The respiratory and circulatory system

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In this essay we will concentrate on discussing and comparing the disorders of the respiratory and circulatory system. It will also look at the type of disorders and risk factors. What treatment can be provided for the disorders and how to prevent the disorder? In addition to this it will look at morbidity and mortality of the disorders. We will look at all the factors, such as genetic disorder, infectiousness disorders, disorder and diseased caused by the working environment, degenerative diseased, and lastly lifestyle choice.

Firstly we will look at the respiratory system. Respiratory system controls breathing, oxygen is inhaled and carbon dioxide is exhaled. Disorders and diseased associated with lungs can restrict breathing which in many cases can be treatable however in some instances can be fatal. As with any parts of the human body especially respiratory system disorders can be very dangerous. Most common disorder is smoking. The risk of this disorder is lung cancer, gum disease and many more. Smoking increases the risk of developing a long term health problem, which some time can be fatal. However smoking is a lifestyle choice. NHS services offer variable treatments and provide no smoking clinic therefore the help is there for anyone wishing to stop smoking." Statistics indicate that on average 1,000 patients are admitted to hospital with smoking related disorder and around 114,000 people in the UK are killed by smoking every year".

Bronchitis is another disorder of the respiratory system. Bronchitis is a virus which causes inflammation of the main air passage to the lungs. Bronchitis can occur at any point, it can also last over a long period of time however in some cases is can be short lived. The risk factor of this disorder is that this can be fatal as not enough oxygen will get to the lungs as the air passage is inflamed. Treatments are available for this disorder, in many cases this will be treated by prescribed medication such as antibiotics. But in some cases for patients who wish not to take tablets, herbal therapy can also help. As with any infection, no prevention has been found for bronchitis, but common prevention such as frequent hygiene for hands, not smoking and making sure that adequate nutrition and plenty of rest is taken place. "In 2003, 2,227 admissions to hospitals were for bronchitis which some cases were fatal".

Asthma is the inflammation of the air ways, making the chest tight, wheezing, and coughing. Sometimes even the shortness of breath. Asthma is normally a genetic disorder of the respiratory system. As with any disorder or disease there are risks, asthma is a serious condition. But with the correct treatment and medication it can be very well controlled in most people. Treatments for asthma are normally very successful .Common treatment for asthma is stay away from substances that can trigger asthma symptoms of. Medical treatment would normally be "albuterol" and "fluticasone" .There is plenty more medication for asthma. Prevention is extremely important in asthma, and normally the prevention would be to remove relevant substances from your home and lifestyle environment. If a smoker, reducing or stopping smoking, will also prevent asthma from worsening. '' In 2000, general practitioners saw over 18,000 people with asthma related problems." . '' In 2004-2005 42% of people suffering with asthma had died''

Respiratory system disorders or diseases can be linked to the working environment, and one of the best known work related disease is Asbestos disease also known as asbestosis. Asbestosis is brought on by inhale asbestos fibres which can cause fibroses. Smokers and alcohol consumer are going to be at a greater risk. There is no natural cure for asbestosis, but treatment such as oxygen therapy could make a difference and in severe cases a lung transplant would be recommended. To prevent asbestosis, stopping further asbestosis exposure is essential. Quitting smoking and drinking less alcohol will also be an advantage. According to a survey taken in October 2008 ''asbestos related diseases kills around 20 workmen per week and around 4,000 workmen a year'' Another survey has shown statistics that ''In 2005, 2,704 workers have been diagnosed with asbestos related disease.

As we get into older age we can also come across degenerative diseases related to the respiratory system. However most of these diseases are either caused though lifestyles, work related. In many cases it will be a viral infection. But what we need to keep in mind that elder generation are more likely to get poorly as their immune system is not as strong as it may used to be. If an elder person has been a smoker for a long period of time we could expect smoking related problems to occur. Elder generation is also more in danger of viral infections leading to respiratory related diseases.

Up to now in this essay, we had a look at different respiratory system disorders and diseases. The cause, risk and prevention. We also looked at different statistics. To compare all the diseases, they are all very different and need different treatment, but most of all they are all fatal. Maybe some less than other and some can be treated easier than other. From the statistics that we have seen we can mostly say that smoking has very high statistics. Statistics show that 1,000 people are admitted to hospital because of smoking, which is very high number.

In the other part of this essay we will discuss disorders of the circulatory system. We will also look at the causes, treatments and prevention. The circulatory system also known as the cardiovascular system is responsible for deliver blood to body tissues .With every heart beat blood is sent throughout our body and carried oxygen and nutrients to all of our cells. The system is very delicate and can be injured or diseased.

Common known circulatory disorder is arteriosclerosis. This is affected by lifestyle and diet. This is an accumulation of fat deposits, in the artery. The fat deposits stiffen and thicken the walls of the arteries. Making the blood flow restricted, and in worse cases blood clots happens. Person would be more at risk if a smoker and overweight. To prevent arteriosclerosis we need to begin with the most common such as a healthy lifestyle, stopping smoking and improved diet. To treat this disorder starting with a healthy lifestyle will show an improvement, in some cases medication can prescribed such as ''ACE'' inhibitors and beta-blockers'' . In severe cases person suffering with arteriosclerosis would have to undergo procedure such as open heart surgery, which will open the artery and improve blood flow. Statistics show that arteriosclerosis can be fatal.'' In the United Kingdom over 40% of people die prematurely from arteriosclerosis''.

Genetic disorder of the circulatory system is haemophilia. This means that the blood prevents its self from clotting properly, people with haemophilia bleed excessively and more than people who do not suffer from haemophilia. Risk factor for this disorder is mainly that it is genetic which means this will continue in the family. Treatment for haemophilia is complicated than most treatments. People who suffer from this disorder will have to attend regular checkups at the doctors to measure the blood factor levels. In severe cases people may have the permission to administrate blood factor concentrate at home, in the first instance of bleeding. To prevent this people should avoid situations where they may bleed such as having tooth extracted. What should also be avoided is aspirin, as this medication can aggravate bleeding. '' In USA in 1999, it has been confirmed that 1,681 people fell fatal to haemophilia''.'' In United Kingdom 3,141 people were admitted to hospital regarding haemophilia back in 2002-2003''

Yellow fever is disease of the circulatory system. This is viral disease of the bloodstream normally caused by a mosquito. The risk factor is that is can be fatal. No specific treatments have been found for yellow fever. In mild cases the pain can be relived with drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen and if high temperature then cooling pads would be advised for the patient. Prevention for this is to be vaccinated before travelling to another country where you can get infected by a mosquito and suffer from yellow fever. As mentioned before yellow fever is fatal in some cases. Statistics show that 'highest reported case of yellow fever was in 1988, where more than 5,000 people died from yellow fever'' However as this known to more people most get vaccinated.

Arteritis is another disorder of the circulatory system. This disorder caused inflammation and damages the blood vessels that supply the head area with blood. The causes of this disorder are unknown however it is believed to be partly caused by poor immune system. This is why this could be link as a degenerative disorder as elder people suffer from poor immune system. But this has not been medically proved that it can be linked to degenerative causes. The risk factors for this disorder are patient may suffer with vision difficulties, muscle ache, throbbing head ache on one side of head or at the back of head. The treatments for arteritis is medication after doctors examination, doctor may prescribed simple drug as aspirin or corticosteroids. For this disorder there is no such advice on prevention, but regular appointment with doctor may be successful. '' According to data source 46 million adults in the USA have been diagnosed with some form of arteritis''.

In this essay we talked about the disorders of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Some disorders are mild and some can be fatal. Most of the disorders are treatable and prevention has been found.

None of the above disorders can be compared as they are all very different and affect us differently. Statistics show that some are more fatal than other, but what we have to keep in my mind that if we take precautions and adhere to doctor's advice we could have a quick recovery. However with genetic disorders, it is something we have to learn to live with.


  • * Statistics for people diagnosed with asthma. Assessed 10/12/2009
  • Statistics on fatal asthma. Assessed 10/12/2009
  • Asbestos statistics. Assessed 10/12/2009
  • Drugs for asthma. Assessed 10/12/2009
  • Information and statistics about atherosclerosis. Assessed 10/12/2009
  • Smoking statistics. Assessed 10/12/2009
  • Yellow fever information.
  • Statistics about bronchitis. Assessed 10/12/2009
  • Statistics for haemophilia. Assessed 10/12/2009