The Purpose Of Intravenous Theraphy Biology Essay


Intravinous therapy is the giving or entering of substances through the blood vessels in the body. the word intravenous simply means "in the vein." Intravenous therapy is often referred to specific drugs daily at all hospitals.

This inspection is to demonstrate anatomy and evaluate the function of structures that make up the system, such as kidney, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra.

This examination aims to assess the rate of excretion and absorption of these structures. Besides the size, shape and position of soft tissue around the kidney will be shown. This check can also identify any pathology or disorder of the system through a series of radiographs taken.

This is usually spoken of as a drop of water because a lot of hospitality systems using drip chamber, which prevents air in the blood stream (embolism conditioning) and allows to limit the estimated flow velocity in each droplet.

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Intravenous therapy can be used to recover the balance of electrolytes, to provide continuous medication for blood transfusion or as a substitute for the lack of fluid tenagamisalnya dehydration.

Compared with other vascular route, intravenous route is the quickest way and quick to give fluids and medications throughout the body so that these drugs can act quickly. Some liquid medications, blood transfusions and injections, can only be given intravenously because it can act quickly.

In most cases, infusion into peripheral veins, usually located in the peripheral vessels (the most commonly used):

a) hand

b) distance

c) etc.

More modern medical system IV using a small catheter that direction or a sharp reply to the front of the eye jerum facilitate penetration of blood vessels.

The needle penetrates the skin, the catheter is placed under the skin, and the direction of pull. Once the catheter is placed in blood vessels, the patient is given an injection syringe or connect to intravenous fluids or medications are given from time to time to see the quantity of a drug.

Emergency situations or circumstances may preclude the use of peripheral blood vessels. In this case, the patient may receive intravenous therapy through the center of the central or easily dealt with major blood vessels. As the veins are relatively small in the distance, the diameter is usually inserted into a large vein near the heart, or to the right side of the heart.

While this provides with caution with IV drug almost immediately, there is a risk when making this precedure not careful, including internal bleeding. A central line can also be used if the number of formula IV is used at a time.

Exercise caution is needed to ensure that the insertion of intravenous therapy and safety monitoring in patients and did not suffer internal bleeding sebanarang. For those undergoing IV treatment that lasts for several days, treatment should be done to ensure that the blood vessels are not used too often.

 Vena subject to infection and irritation from prolonged use of intravenous theraphy(IV), and many therapists will usually change the intravenous theraphy(IV) injection site every day or two to avoid damage to blood vessels. Precision in inculcating the injection of blood vessels should also be done with caution, missing veins and arteries can lead to hitting a serious medical complications.

Central Intarvenous Theraphy(IV) Lines

Central IV lines flow through the catheter with the tip of the large blood vessel, usually used in part:

a) superior vena cava

b) inferior vena cava

c) the right atrium of heart

This has the potential reaction of the reaction to act quickly than peripheral IV.

Hereby give fluids and medications that would alienate the peripheral blood vessel walls due to the concentration or type of chemicals. These include some chemotherapy drugs and total parenteral nutrition.

Liquid medication through the heart will continue to act quickly distributed throughout the body without obstruction to blood vessels. These drugs speed up the reaction of the body.

There is room for plot line (lumen) in the catheter to the calculation, so that some drugs can be delivered at once even though these medicines will not separate incompatible chemicals in a single tube.

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measure central venous pressure and other physiological variables over the phone.

Central IV line will also carry the potential risk of internal bleeding:

a) infection

b) gangrene

c) tromboemboli

d) gas embolism

They often find it difficult to properly insert a catheter because the veins are usually not palpable, and rely on an experienced doctor who knows the appropriate landmark and using an ultrasound probe to search for safer venous and enter the vein to insert withdrawal or medicines in the body.

Surrounding structures, such as the pleura and the carotid artery is at risk of potential damage or pneumothorax kanulasi it from the artery.

There are several types of central IVs, depending on the route of the catheter is taking place outside the body to blood vessels.

In this case there are several types of catheters are taking a more direct route into central veins. These are collectively called central venous centers.

In a simple type of central venous access, a catheter was inserted into blood vessels:

a) subclavian

b) the internal jugular

c) femoral

Advanced toward the heart until it reaches the superior vena cava or right atrium.

This is because all the blood vessels larger than peripheral veins have greater blood flow through the catheter tip. This means that medicines of this irritant is diluted with a little faster reaction ekstravasasi.

This procedure is believed that the liquid can be promoted more quickly respond via central venous catheters, but as is often divided into a number of lumens, the diameter is reduced from large to undermine the peripheral cannula.

Procedure Intravenous Theraphy (IV)

During examination

At the time of the test, patients lie down you need to lie down on the bed. Radiologist will place a small needle on the arm or hand vein.

After examination

Check the surrounding environment and dressing areas to ensure that no impurities other than the sterile packaging. Open the sterile package is attached to the skin and take the equipment needed to minimize the risk of infection at the appropriate

Ready to provide medicines and flushes as a substitute package of sterile to avoid infection by using anaseptic and ensure that treatment is prepared correctly and accurately.

Take a new gauze tok melkatkan at the newly opened area just to prevent infection of the wound.

Ensure that patients in stable condition

Patients changing the original

For out-patient treatment unit back to the daily

For patients in the back to the ward.

Types of IV Fluids

Three main types of IVF:

Isotonic fluids

Hypotonic fluids

Hypertonic Fluids

Isotonic Fluids

Osmolarity is similar to that of serum.

These fluids remain intravascularly mommentarily, thus expanding the volume.

Helpful with patients who are hypotensive or hypovolemic.

Risk of fluid overloading exists. Therefore, be careful in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, history of CHF or hypertension.

Avoid volume hyperexpansion in patients with intracranial pathology or space occupying lesions

Hypotonic Fluids

Less osmolarity than serum (meaning: in general less sodium ion concentration than serum)

These fluids DILUTE serum thus decreasing osmolarity.

Water moves from the vascular compartment into the interstitial fluid compartment à interstitial fluid becomes diluted àosmolarity descreases à water is drawn into adjacent cells.

These are helpful when cells are dehydrated from conditions or treatments such as dialysis or diuretics or patients with DKA (high serum glucose causes fluid to move out of the cells into the vascular and interstitial compartments).

Caution with use because sudden fluid shifts from the intravascular space to cells can cause cardiovascular collapse and increased ICP in certain patients

Hypertonic Fluids

These have a higher osmolarity than serum.

These fluids pull fluid and sometimes electrolytes from the intracellular/interstitial compartments into the intravascular compartments.

Useful for stabilizing blood pressure, increasing urine output, correcting hypotonic hyponatremia and decreasing edema.

These can be dangerous in the setting of cell dehydration.

Indication Of IV theraphy

Establish or maintain a fluid or electrolyte balance

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Administer continuous or intermittent medication

Administer bolus medication

Administer fluid to keep vein open (KVO) (Old Skool!)

Administer blood or blood components

Administer intravenous anesthetics

Maintain or correct a patient's nutritional state

Administer diagnostic reagents

Monitor hemodynamic functions


+ Dehydration



+ Blood Loss



Venous Access to Circulation

+ Blood collection


Field Chemistry

+ Medication Administration

Risk Intravenous theraphy(IV)


Each layer under the skin carries the risk of infection. Although the inventory and how to care when doing IV insertion procedure is aseptic procedures of the skin-living organisms:

a) Staphylococcus coagulase-negative

b) Candida albicans

Bacteria can enter through the skin from around the catheter insertion, or the possibility of bacteria accidentally secare resulting in the catheter from contaminated equipment.

The slowdown in revenue going lapiasan kelaman IV insertion is not covered, such as washing or bathing with a net increase risk of infection.

IV infection is usually easily visible environment, which leads to visible swelling, redness, and fever. If the bacteria do not remain in the wound area only, but spread through the bloodstream, the disease is called septicemia, and can move quickly to follow the flow of blood and life-threatening.

In the infected central IV cause a higher risk of septicemia, as it may give the bacteria directly into the central circulation, including the entire body.


Flebitis is the reaction of blood vessels that are not caused by an infection, but it is the mere presence of foreign bodies in beberape IV catheters,

fluids or drugs given to patients.

Symptoms experienced by patients:

a) Swelling

b) Pain

c) redness around the vein

This does not mean anti-IV should be removed right or eliminated, but the warmth, the elevation of the affected limb, or a change in the patient's body can control the flow of these symptoms resolve symptoms

Excess fluid

This item usually occur when fluids or medicines given to patients given the higher level or in greater volume than the normal standard system can absorb or emit. This possibility would lead to patients at risk include :

a) Hypertension

b) Heart Failure

c) pulmonary edema

Electrolyte imbalance

Chemical production of too-liquid or solution is too thick can interfere with the internal system of patients balance of sodium, potassium and other electrolytes.

Patients in which the hospital often receive blood tests to monitor the balance in the body when taken this procedure.

Equipment Intravinous Vein (IV)

Standart equipment


gloves and apron

Luer lock syringes 10mls.

Sterile gloves

Needles 23G for mixing drugs

Prescription Chart Labels Patients

prescribed medication

Sharps Bin

Sterile Dressing pack

Flushing solution

Alcohol Impregnated Swab

Needle free Device


Other equipment

The standard infusion set consists of container, was charged with a solution (glass bottles, plastic bottles or plastic bags) of liquid with an attachment that allows fluid to flow reduction at the time, so it is easy to see that the rate of flow (and also reducing air bubbles), long tube sterile with clips to fix or stop the flow of connectors to access devices and connectors to allow "free roads" another infusion on the same line, for example, adding a dose of antibiotics for continuous fluid drip.

Infusion pump allows precise control of flow and the amount delivered, but in cases where the flow rate change will have serious consequences, or if there are no pumps, drops are often left to flow simply by placing the bag in the clamp of patients and use to improve the assessment, it is IV severity.

Welding can be used quickly if a patient requires a high level flow and devices IV access with a diameter large enough to accommodate it. This is one of the inflatable cuff placed around the fluid bag to force the fluid into a patient, or similar electrical equipment that may be too hot to the infused fluid.