The Perfect Peanut Butter And Strawberry Jam Sandwich Biology Essay


First, wash and dry your hands. Then take two slices of your pre-baked, pre-sliced bread from the bread container. Lay slices side by side on a clean plate. Take your jar of peanut butter, open the jar and with a table knife spread a liberal amount, about 2 table spoons, of peanut butter on each slice of bread that is lying on the plate. Then open your jar of strawberry jam and using a small spoon, spoon a generous dollop, about 1 table spoon, of jam on top of the slices of bread previously spread with peanut butter. Spread out the jam on top of the peanut butter. Then place one slice of peanut butter and jam covered bread peanut butter and jam side down on top of the other prepared slice of bread. Press lightly so that both pieces adhere to each other. Take a clean knife and slice the sandwich diagonally. Give one half of the sandwich to Professor Haack and you may consume the other half of the sandwich. Clean up you mess when finished. Enjoy!

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Now for a little background information on our sandwich that we made:


First you prepare to plant the wheat seed by selecting the perfect area for the wheat to grow. If the field has been previously used for farming purposes, smooth the soil with a rake or hoe. Dig long trenches using a shovel or rent a commercial wheat drill attached to a tractor to plow the field and dig long narrow furrows.

Use a moderate quantity of a natural manure such as waste from a turkey farm to fertilize the soil and ensure proper growth of the wheat stalks. After purchasing your wheat seed from the local Farm Cooperative, such as Jamestown Agri. Service, then throw wheat seeds in the furrows using a semi-circular movement of your wrist or attach a grain drill to a tractor to plant the seeds. For a dry area, sprinkle a small quantity of seeds. A heavily cultivated wheat uses up the water in the ground more quickly.

Water the field two to three times during a dry summer season. Winter wheat crops require water only when the seeds are planted. Wheat grows best in a dry climate; however, check the soil moisture of the winter crop at the start of spring and water if the wheat stems look parched and unusually dry. Consider irrigating the cultivated land by using commercial sprayers on wheels.

Apply a light, government approved, insecticide/pesticide spray to the harvested field if you spot any infestation on the crop. Discuss appropriate products with an agricultural expert and read the manufacturer's instructions carefully before administering any spray.

Monitor the wheat field regularly. Use a scythe to cut the wheat kernels once the wheat stems turn yellow and the kernels are fully dried up. Or use a "combine" machine to cut off the crop in a neat quick manner. The kernels are then hauled to a mill where it is produced into a product known as flour.

Flour is a powder which is made by grinding cereal grains, other seeds or roots (like Cassava). It is the main ingredient of bread. Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels. Today, "stone-ground" usually means that the grain has been ground in a mill in which a revolving stone wheel turns over a stationary stone wheel, vertically or horizontally with the grain in between. Many small appliance mills are available, both hand-cranked and electric. The mill stones frequently rub against each other resulting in small stone particles chipping off and getting into flour, but they are removed before the flour is sold. Flour is stored in large cloth sacks.

Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides. The kinds of flour used in cooking include all-purpose flour, self-rising flour, and cake flour including bleached flour. The higher the protein content the harder and stronger the flour and will produce crusty or chewy breads. The lower the protein the softer the flour for better cakes, cookies, and pie crusts.

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Many flours packaged specifically for commercial bakeries are still bromated. Retail bleached flours marketed to the home baker are now mostly either treated via peroxidation or chlorine gas. Current information from Pillsbury is that their bleached flours are treated both with benzoyl peroxide and chlorine gas. Gold Medal states that their bleached flour is either treated with benzoyl peroxide OR it's treated with chlorine gas, but there is no way to tell which process has been used when you buy the flour at the grocery store.

Plain flour does not have a leavening agent is called plain or all-purpose flour. It is appropriate for most bread and pizza bases. Some cookies are also prepared using this type of flour. Bread flour is high in gluten protein, with 12.5-14% protein compared to 10-12% protein in all-purpose flour. The increased protein binds to the flour to entrap carbon dioxide released by the yeast fermentation process, resulting in a stronger rise.

To make bread you combine 1/4 cup water with 1/4 cup sugar, and stir until dissolved in a cup or small bowl. Add in 1 package of dry yeast. This will "proof" the yeast. Proofing ensures that the yeast is alive. The yeast should begin to bubble and grow in the sugar water.

Mix together 1 cup milk, 1/2 stick butter and 1 cup sugar in a saucepan. Heat over low heat until the butter is melted.

Place 2 cups of wheat flour into a large bowl. Add the yeast mixture, and stir with a wooden spoon until the yeast is distributed throughout the flour.

Add in the milk mixture, and stir until smooth. Begin adding flour, 1 cup at a time, and stir until a dough ball forms in the bowl.

Spread a layer of flour on your work surface. Turn the dough ball onto the floured surface. Add flour to the top of dough ball.

Knead the dough by pushing the dough ball with the palms of your hands away from you. Turn the ball and repeat. Add flour as necessary to keep the ball from sticking to your hands or the work surface.

Continue to knead the dough until the surface of the dough ball is smooth to the touch and no longer sticky.

Place 1/8 cup oil in the bottom of a large bowl. Place the dough ball in the bowl, and cover its entire surface with oil.

Cover the bowl loosely with plastic wrap, and set the bowl in a warm area of your kitchen. Allow the dough to rise until it doubles in size. This will take between 30 minutes and 1 hour depending on temperature, humidity and other weather conditions.

Press the palm of your hand into the center of the risen dough to deflate the ball.

Divide and shape the dough into two loaves on your floured work surface.

Grease two loaf pans with oil. Place the loaves in the pans, and allow them to rise until they double in size a second time.

Bake the loaves in a preheated 350-degree oven for 45 to 50 minutes or until golden brown. Allow to cool and then slice as needed.

Peanut Butter

The peanut is a warm-weather perennial vegetable that requires 120 to 130 frost-free days to reach harvest. Sow peanuts in the garden 3 to 4 weeks after the average last frost date in spring, when the soil has warmed to at least 65°F. To get a head start on the season start peanuts indoor 5 to 8 weeks before transplanting seedlings outdoors.

The peanut is a tender perennial usually grown as an annual, a member of the legume family. The peanut plant grows from 6 to 30 inches tall, depending on the type; some are upright and erect in habit, and others are more spreading. Plants form two sets of opposite leaves on each stem and yellow, sweet-pea-like, self-pollinating flowers. The flowers occur on elongated, pea-like stems just above the soil and after pollination they dip and push into the ground 1 to 3 inches to develop underground seed ends called pegs or peduncles; these are the seed pods we call peanuts.

The Spanish type of peanut has small, roundish seeds covered with a reddish-brown skin, growing on a low bush. Spanish types are ready for harvest 120 days from planting. The Spanish type peanut has high oil content and is used to for oil, peanut butter, and snacks. Spanish type peanuts are commonly grown in Oklahoma, Texas, and South Africa.

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Plant peanuts in full sun. Peanuts grow best in loose, well-drained soil rich in organic matter. A sandy-loamy soil is best. Double-dig clay soil and add gypsum and aged compost. The soil must be loose so that the pegs can penetrate and grow. Peanuts prefer a soil pH of 5.8 to 6.2.

Peanuts require at least 120 frost-free days to reach harvest. Sow peanuts in the garden 3 to 4 weeks after the average last frost date in spring, when the soil has warmed to at least 65°F. To get a head start on the season start peanuts indoor 5 to 8 weeks before transplanting seedlings outdoors. Peanuts require nearly all of the growing days to have an air temperature greater than 85°F.

Sow peanuts in the whole shell or in the papery skin surrounding the seed. Sow seed 1½ to 3 inches deep; set seed 6 to 8 inches apart; thin successful plants or set transplants 18 inches apart. Plant peanuts in double rows to save space, staggering the seeds 18 inches apart. Single rows can be spaced 12 to 24 inches apart. When the plants are 12 inches tall, mound earth up around the base of the plant so that faded flowers can set pegs down into the hill. For a head start on the season, start peanuts indoors in individual biodegradable peat or paper pots which can be set whole into the garden.

Peanuts prefer regular, even watering. Keep the soil moist until the plants begin to flower, then water less. Once plants are established, allow the soil to dry between watering. Empty pods, sometimes called "blind" pods, are the result of too much rain or humidity at flowering time. Prepare planting beds with aged compost; peanuts, like other legumes, supply their own nitrogen.

Mulch around peanuts to keep the soil surface from crusting and becoming hard; this will allow pegs to penetrate the soil. Keep the planting beds weed free and cultivate lightly to keep the soil loose. Mulching around peanuts will make harvesting easier.

Peanuts will be ready for harvest when the leaves turn yellow and begin to wither, usually 120 to 150 days after planting. Lift pods with a garden fork, pulling up the whole plant. Shake away loose soil and hang the whole plant to dry for about two weeks in a warm, dry place. Seeds can be removed when the hulls are completely dry.

Peanut butter manufacturers receive the fresh peanuts and begin the process of turning them into peanut butter. The peanuts are first placed into a hot air roaster which raises them to a temperature of 240 degrees Celsius. The oven rocks back and forth to make sure the peanuts roast at an even pace, turning them from white to a light brown color.

After roasting, the peanuts are cooled at room temperature, but at a fast paste. Suction fans are used to pull the warm air out of the room. The quick cooling process keeps the peanuts from continuing to cook and helps to ensure that the natural oils will remain in the peanut.

Once roasted and cooled the peanuts are placed in a blancher machine. The blancher machine removes the outer skins by lightly rubbing the peanuts between two belts. The two kernels of each nut are then split and the heart in the middle is removed. The heart of the nut is not used in peanut butter because it is too bitter.

No waste is created in the process of blanching and shelling the peanut. The skins are passed on to farmers who in turn include the excess in pig feed. The hearts are given or sold to manufacturers of bird food!

The roasted and split peanuts quickly find themselves in a large stainless steel container. From there, the nuts are dropped into a grinder where they are ground into a paste at a reasonable pace. Care is taken to not grind the peanuts too quickly as doing so would produce heat and allow the peanuts to begin cooking again.

Additional ingredients are added to the ground peanuts in order to create the peanut butter we all know and love. They include salt, sugar, and hydrogenated vegetable oil. The hydrogenated vegetable oil is considered a stabilizer as it keeps the natural peanut oil from separating from the peanut butter and rising to the top of the jar. No artificial ingredients or preservatives are ever added to peanut butter. Oddly enough, peanut butter is one of few foods that will never need refrigeration.

Mixing the peanut butter paste heats it to approximately 60 degrees Celsius. Before jarring, the paste is cooled back down to 38 degrees. Once the machines fill the jars with peanut butter paste they are moved to the capping machine. The caps themselves are pre-prepared with aluminum seals inside. The caps are placed on the jars, which are then heated. The heating process causes the aluminum to fall to the top of the jar, where it forms a tight seal. Another machine will then print the production and expiration dates on the jar. Unopened containers of peanut butter will stay fresh for up to a year.

Peanut butter is known as a healthy food. The tasty paste is packed with vitamins, protein, and minerals. While peanut butter does contain fat, it is NOT a source of cholesterol. A large percentage of the fat found in peanut butter (80%) is unsaturated or good fat. The other 20% of fat is trans-fat, or bad fat, and comes from the oil used as a stabilizer in the mixing process. It's possible to avoid the trans-fat by purchasing natural peanut butter, processed without the hydrogenated vegetable oil. The peanut oil will separate and float to the top of the jar, but mixing the oil back into the peanut butter will quickly solve that problem.

The production of peanut butter enjoys a notably high standard of quality. The law states that peanuts must make up at least 90% of the final peanut butter product. The law also mandates that no artificial sweeteners, colors or preservatives are to be included. While other "peanut butter spreads" exist in today's market, all pale in comparison to a jar of all natural peanut butter!

Strawberry Jam

There are basically three types of strawberry plants. June bearing strawberries are the most popular. They produce large strawberries and June bearing plants bear fruit all at once between a two-and-three week time period in the spring. Ever bearing plants do not produce fruit all season as the name suggests. They produce a crop in the spring and another in the fall. Day-neutral strawberries are the third type of plant. They produce well during the cooler weather. When the summer heat comes, the day-neutral plants stop flowering and bearing fruit. If the weather stays on the cool side, or the plants are protected from the heat, day-neutral strawberries can bear fruit from spring until fall.

Early spring is the best time to plant strawberries. Cover the roots with soil, leaving the crown of the plant at the soils surface. During the first season, remove all blossoms from June bearing plants. This will make your strawberry harvests larger and the plants will send out more runners in subsequent seasons. Remove the blossoms from ever bearing and day-neutral plants for the first six weeks after planting. After six weeks, the fruit can be allowed to develop.

Prepare soil with a basic fertilizer mix before planting strawberries. A second application of fertilizer can be applied in the second season after renovation (taking steps to ensure high yielding plants for the following year). Mulch plants with a layer of stray or pine needles to prepare for the winter season. Remove mulch in early spring, but be sure to cover plants if a spring frost is predicted. You can use old blankets to protect your plants

Strawberries that are picked when three-fourths red will develop full color and flavor in one to two days at 70°F. Berries that are only half-red will seldom have the flavor, texture, or size of berries that are more mature when picked.

The best time to pick the fruit is early in the morning when the berries are still cool. The fruit should be picked with the stem attached. This is accomplished by grasping the stem between the thumb and forefinger and pinching it off. Pulling and snapping, but leaving the cap on, is all right if the fruit is to be used immediately.

It is best to use or process the berries soon after picking, because fruit that is stored for several days will lose some of its fresh, bright color. It will also shrivel and generally deteriorate in quality. For best storage, keep strawberries at a temperature below 40°F and at a relative humidity of 85 to 90 percent.

Wash and hull strawberries; mash in a large bowl, one layer at a time. Combine strawberries and lemon juice in a large saucepan. Gradually stir in pectin, bringing mixture to a rolling boil. Add sugar, stirring to dissolve. Return mixture to a full boil, stirring constantly for one minute. Remove from heat. Skim foam from mixture, if necessary. Ladle into sterilized jars. Wipe rims of jars before sealing. Process in hot water bath for 10 minutes. Remove and let cool for 12 to 24 hours. This allows settling time. Jam can be eaten when cooled and thickened, and will last up to one year if stored in a cool place.

Recipes courtesy of Kelsey's Paula Deen Cookbook