The antimicrobial activities of these extracts were tested against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. The seeds of the plants were air-dried and ground in a laboratory mill to a moderately fine powder (particle size ≤ 0.5 mm). Powdered material (500 g) was submitted to extraction with 99% ethanol (1.5 L) at room temperature (25–27∘C) for 3 days. The supernatant was removed and filtered through Whatman number 1 paper. After that, the initial powder sample was still submitted to two extractions, which resulted in a final volume of extract near 4.5 L. The ethanolic extracts resulting from three consecutive extractions were mixed together then concentrated under reduced pressure in rotary evaporator until complete elimination of solvent, and stored in a freezer at −20°C. Six extracts presented activity against Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (Farias et al., 2013).

A study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial, MIC and MBC/MFC activities of Artocarpus altilis (twigs). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated against six pathogenic microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, using the disc diffusion method at 2mg/disc by indicating the presence of the clear inhibition zones around each disc compared with the positive control (Streptomycin and Nystatin), while the MIC and MBC/MFC were ranged from (250-1000μg/ml) assayed by using the 96 well plates. The dried twigs of A. altilis were extracted by using the Soxhlet apparatus. The results suggested that Artocarpus altilis extracts have promising therapeutic potential against bacteria and fungi (Kamal et al., 2012).

The antibacterial properties of partially purified lectins from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lens culinaris (lentil) and Pisum sativum (pea) against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied by Nair et al. (2013). The antimicrobial activity was studied using agar well diffusion method. The results showed that the Artocarpus heterophyllus lectin had an anti-bacterial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa whereas Pea and jack bean lectin were found to be effective bacteriostatic agents which reduced the growth of bacteria and lentil lectin showed the least antibacterial activity.

A study on the antimicrobial compounds from Artocarpus heterophyllus was conducted by Ragasa et al. (2004). The researchers used silica gel chromatography of the dichloromethane extract from the unriped fruit of A. heterophyllus that has been freeze and dried produced cycloaretnone 1, cycloartenol 2, and a diastereomeric mixture of 2,3 – butanediol. The antimicrobial tests on the 1-3 indicates that 1 has a low activity against the E.coli, P. aeruginosa and T. mentagrophytes, while in C. albicans and the A. niger both have a moderate activity and are inactive against the S. aueres and B.subtilis. The cycloartenol 2 has a low activity and a low antifungal activity. The diasteromeric mixture of 3 exhibits a high activity against the P. aeruginosa which has a moderate activity against C. albicans, but it has a low activity against the bacteria S. aureus, T. mentagrophytes, and A.niger, while in P. aeruginosa it has also the same activity as the standard antibiotic.

The study focused on the 4 different extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Manilkara zapota seeds to be extracted and taken for their total phenolics and their flavonoids contents, reducing power and antioxidant activity (Shanmugapriya et al., 2011). The study analyzed the total phenolic and the flavonoid content, reducing power & antioxidant activity. The researchers concluded from the results that they obtained that both the extracted seeds contains a large amounts of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, these exhibits high antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging. Both of the extracted seeds from the A. heterophyllus and M. zapota has a significant source of antioxidant which helps in preventing the progress of various stress in oxidation and both have an importance in medicinal studies. Both the high contents of flavonoids and phenol have high potential properties for antioxidant activity.