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Ask the experimenters why they experiment on animals and the answer is: Because the animals are like us. Ask the experimenters why it is morally OK to experiment on animals and the answer is: Because the animals are not like us. Animal experimentation rests on a logical contradiction.- Professor Charles R. Magel
Around the world, animals are widely used for the purpose of scientific experimentation since century ago until now. Actually, carrying out scientific research by using animals has an amazingly long story which can be traced back to the ancient Greeks and Romans. According to Zaykoski (2008), Galen, who is a Roman physician in the second century has anatomized goats and pigs which later earned him the title "the father of vivisection". The term vivisection can be defined as performing scientific investigations by operating or dissecting the animals while they are still breathing.
About fifty to one hundred million vertebrate animals are used in experiments each year especially rats and mice. The purpose of these experiments can be classified in three main areas of research which are to gain more valuable knowledge, to develop new products and to test the safety of new products. Not only that, most of the medicines we use in our daily life also have been tested on animals earlier in order to ensure that they are effective. The industry and its people are making money from these animal experiments because animals, which cannot protect themselves against violence, are legally incarcerated and exploited.
Based on Europe statistics, there are approximately 12.1 million animals are being used for animal experiments (About Animal Testing n.d.). Generally, if we view from a large-scale, Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) can be classified as the biggest animal testers in the world which based in Europe (About Animal Testing n.d.). Approximately 75,000 animals have been killed each year by this company (About Animal Testing n.d.). Currently, many questions have been raised by the public regarding the moral values surround animal testing. Thus, in order to serve animals right, a policy has been legalise which requires each procedure in animal experiments to be licensed. This is to ensure that those researches are carried out in a soft-heartedly and ethical manner.
Although several policies have been introduced in order to ensure that animal experiments are carried out in a kindly and moral manner, the public is still looking for an exact answer of this particular question which is should animals be used for scientific research?
If we take a closer look at animal experiment issues, we will see that animal experiments are not the best way in order to carry out scientific research and it should be banned. In fact, animal testing can cause severe deformities to human. Not only that, it is inhumane to kill and harm God's creature especially animals. Besides that, animal experiment undermines animal to suffer from physical pain. These show that animal experiments have brought many drawbacks to God's creatures especially animals and humans.
This report will show concrete evidence of why animal should not be used in scientific research. This research only focuses on animal experiments which have been carried out for scientific research which include for medicine purpose. The findings of this research are confined to the Europe only as it has carried out many animal experiments over the years compared to other countries. Not only that, when we view from a worldwide perspective, one of the biggest animal testers is also located in Europe. Owing to those reasons, this research will only discovers animal experiments that have been conducted around Europe exclusively.
2.0 FIRST MAIN ARGUMENT
2.0 Animal Experiment Caused Severe Deformities to Human
In September 2004, arthritis drug Vioxx has been tested to animal and appeared to be safe and even helpful to the heart in animals. However, it caused about 140,000 people in US to suffer from chronic diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. Not only that, hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) which proven to lower monkey's risk of getting heart disease and stroke, unfortunately it increase women's risks of getting those diseases. Over the past decade in Britain, The Lancet estimated that HRT had caused 20 000 cases of breast cancer (Archibals n.d.).
2.1 The results of animal experiment are not accurate.
Most of the results obtain from animal experiments do not accurately represent their influence on human. The results may be either good in animal but bad in human or bad in animal but good in human. The key point to note this is that different species reacts differently with the given drug or chemical although it is the same chemical used. This can be clearly seen in the use of Arsenic which does not harm when it is applied to sheep but poison for humans. Not only that, although Parsley which is used as a flavour for humans' food, it is considered to be a deadly poison for parrots. According to Archibald (n.d.), many studies have been carried out in order to study the differences between drug side effect in human beings and animals. Those studies found that animal tests to be less predictive that tossing a coin which means it is unpredictable. One of the studies found out that animal tests predicted the human side effects only six out of 114 times (Archibald n.d.). These show that the use of animal in experiment can cause misleading which later can affect humans. Despite to those reasons, is it rational to use animal in experiment with the purpose of testing drugs?
2.2 Human systems are not exactly the same as animal systems.
Furthermore, human systems are not exactly the same as animals systems. Although it might be similar to each other, it is not exactly the same. Many scientists used animals in order to test the effectiveness of drug before it is applied to human. However, there is always a chance that it can cause negative side effect when it is applied to human even though it has been tested. It may not only affect the person who take the drugs, but also the next generations. One of the examples is the used of Thalidomide drugs during pregnancy which caused babies were born with undeveloped limbs although it has been tested in animals. As mentioned by Overell (n.d.), there were thousands of malformed babies born in 1962 due to the intake of Thalidomide during pregnancies. These show that human systems do no function exactly the same as animal systems. Thus, the use of animals in scientific research must be stop before it continues to harm humans.
2.3 Delay in the development of new medicines and therapies.
On the contrary, people who support the use of animals in scientific research claimed that animal testing is important for development of new medicines and other therapies. It is been argued that without animal testing, people who suffer from chronic diseases might not survive in their life for a long period. They claimed that most of the cures for chronic diseases are found through animal experiment (Derbyshire 2004). However, those arguments are brittle. According to Sabin (cited in Archibald n.d.), there was extremely long delayed in proving the polio vaccine due to error in formation of the nature of human disease based on misleading experimental models in monkeys. Same goes for proving Penicilin as the world's first antibiotic. This discovery of Penicilin has been delayed for more than 10 years because of false results from animal experiment which it has been carried out by using rabbits (Archibald n.d.). If those medicines are found earlier, there will be less people died due to chronic diseases. Due to this disadvantage that animal experiment will take a long period to prove its efficiency, it is clear that animal experiments should be banned in the countries.
Therefore, the use of animals in animal experiments is not the best way in order to carry out scientific research. Although it helps in development of new medicines, it can cause negative side effects to human beings. There are many other alternative methods to conduct scientific research without having to use animals. Examples of alternative methods are computer simulation method, cell culture technique and also microfluidic system (Amin n.d.). These alternative methods will provide with more credible results without having to involve animals. Thus, animal testing is not appropriate to be used anymore especially for scientific research. It should be banned and replaced by different methods which provide superior results for a better future.