The Science That Deals With The Microorganisms Biology Essay

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Microbiology: Microbiology is the science that deals with the microorganisms. It includes the study of the occurrence and importance of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and algae which are the beginning and ending of complex food chains upon which all life relies (Montville & Matthews, 2005).

Food Microbiology: Food microbiology deals with the spoilage, contamination, and preservation of food. The study of food microbiology aids to understand inhabits, create, or infect food. The study of food microbiology is mainly important for knowing microorganisms causing food spoilage (Fratamico & Bayles, 2005). However there are good bacteria such as probiotics that are also very important in food science (Ljungh & Wadstrom, 2009). Moreover, some of the bacteria are essential for producing food such as yoghurt, cheese, bread and other fermented food. The main reason to study food microbiology is concerned with food safety and it is considered as major focus of food microbiology (Adams & Moss, 2008). According to Jay et al (2005), food has an intense association with the transmission of disease. Foodborne disease is considered as the most widespread health problem in today's world.

Importance of Microbiology in Food Industry: As far as importance of food microbiology in food industry is concerned, global food industry is divided into three main areas such as farming or agriculture, food processing, and food distribution. Food Microbiology works as indicator in the Food Industry showing significant orientation for all those related to microbiological food quality and safety. With the invention of advance technologies and its use in food industry has increased the importance of microbiology, and this is driving much change in areas as diverse as agrochemicals, plant breeding and food processing. Moreover, research is another progress in the food industry. Different technologies are being used in agricultural and food processing research. These researches are done by microbiologist and aim to analyze food for meeting specific standard of food processing procedure, to estimate the shelf-life of the food product, to determine the quality of food product for public health. This analysis also aims to find the organism such as organism indicators, index organism, food poison organism, infectious microorganism and spoilage organism. Since the presence of organism indicator can determine a food product good or bad according to good manufacturing practice; other organism index organism whose presence implies the occurrence of pathogenic organism. Food poisoning organisms can be present in the food if it is not analyzed it will harm public health. Two different types of poisoning organisms are very common; one which cause the decease by infection and those which produce toxin in food. The presence of either of poisoning organism can be harmful therefore does not meet the standard practice if it is not identified and eliminated. Infectious microorganism if present in food causes infection. This infectious can be transferred from one man to another man.

The presence of spoilage organisms can produce unfavorable characteristics in food. The microorganism which is not purposely added into food or purposely added in food so as to transfer specific qualities in that food is the contaminant. The growth of the contaminant in such food spoils the food and makes it unhealthy for human consumption. The purpose of research and food analysis is to identify such food such as some useful microorganisms lactic acid bacteria are spoilage organisms for beer and fruit juices but not for milk. There are number of methods of analyzing the foods in microbiology such as qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis methods. The quantitative analysis method includes serial Decimal dilution, Aerobic plate count, Pour plate count, Total viable count, and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, Yeast and Molds count. The qualitative analysis includes presence or absence of a specified microorganism e.g. · Salmonella sp., E. coli and V. cholerae O1.

There is methods used for analyzing and testing bacteria Culture Methods which includes pre-enrichment broth, enrichment broth, selective enrichment, selective agar, Differential agar

Biochemical tests, sugar fermentation, amino acid decarboxylation, gelatin liquefaction, lecithinase production, Serology, agglutination, precipitin, coagulation, Colony morphology, shape, colour, texture, size, cell shape by microscope, bacillus, coccus, streptococcus, Gram stain characteristics, gram positive, gram negative, Motility, motile, number of flagella, arrangement of flagella and non-motile (Harrigan, 1998).

Observation Result

Biochemical Test Results

Test / Plates

Catalase Test

Oxidase Test

Urea Test

Indole Test

Citrate Test

Methyl Red Test

Vogues-Proskauer Test

1

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

Positive

Negative

2

Negative

Positive

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

3

Negative

Negative

Positive

Negative

Negative

Negative

4

Negative

Positive

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

5

Negative

Negative

Positive

Negative

Negative

Negative

6

Negative

Positive

Negative

Negative

Positive

Negative

7

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

Positive

Negative

8

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

9

Negative

Negative

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

Food Micro Report

Plates / Dilutions

Aerobic + Incubator

TNTC

55 Colonies

4 Colonies

Aerobic + Fridge

No Growth

No Growth

No Growth

Anaerobic + Incubator

TNTC

48 Colonies

7 Colonies

Anaerobic + Fridge

TNTC

42 Colonies

8 Colonies

Sample Plate

Colonies / Dilutions

Aerobic + Incubator

Aerobic + Fridge

Anaerobic + Incubator

MAC

19 pink colonies

4 pink colonies

17 small pink colonies and 7 light pink colonies with lighter pink surroundings

2 small dark pink colonies

27 small pink colonies and 11 small milky colonies

3 small pink colonies

LSM

No Growth

No Growth

No Growth

No Growth

No Growth

No Growth

BG

No Growth (1 really small colony)

TNTC reddish dark pink

8 large creamy milky colonies and 18 small milky colonies

TNTC small milky colonies with reddish surroundings

4 small light pink colonies and 13 small milky colonies

40 small milky colonies

OGYEA

No Growth

No Growth

1 small grey colony

No Growth

No Growth

No Growth

PCA

No.

Agar Plates

Description of the Colonies

Results

Aerobic + Fridge

1

McConkey (MAC)

Pink plates with pink milky colonies

Gram Negative Rods (Pink)

Streptococcus - Lactobacillus

Brilliant Green (BGA)

Pink milky colonies

Gram Positive Rods (Purple)

2

Brilliant Green (BGA)

Flat light pink colonies

Gram Positive Rods (Purple)

OGYEA

Green mold with blurred outer layer

Stained with lactophenol cotton blue

Hyphae: Blue

Spores: Colorless

Aerobic + Incubator

3

McConkey (MAC)

Light pink colonies

Gram Negative Rods (Pink)

4

Brilliant Green (BGA)

Pink milky colonies

Gram Negative Rods (Pink)

Anaerobic + Incubator

5

McConkey (MAC)

Small white milky colonies

Gram Positive Cocci (Purple)

6

Brilliant Green (BGA)

Pink milky colonies with

red-ish surroundings

Gram Negative Rods (Pink)

7

Brilliant Green (BGA)

Pink milky colonies

Gram Negative Cocci (Pink)

8

Listeria Selective Medium (LSM)

Small yellow colonies

Gram Negative Rods (Pink)

Observation Result

The results of biochemical samples of ice cream indicated that the ice cream samples are negative in Catalase Test, Indole Test and Methyl Red Test while some samples are positive in Oxidase Test, Urea Test and Citrate Test.

According to Food Micro Report Plates / Dilutions for 10-2 Aerobic + Incubator found TNTC for 10-3 found 55 Colonies, 10-4 found 4 Colonies. Aerobic + Fridge for 10-2 found No Growth, 10-3 found no growth and for 10-4 found no growth. Anaerobic + Incubator for 10-2 found TNTC and for 10-3 found 48 Colonies and 10-4 found 7 Colonies. Anaerobic + Fridge for 10-2 found TNTC, for 10-3 found 42 Colonies and for 10-4 found 8 Colonies.

Sample Plate Aerobic + Incubator MAC shows 19 pink colonies for 10-3 and 4 pink colonies for 10-4. Aerobic + Fridge shows 17 small pink colonies and 7 light pink colonies with lighter pink surroundings and 2 small dark pink colonies for 10-3 and 10-4. Anaerobic + Incubator showed 27 small pink colonies and 11 small milky colonies and 3 small pink colonies.

LSM plate showed no growth for Aerobic + Incubator, Aerobic + Fridge and Anaerobic + Incubator. BG shows No Growth (1 really small colony) and TNTC reddish dark pink for Aerobic + Incubator 10-3 and 10-4. Aerobic + Fridge found 8 large creamy milky colonies and 18 small milky colonies and TNTC small milky colonies with reddish surroundings for 10-3 and 10-4. Anaerobic + Incubator found 4 small light pink colonies and 13 small milky colonies and 40 small milky colonies fro 10-3 and 10-4. OGYEA was found equal to LSM showed no growth for Aerobic + Incubator, Aerobic + Fridge and Anaerobic + Incubator.

Discussion

There are different methods used in food microbiology such as Viable cell counts remains, Spiral Plating, Petrifilm, Isogrid, Redigel, and Simplate. Among them Viable cell counts remains is an important method to determine the quality and potential spoilage issues in food. These methods have been using for more than 100 years and found effective in testing. Anaerobic system provides a Clostridium perfringens count from food and water within 5 hrs. Viable cell systems also include Direct Epifluorescent Filter Techniques, Chemunex Scan, and Millipore MicroStar System providing viable cell counts within 4 to 6 hrs.

Conclusion

The findings of the result indicates that all the samples of ice cream vary in containing bacteria and showed some negative and positive characteristics in the result of biochemical test result. However, there is absence of Catalase Test but Oxidase Test, Urea Test and Citrate Test was positive in samples. The findings of the result show that there is need of incorporating different microbiological test methods to analyze the foods by food processors. Food processors must employ research conducted by microbiologist to evaluate the quality of the product and for food spoilage microorganisms and poisoning pathogens. However, most food manufacturing processes entails one or more tests that effectively prevent the harmful bacteria, but some frozen product such as fresh salads, vegetables, meats, poultry and fish and dairy products do not prevent even after the testing.

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