The Process Of Cell Division That Prokaryotes Use Biology Essay


Eukaryotic cells contain DNA in a nuclear membrane. The double helix of DNA is bound to a protein called histone. Histones possess positively charged amino acids for the purpose of binding with the negatively charged DNA. DNA wraps around the histone core of eight protein subunits; this forms something called the nucleosome. The nucleosome consists of tightly bound histone H1. There are about two hundred DNA base pairs of DNA coiling around a single histone. For every nucleosome, this coil twists the other way for the purpose of generating one negative super turn. This is called active chromatin. It can be translated or transcribed for the purpose of producing RNA or proteins.

Karyotype is the overall number and the state appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell belonging to an organism or species.

The five phases of the cell cycle are…

G1 = cell growth and preparation for chromosome duplication

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S = the genetic material is replicated

G2 = period of continual and rapid growth in preparation for mitosis

M = this is the portion of cell cycle in which cell division occurs; mitosis

C = cytoplasmic division of the cell into two daughter cells

Mitosis is process used by a eukaryotic cell for separating its chromosomes within its nucleus into two sets that are identical into two separate nuclei. It often varies from species to species.

Prophase = Within the nucleus, chromosomes begin to condense and render themselves visible; spindles begin to form in the cytoplasm

Metaphase = the replicated chromosomes align themselves in a line at the center of the cell in the middle of the spindle, the nuclear membrane breaks apart, the spindles reach the chromosomes

Anaphase = Chromosomes split into two identical groups situate themselves at opposite ends of the spindle

Telophase = A nuclear membrane begins to form around each of the two chromosome sets, the chromosomes begin to spread out, and the spindles start to break down.

In the cytokinesis of animals, there is a constriction belt of actin filaments; thus the diameter of the belt decreases. This in turn "pinches" the cell and forms something called the "cleavage furrow" around the circumference of the cell; this continues decreasing until finally the cell is divided into two halves.

In the cytokinesis of plants, the cell walls are too hard for a simple constricting belt of actin filament to form a cleavage furrow and divide it into two. In plant cells, the membrane parts are assembled to the interior to bring about an expanding membrane partition; this is known as a cell plate. It continues to develop outward to the point to which it reaches the plasma membrane's interior surface and fuses to it; thus it successfully divides the cell in two. The cellulose contributes to forming new cell walls over the membranes. The area between the two new cells is then filled by pectins and is thus known as middle lamella.

In the cytokinesis in the majority of fungi and some protists, there is no dissolving of the nuclear membrane; thus all mitosis events happen in the nucleus. After the mitosis is done, the nucleus breaks into two daughter nuclei. After that, during cytokinesis, one nucleus is given to teach daughter cell. This particular stage of nuclear division doesn't happen in animals, plants, or even most protists.

The cell has a few strategies involved in regulating cell cycle.

It uses three primary checkpoints throughout the cycle to evaluate the cell's internal status quo and to integrate signals from outside. There is the G1/S checkpoint; this is the main point at which cell chooses to divide. It's the main point at which external signals can impact cell cycle events. It's the point at which growth factors affect the cell cycle and also the point that ties cell division to cell growth and nurture. There is also the G2/M checkpoint that has received substantial attention due to its complexity and significance in triggering mitosis. M phase-promoting factors (MPFs) are Cyclin-dependent kinases that are active at this checkpoint. Passing through this checkpoint signifies its commitment to mitosis; it evaluates the DNA replication success and can also halt the cycle if DNA hasn't been correctly replicated.

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There is also the spindle checkpoint; it makes sure that all chromosomes are attached to the spindle in order to be ready for anaphase. It's extremely critical because the separation of chromosomes is an important and irreversible step in the cycle.

Cyclin-dependent kinases perform phosphorylation which is a primary molecular mechanism of the cell cycle. Cyclin-dependent kinases activate several cell proteins by phosphorylating them. On the other hand, cyclins are regulatory proteins that are needed to activate the Cyclin-dependent Kinases. Cdc2 can partner with several different cyclins during different stages in the cycle in yeasts. The M Phase-specific cycli-0ns is critical for MPF function. Cdc2's inhibitory phosphorylation controls MPF function. Multiple cyclin-dependent kinases control the cycle in complex animals, as opposed to only one cyclin-dependent kinase in single-celled yeasts. In higher eukaryotes, there exist more cyclin-dependent kinase enzymes, and more cyclins that are able to pair with these several cyclin-dependent kinases. Complexity allows for further integration of input into the control of the cell cycle.

Growth factors behave by instigating intracellular signal systems. The platelet-derived growth factor is a "receptor tyrosine kinase"; it instigates a MAP kinase cascade for the purpose of stimulating cell division. Growth factors like Platelet derived growth factor are able to override cellular controls that hinder cell division. Whenever a particular tissue injured a blood clot is formed; the release of platelet derived growth factor instigates adjacent cells to divide and contribute to healing the injury. Only about 10-10 M of platelet derived growth factor is necessary for stimulation of cell division in PDGF receptor containing cells. Growth factor receptors often trigger MAP kinase cascades where the last kinase goes into the nucleus and triggers transcription factors by phosphorylation. Such transcription factors bring about the production of G1 cyclins as well as other critical proteins for the progression of the cell cycle. The cellular choice of a particular growth factor over another relies on whichever target cells have its unique receptor. Some growth factors (such as platelet derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor) impact a vast range of cell types. Other growth factors impact only particular types of cells.