The Purpose Of Various Imaging Procedures Biology Essay


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All the contrast media used in diagnostic imaging have the same task, namely to increase the contrast between different tissues or body fluids with the ability to absorb radiation x. To carry out this task, the contrast media to a concentration that is different for different structures or organs. The greater the difference between the concentration of contrast media by these structures, more detailed image of the structure can be detected on radiographs. In a normal x ray examination and computed tomography, contrast medium used can be divided into two, namely the positive and negative contrast media. Positive contrast media has reduced densities higher than the surrounding tissue. This means that a positive contrast to the white look more opaque than the surrouding tissue when viewed on the radiographs. Positive contrast media is a material having a high atomic number, but not toxic.Contrast media can be used to produce images of almost all the holes in the body structure. Negative contrast media also have a reduction in low density compared to surrounding tissue. That is, the contrast will look less opaque that looked black against the surrounding tissue. Negative contrast media can only be found in the form of gas.

There are three types of positive contrast media is iodine based, non-iodine and other. Such as iodine-based contrast media and omnipaque urografin commonly used in radiology because it does not cause adverse interactions in the body. Used primarily to describe the blood vessels, urinary tract, uterus and fallopian tubes. Iodine-based contrast media are not always in the form of barium sulfat.biasanya used during imaging of the digestive system. Others, such as Gadolinium contrast media are used in MRI as contrast media. Examples of the use of iodine-based contrast media, such as

Angiography, Venography, VCUG (voiding cystourethrography), HSG (hysterosalphinogram) and IVU (intravenous urography). In addition, examples of the use of non-iodine contrast media, such as barium enema, barium swallow, barium meal and barium follow-through.

In addition, the negative contrast media are usually in the form of gases such as air, carbon dioxide and oxygen. Examples of the use of contrast media are negative DCBE (double contrast barium enema, DCBM (double contrast barium meal and CT Pneumocolon.

Inventories of patients for admission kontras.Berikut media are patients at risk during the entry of intravenous contrast media through which the patient had suffered a severe reverse reaction to contrast media and patients with asthma and allergy history of patients believed to be similar and are very sensitive to iodine. In addition, patients with diseases related to heart disease, in baby and small children, and heart failure. Damage to the kidneys with moderate to severe.Decline kidney function will occur but can be reduced if the patient is well hydrated. Admission metformin, entry of contrast media in patients with diabetes who take metformin may cause damage to the kidneys.Tirotoksikosis-iodine as a result of the extensive and close to fungsin thyroid effects. If patients are women in childbearing age may be, the examination should be performed during pregnancy is a risk to a minimum. If a female patient who datng for radiographic examination and within the same menstrual cycle known later, the patient is considered to be pregnant but there is information that no pregnancy occurred. All of the procedures involved should be explained to pasakit dn be given a consent form. X-ray interpreter shall assess a patient's children about his ability to make a decision whether agreed to allow inspections carried out or not. If patients can not understand, parents must sign.Patients are also required to perform inventory checks run.Aim bowel before bowel a consent form on his behalf. preparation is go round investigating the gastrointestinal tract, the stool to prevent some of the organs in the abdomen to see and the opacity of an organ is less than the surrounding tissue. Radiograph before the patient is necessary see.Medications needed to help patients when carried out painful procedures, such as benzodiazepines.

The reverse reaction is generally caused by the entry of contrast media has been reduced with the use of high agent osmolaliti replaced with low agent turned osmolaliti.Reaction divided into three, namely mild, moderate and severe reactions severe .Majoriti the reverse is not bad just need observations .But , the reverse reaction is severe it requires attention and quick action to avoid the worst dangers in patients. Reaction be fatal to patients.The types of reactions such as mild and medium severe and severe. Reaction is not always valid, but can bring severe reactions occurring death.No require forecasts that it will be more severe for ensuring that all medicines to deal with any probability can be overcome. The reaction is a reaction severe.Some particularly nausea and vomiting worse aka degan osmolaliti.Reaction mild increase did not require any treatment but should be monitored because it has become more serious and the probability of the reaction turned worse. All patients had a reaction should be given attention for 20 to 30 minutes to ensure stability of clinical and recovery. Pain at the injection usually involves hipertoksisiti. Therefore, the use of low-osmolaliti agents used for reducing the risk of allergic dapt worse. The same goes for signs such as burning sensation or feeling, such as blood pass the psychological response that made patients feel no selese for the short term. Simple severe reactions. The reaction is not life threatening but is likely to get worse.. These reactions usually require treatment. Among the signs of this reaction ialahurtikaria, vasovagal reactions, some bronkospasma, tachycardia and hipotension. The reaction medium requires special attention so that the patient completely independent of any reaction. Severe reactions. Reverse reaction may be harmful to patients with severe. Although such reactions are rare, but the staff is responsible to inject contrast media are required to be cautious because such reactions are unpredictable. Patients may experience some symptoms such as shortness of breath and heart attack-other sharply.Lain is vasovagal reaction, hipotension severe heart attack and pulmonary edema.

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the body. There are three types major of blood vessels the arteries which carry the blood away from the heart the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. Type of blood vessel like there are various kinds of blood vessels such as arteries.In arteries have Aorta (the largest artery, carries blood out of the heart) and Branches of the aorta, such as the carotid artery, the subclavian artery, the celiac trunk, the mesenteric arteries, the renal artery and the iliac artery.In addition,type of blood vessel is Arterioles,Capillaries(the smallest blood vessels),Venules and Veins.In veins have there large collecting vessels, such as the subclavian vein, the jugular vein, the renal vein and the iliac vein and Venae cavae (the 2 largest veins, carry blood into the heart).

The human gastrointestinal tract refers to the stomach and intestine and sometimes to all the structures from the mouth to the anus. Human gastrointestinal tract is divided into two upper gastrointestinal tract and lower gastrointestinal tract. The ligament of Treitz is sometimes used to divide the upper and lower GI tracts.The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.Some sources also include the mouth cavity and pharynx.The exact demarcation between "upper" and "lower" can vary. Upon gross dissection, the duodenum may appear to be a unified organ, but it is often divided into two parts based upon function, arterial supply, or embryology. The lower gastrointestinal tract includes most of the small intestine and all of the large intestine. According to some sources, it also includes the anus.In the future,bowel or intestine divided into two large intestine and small intestine.Small intestine, which has three parts Duodenum,jejunum and ileum.For duodenum,here the digestive juices from pancreas and liver mix together and jejunum, it is the midsection of the intestine, connecting duodenum to ileum and ileum,it has villi in where all soluble molecules are absorbed into the blood.Large intestine, which has three parts is cecum,colon and rectum .The cecum ,the vermiform appendix is attached to the cecum and colon,ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid flexure and rectum.Anus is a part.

Intravenous Urogaphy

An intravenous pyelogram also known as IVP, pyelography, intravenous urogram or IVU is a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.Urogaphy intravenous (IVU) is a radiographic examination of the urinary tract with the aid of contrast media. Urinary tract organs are forming kidney urethra, bladder and ureter. These organs are not visible in the normal x-ray radiographs. Thus, the contrast medium injected into the patient's vein. Contrast media will flow in blood vessels and will be filtered by the kidneys, the ureters and eventually into the bladder and directly into the urethra. Contrast media injected will be absorbed x-ray disclosed. This will make the image appear white in the urinary tract resulting radiograph. It can be helpful for urinary tract can be seen clearly. A series of radiographs will be taken to show the contrast medium travel through parts of the urinary tract.

Anatomical parts for the urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder and a urethra.Two kidneys and ureters are located in the retroperitoneal space. Kidney-shaped bean is located on the spine.Immediate Trigger posterior abdominal space. Right kidney is slightly lower and more forward than the left because there are hearts on the left. Each kidney is connected to the bladder via the ureter. Waste in the urine will flow from the kidney to the bladder through the ureter. Bag-shaped bladder is acting as a collection of the urine until it can be removed from the body through the urethra.

Purpose IVU done to show the structure and function of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Patients who come complaining of abdominal pain requiring inspections to identify whether a patient suffering from kidney stones. Hematuria also may be one indication of kidney stones, infections and tumors in the urinary tract. Patients with infections of the urinary bladder hematuriadan repeat IVU also requires examination. Sometimes, IVU examinations performed to assess kidney function. It was also done to show the quantity of urine collection bag outlet. In addition, it is all used to test the kidney function and identify any diseases or abnormalities of urination. To supply the patient, the patient required a diet low berresidue 2 or 3 days before the examination. If the patient has a history of severe allergy to contrast media, patients are given methyl prednisolone 32mg 12 and 2 hours before contrast medium injected into the patient. Patients are also required to fast for at least 5 hours before the examination. Patients are required to clean the colon so that a clear picture of urinary tract can be obtained. If the patient is suffering from diabetes and take metformin, the patient informed the doctor responsible. This is because the combination of metformin and contrast media will result in damage to kidney patients. Therefore, patients will be instructed to stop taking metformin before the injection of contrast media are made. On the day of examination, the patient will be given a laxative. This laxative to empty the patient's gastrointestinal tract. Gas and stool found in the gastrointestinal tract to reduce the clarity of the resulting image.

The procedure before the examination, patients will be briefed on procedures to be carried out one by one. When patients understand, the process will be done more easily and smoothly. Patients also described the risks it is exposed after this examination.After that, patients will be given a consent form.This form is given to obtain consent of the patient to undergo this examination, after the patients entered into this form, then the IVU examination can be performed on all patients.After that, patients will be instructed to change into a hospital gown clothing and accessories are available around the inspection area. This was to avoid any artifacts in the resulting image.Patients are required to miktursi because the bladder can be broken if the pressure and urine in the bladder will dilute solution of contrast media. During the examination, patients are required to lie on contrast examination table in supine. The next step, preliminari.Radiograf for KUB film was taken before the contrast medium injected into the patient. The main purpose of the radiograph was taken was to identify the position of kidney patients, to ensure the patient's position during the examination are correct, to ensure that the exposure factor is appropriate given the current inspection, to determine whether patients with adequate bowel preparation and to determine whether specific techniques are required to get a clear image.This is a normal radiograph KUB radiograph. Abdominal reflect the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.Cassette size used is 14x17 inches. After the contrast medium is injected into the patient through a vein. Immediate film, the radiograph was taken immediately after contrast medium injected into the patient. The purpose of these radiographs were taken to measure the size of the kidney. During this period the size of the kidneys should be enlarged slightly from the original size.Normal size of kidney is 13cm. At this time the kidney size should grow by 2% of original size. At this time the kidney size should grow by 2% of original size.This image shows the picture of the kidney . Cassette size was used (10x12 inches). 5 minute film, the radiograph was taken after 5 minutes of contrast medium injected into the patient. The purpose of this radiograph is taken to see the kidney after 5 minutes. At this time, contrast media should have fulfilled the kidney.Cassette size used is 10x12 inches. Film compression, after 10 minutes, given the pressure on the lower abdomen using 2 pieces of the balloon was placed at the lower abdomen with a wound in a loop of plastic. The aim is to resist the pressure given the contrast medium back into the kidneys so that they can stay longer in the kidney and see kalik expands when under pressure. The pressure will not be given to patients who have recently undergone abdominal surgery, had experienced the trauma of the kidney, abdominal tissue thickness and image yng kalik development has seen the movie five minutes is taken.This image shows the picture of the kidney Cassette size used is 10x12 inches. Film release, radiograf ini taken after the loop pressure is released.

The purpose of this radiogaf taken is to see the contrast medium flows via the ureter, and shows the entire urinary system. This image shows an overview of the urinary system.Cassette size used is 14x17 inches. Film post micturation, radiographs were taken after the patient is directed to mikturasi.Bladder emptied. Contrast media content in the bladder should be reduced from the original. The purpose of this radiograph is taken to see urinary bladder emptied untukk, to look at the top of the urinary tract back to its original form without any compression.Cassette size is 14x17 inches.

After the procedure, the patient, the patient is discharged to the ward.Whereas for outpatients, patients discharged home. Patients are allowed normal diet and advised to drink ari empty.Risk, the patient feels the heat, taste the blood sirapan, and will be metallic in the mouth.It is common for riaksi contrast media.Allergies that occur are small in number.Severe allergic reactions are extremely rare.

Barium Enema

Barium enema is a special x-ray examination of the colon unt including the colon and rectum. Colon is an organ that has tidensiti low compared with surrounding tissue. In x-ray examination is normal, the bowel will not be noticeable. With the help of contrast media used in enama barium examination, the structure of the large intestine can be seen clearly. Before the inspection, the barium sulfate contrast media to be inserted into the colon through the rectum.Contrast media will help explain the large intestine resulting image.There are two types of barium enema examination of a single contrast and double contrast.This check is made to review the nature and function of the colon and detect any abnormal conditions.

Anatomical parts for the large intestine begins dikuadran bottom right. Large intestine of ceceum, colon, rectum and anal canal.The last part of the large intestine is the rectum.The bottom of the rectum with the anal canal ends in the anus.Cecum is the end of the large intestine in the form of a pouch.Cecum is the widest in the large intestine.Appendix will be part of a long and shaped like a blast, and together with the cecum.After the cecum is the colonic. Colon is divided into four sections and two flexure.Four sections were ascending colon, tranverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon.Flexure was involved two fleksure hepatic and splenik. The rectum to feel connected to the sigmoid colon at the end of the large intestine.In the 1 to 1 1 / 2 inches at the end of the large intestine is anal canal.Anal duct is an opening to the anus.Which is the first indication, Kolitis.Kolitis is infection of the large intestine caused by bekteria, diet, stress and other factors around.The intestinal mucosal thickness. Second, Melaena also diseases such as blood in the stool.In addition, the problem of nutrient absorption and weight loss abruptly. Finally, a polyp is a small bag out on the surface of the colon. May become infected and cause bleeding in the colon.Contrast media was used as a positive contrast medium is barium sulfate.Barium is a salt that is insoluble in water. Mixed with water to form barium suspension rather than solution. This feature is important that the barium suspension can not be absorbed while in the large intestine.It also allows the barium easily removed from the colon.

Inventories of patients. Patients are required to perform bowel preparation. Patients are required to eat a diet low beresidue 2-3 days before the examination. On examination the patient would fast for days and given laxative to remove all waste that can block images. Patients who smoke are also not allowed to smoke on the day of inspection in order to avoid an increase in the movement to increase the secretion of gastric and stomach.Inventory is very important in bowel barium enema examination. If not, do not apply the obstruction and barium can not flow smoothly through the colon. So, it is important to ensure that the patient empty the colon before the examination. After that, before the procedure, the examination room to be examined in a clean state. Barium contrast media that act as shall be provided in advance. And last but not least, the details of the patient should be examined. Inspection procedures are explained to the patient carefully. Once patients understand the risks that might occur, the patient will be given a consent form before undergoing screening. Patients should menandatanganiborang consent before examination. After that, patients akandiminta to change clothes on a hospital gown and removes all the artifacts that may be blocking images. During the procedure, to insert a tube rectum, patients are required to lie in the position of sims.Before the rectum tube is inserted, the tip is coated with water-based lubricant.Rectum tube is connected with the bag containing barium.When putting the barium, the bag should be hung in high places for the barium to flow into the rectum. During include barium, an interpreter should be doing x-ray scans to see movements. Barium was included 1000cc. After that, the patient instructed to lie prone position change. Meje flouroskopy then moved to the head of the patient was under.Then, the patient returned to the prone position. After that, patients are directed to escort to the right. This was done to allow the flow of contrast media in the tranverse colon. After that, the patient returned to the prone position. Then, the table is moved so that the foot is below. This was done to allow contrast media to flow into the ascending colon. After that, the patient returned to the prone position. After the process of inserting barium done, the barium was removed.Rectum using a tube that was still in the patient's body, the bag containing the contrast media had written down. Then the patient is moved back to earlier rules, like the contrast media flowing back into the bag.Out contrast media content must be at least 700cc.Barium rest will stay in the large intestine and forms a thin layer of the colon. After completion of the process of removing barium, air will begin to be included.Air is pumped into the rectum.Air is pumped until it reaches the descending colon.Scan is made to ensure adequate air entry.After the image of the colon will be taken.There are four required the prone view, decibitus right, left, and view the Hampton decibitus.After the procedure, patients were told that the stools will be white for several days.They will also experience some difficulties during defecation. Patients are advised to drink plenty of empty in kuntiti. For the patient, the patient allowed to return to the ward.For the patient, they are allowed to return home.Patients are also allowed to return to take their normal diet.Complication, the intestine can be blocked if the bowel preparation is not done properly.Patients will feel some pain in the abdomen. Patients also may experience ambiguity for an hour after the examination.


A barium swallow is a medical imaging procedure used to examine the upper GI (gastrointestinal) tract, which includes the esophagus and, to a lesser extent, the stomach. A barium swallow is a test that may be used to determine the cause of painful swallowing, difficulty with swallowing, abdominal pain, bloodstained vomit, or unexplained weight loss. Barium sulfate is a metallic compound that shows up on x-ray and is used to help see more clear in the esophagus and stomach. When taking the test, you drink a preparation containing this solution. The x-rays track its path through your digestive system. These problems can be detected with a barium swallow like narrowing or irritation of the esophagus (the muscular tube between the back of the throat and the stomach),disorders of swallowing,hiatal hernia (an internal defect that causes the stomach to slide partially into the chest),abnormally enlarged veins in the esophagus that cause bleeding,ulcers,tumors and polyps (growths that are usually not cancerous, but could be precancerous).

Among the risks are,a barium swallow is generally a safe test, but like any procedure, there are occasionally complications.The complication is aHYPERLINK ""llergic reaction or anaphylaxis may occur in people who are allergic to the barium drink and cHYPERLINK ""onstipation may develop and you may accidentally get barium in the trachea (windpipe). The medical term for this is aspiration.In examination barium swallow,the advantage is to this procedure gives visualization of the small bowel than that achieved by a barium follow-through because rapid infusion of a large,continuous column of contrast media directly into the jejunum avoids segmentation of the barium column and does not allow time for flocculation to occur.While,the disadvantages is intubation may be unpleasant for the patient and may occasionally prove diffcult and it is more time-consuming for the radiologist and there is a higher radiation dose to the patient.

Patient preparation is a low-residue diet for 2 days prior to the examination.After that,if the patient is taking any antispasmodic drugs,they must be stopped 1day prior to the exanimation.Amethocaine lozenge 30 mg,30 min before the examination. During the Procedure, Patient will drink about 1 1/2 cups of a barium preparation-a chalky drink with the consistency (but not the flavor) of a milk shake and to Children will drink less.The barium can be seen on an x-ray as it passes through the digestive tract and the barium swallow procedure may take about 30 minutes to finish. In certain cases, it may take up to 60 minutes to fill the stomach. You will be strapped securely on your back to a table that tilts forward. X-rays to examine your heart, lungs, and abdomen will be taken before you drink the barium. You will be strapped securely on your back to a table that tilts forward. X-rays to examine your heart, lungs, and abdomen will be taken before you drink the barium. You then will be asked to swallow the barium mixture .As the barium moves down your digestive system, the table will be tilted at various angles to help spread the barium for different views. Pressure may be applied to your abdomen to spread the barium. Finally, you will be placed horizontally, asked to take a few more swallows of barium, and x-ray again.Procedure like the patient sits on the edge x-ray table.The pharynx is thorough anaesthetized with lignocaine spray.If aper nasal approach is planned the patency of the nasal passages is cherked by asking the nasal passage is checked by asking the patient to sniff with one norstril occluded.the silk tube should be passed with the guide-wire after the tube tip is in the stomach.After that,the tube is then passed through the nose or the mouth,and brief lateral screening of the neck may be helpful innegotiating the epigglottic region.The patient is asked to swallow as the tube is passed through the pharynx.The tube is then advanced into the gastric antrum.The patient then lies down and the tube is passed into the duodenum.various manoeuvres may be used alone or in combination,to help this part of the procedure,which may be difficult.

a)lie the patient on the left side so that the gastric air bubble rises to the antrum,thus straightening out the stomach.

b)Advance the tube whilst applying clockwise rotational motion(as viewed from the head of the patient looking towards the feet).

c)In the case of the Bilbao-Dotter tube,introduce the guide-wire.

d)In the case of the Silk tube,lie the patient on the right side,as the tube has a tungsten-weighted guide-tip which will then tend to fall towards the antrum.

e)Get the patient to sit up,to try to overcome the tendency of the tube to coil in the fundus of th stomach.

f)Metoclopramide may help.

After that,when the tip of the tube has been passed through the pylorus,the guide-wire tip is maintained at the pylorus as the tube is passed over it along the duodenum to the level of the ligament of Treitz.Clockwise torque applied to the tube may again helpin getting past the junction of the first and second part of the duodenum.The tube is passed as far the duodenum jejuna flexure to diminish the rish oh aspiration due to reflux of barium into stomach.Barium is then run in quickly,and spot filmsmara taken of the barium column and its leading edge at the regions of interest,until the colon is reched.If methylecellululose is used,it isinfused continuously,after an initial bolus of 500 ml of barium,until the barium has reached the colon.the tube is then withdrawn,aspirating any residual fluid in the stomach.Again,this is to decrease the rish of aspiration.Finally,prone and supine abdominal films are taken.

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