The Resistance Of Cotton Against Sucking Insect Pests Biology Essay

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Cotton plays a vital role in Pakistan's economy. It is impaired by the problem of low yield due to attack of insect pests. Among them the sucking insect pests are the key factors which cause maximum damage. The cultivation of resistant cotton cultivars is an effective and sound strategy used to lower the population of sucking insect pest. The present study will be conducted to evaluate ten cotton cultivars against sucking insect pests at College of Agriculture D.G Khan. Seeds of ten varities of cotton viz.Anmol, FH-113, FH-901, BH-160, CIM554, CIM-538, CIM-506, CIM-496, NIBGE-2, NIAB-111 will be sown during first week of May 2009. Experiment will be laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Data regarding sucking insect pest will be recorded weekly. Data collected and will be analysed statistically by using a statistical program MSTATC. Difference in treatment means will be compared by using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test at 5% probability level.

VI) NEED FOR THE PROJECT

Cotton is the world major fiber crop and life blood of Pakistan's economy. Pakistan is the

fifth largest producer of cotton in the world, the third largest exporter of raw cotton, the fourth largest consumer of cotton, and the largest exporter of cotton yarn. 1.3 million farmers (out of a total of 5 million) cultivate cotton over 3 million hectares, covering 15 per cent of the cultivable area in the country, cotton and cotton products account about 2.4 percent to GDP and 55 per cent to the foreign exchange earnings of the country. Taken as a whole between 30 and 40 per cent of the cotton ends up as domestic consumption of final product, The remaining is exported as raw cotton, yarn, cloth and garments (GOP, 2008).

In the context of Muslim world, 29 countries produce cotton. Among these, Pakistan is the single largest country accounting for 32 percent of the collective cotton acreage, 30 percent of production and 41 percent of consumption during 2006-07. (GOP, 2007).

Cotton plays a vital role in the economy of our country (Soomro, 2000).

Cotton crop is easily damaged by insect pests, so cotton growers are looking for ways to protect their crops. Among serious sucking pests like jassaid, aphid, white fly, thrips, mites and an emerging problem of mealy bug (Khaskheli, 2006) are important. Plant protection plays a very crucial role in the successful production of cotton crop. The indiscriminate uses of insecticide for control of insects create problem of environmental pollution and development of insect resistant population. To reduce the problem associated with the abuse pesticides in agriculture different alternate methods of pest suppression are being tested in the different parts of the world. To use resistant variety is one of the important alternatives.

In order avoid completely dependence on insecticides, use of varietal resistance against insect pests is feasible and its effective application in integrated insect pest control to avoid side effect of pesticide use, particularly the development of resistance in insects against insecticides. The main objective of the present research work will be to find out the response of different cotton cultivars to sucking insect pests. Damage by sucking insect pest will also be measured to all cotton verities under the agro- ecological condition of D.G. Khan.

V) REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Amjad (1996) studied the resistance of five cultivars of cotton against sucking insect pests and found that FH-63 was most resistant.

Whala et al. (1998) studied the comparative resistance of cotton cultivars and found that cultivars varied not only with reference to insect pest complex, but also with its components species. In general however, LDS-170 was found to be more resistant to insect pest complex as well as the aphid where as was found to be most resistant not only to jassid and whitefly but also to the pink and spotted bollworms.

Hassan et al. (1999) reported the resistance of five cotton cultivars against sucking insect pests. They reported that negative correlation (-0.94) was established between jassid attack and positive correlation (0.93) between whitefly population and leaf hair density was observed.

Afzal et al. (1999) tested resistance of twenty cotton cultivars against whitefly (Bemisia tabacii) and reported that the comparative resistance against whitefly varied with genotype.

Ali et al. (1999) observed the resistance of 9 genotype of cotton against sucking insect pests and reported that significant differences were found among genotype regarding all parameters except whitefly and thrips population. A negative correlation was found between hair density on leaf lamina and jassid population.

Aheer et al. (1999) resulted 9 genotypes of cotton for their relative resistance against sucking insect pest. They found a significant difference among genotype regarding all parameters. N-86-Pb, N-92 and BH-99 showed highest per leaf population of jassid whitefly and thrips, and lowest population on N-92,BH-86 and MNH-329.

Raza et al. (2000) found that ten genotype of cotton viz.CIM-443, FH-634, HR-107, HR-102, HR-103, HR-VOL, FH-900, MNH-552, HR-107, NH and HR-101 and found that all the genotypes exhibited highly significant differences against sucking insect pests population.

Bashir et al. (2001) tested cotton genotypes viz.HR-109, HR-127, HR-129, HR-138, Brown, Gren, VO-MS, NIAB Krishma and CIM-448 and found that all the genotype exhibited highly significant differences against sucking insect population.

Shad et al. (2001) studied the relative response of five cultivars of cotton (NIAB- Krishma, CIM -443, CIM-448, BH-36, FH-634) to sucking insect pests. The lowest mean population of thrips, jassid and aphid was 0.74, 0.13 & 0.14 per leaf respectively. The jassid population was close to ETL (1-2 jassid per leaf) in August. The maximum population of aphid was 2.92 on NIAB Krishma. All the tested varieties, however found to be highly susceptible to whitefly.

Arif et al. (2004) studied the role of some morphological plants traits in various genotypes of cotton viz., CIM-109, Cyto-9/91, FH-900, FH-901, FH-925, IRCIM-448, IRFH-901, NIAB Karishma, VH-137 and VH-142 in developing resistance against thrips, (Thrips tabaci Lind.) The results revealed that CIM-109 was comparatively susceptible to thrips population while Cyto-9/91 was resistant.

Ahmad et al. (2005) catalogued ten genotypes of cotton viz., BH-118, CIM-443, CIM-448, FH-634, FH87, HR-129, VH-142, SLS-1, HRVO and Okra-170 in relation to resistance against jassid, (Amrasca devastans Dist.). All the tested genotypes of cotton significantly differed in relation to all morphological plant traits. From ten genotypes, Okra-170 afforded appreciable resistance and was found comparatively the most resistant genotype to jassid attack. While FH-634 showed the highest susceptibility to adult jassid. While maximum nymph population was noticed on FH-634 and minimum on HRVO and same is the case with adult + nymph population. The last two weeks of August and first two weeks of September were found to be the most favourable for the development of jassid nymph and adult population.

Iqbal et al. (2008) conducted a study for preliminary screening trial of 30 genotypes of okra for relative susceptibility/resistance against jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) during 2006. From these screening trials 3 genotypes showing comparatively susceptible (Pusa sawani, Dera local and Okra-3), 3 with intermediate (Karam-5, Sabz pari and Clean spineless) while 3 with resistant (Makhmali, Punjab selection and Green wonder) responses against jassid were selected for final screening trial during 2007. Differences were found to be significant among genotypes of okra during both the study years. The trend in selected genotypes towards susceptibility/resistance against jassid was similar to that observed during preliminary screening trial. Pusa sawani showed maximum Host Plant Susceptibility Indices (HPSI) i.e. 18 % and was susceptible, while Green wonder was comparatively resistant with minimum HPSI i.e., 5 %.

Paras et al. (2000) studied HS-6 and six genotype of cotton (G.arboreum).They reported that American cotton (G.hirstum) HS-6 was more susceptible to sucking insect pest and bollworm then G.arborium genotype of the cotton.

VI) MATERIALS AND METHODS

A field trial will be conducted at college of Agriculture. D.G. Khan during 2009 to evaluate the performance of different cotton cultivars against sucking insect pests. Ten cotton cultivars viz. Anmol, FH-113. FH-901, BH-160, CIM-554, CIM-538, CIM-506, CIM-496, NIBGE-2, NIAB-111 will be used as experimental material. Experiment will be laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having three replications and 10 treatment.Net plot size will be 12Ã-40 m2. All Agronomic practices will be kept normal and uniform for all the treatments from sowing to final picking. The data of pest population will be taken on weekly basis. Five plants will be selected at random from each row. For recording the pest population, three leaves, one each from, top, middle and bottom portion of each plant, will be selected. At the end all observation will be analyzed statistically on micro computer software MSTATC (Anonymous, 1986) for evaluation of cultivars to sucking insect pest complex as an indirect reflection of pest population. The treatment means will be compared by using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test 5% probability level.

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