The nucleus contains the cellular genes in the form of chromatin, which is a type of complex mixture made up of proteins and DNA. Chromatin forms chromosomes during a process known as mitosis. In every nucleus there is what is called a nucleous which serves the function of producing ribosomes.
The mitochondria, which is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. The mitochondria cells are also known as the "powerhouse" cells. The mitochondria cell is what helps to transform the food we consume into fuel or energy for the cells and our bodies. Chloroplasts, which are used by plants exclusively to aid in photosynthesis. Endoplasmic reticulum, which is a system of membranes that are used in a variety of processes such as fat metabolism, steroid synthesis and protein synthesis and transport.
The whole thing about cells is related in makeup but they all have different individual functions. Each cell has a cell membrane to keep each cell separated from the environment and also from each other. Cell walls and chloroplasts are exclusive to plant cells. For a plant to have its shape and integrity their cells have what is called a cell wall, which is a very rigid structure. Photosynthesis to change carbon dioxide, water and sunlight into sugar is carried out by chloroplasts. Organelles are the individual structures that are contained inside of a cell and are classified as two types-prokaryotic and eukaryotic. What makes eukaryotic cells different from others is that they have nuclei. Chromatin, which is the genetic material for the cell is contained in the one nucleus of each eukaryotic cell.
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The perfect cells differ in quantities, usually measuring between 1-10 mm in diameter, which is considered small. Fission is the process by which cells reproduce without sex so that each offspring will contain identical genetic information to that of its single parent. There are sugar molecules that are linked together in a complex way to form a cell wall known as complex polysaccharides for the prokaryotic cell to be enclosed in. The prokaryotic cell is protected and supported by the polysaccharide wall. The long, circular molecule that is not associated with proteins inside the prokaryotic cell is DNA.
The nucleus of the eukaryotic cells contains chromatin made from cellular genes. Chromatin is made up of proteins and DNA, which during mitosis, forms chromosomes. The "brain" of the cell is the nucleus, which contains the genetic information of the cell. Ribosomes are produced by a nucleolus which is inside of the nucleus. There is no membrane around the nucleolus. RNA and protein make up ribosomes who then by synthesize polypeptides from amino acid subunits. There are nuclear pores upon the nucleus which is bound for the membrane. The purpose of these nuclear pores on the surface of the nucleus is to control the flow inward and outward of material.
The mitochondria cells have their own DNA as a result of a symbiotic relationship that existed a long time ago between a primitive prokaryotic organism and a primitive eukaryotic cell host. It transforms the food we consume into fuel and energy. When two organisms help each other to survive it is known as a symbiotic relationship. The host cell was "invaded" by the pre mitochondrion and provided it with efficient energy production while the host cell itself provided the mitochondrion cell with food. The original prokaryotic organism lost much of its DNA due to the arrangement becoming permanent. What is considered the "leftover" result of the arrangement is the mitochondrion, which contains ribosomes, which are very similar to prokaryotic ribosomes and are different from other ribosomes contained in the cell.
Like mitochondria, chloroplasts are thought to be the result of an endosymbiotic relationship. When chloroplasts begin to use the products encoded in its own DNA as well as those encoded in the nuclear DNA hat is when photosynthesis occurs. The ribosomes within chloroplast, like mitochondrial ribosomes, look like prokaryotic ribosomes.
A system of membranes within a cell which are involved in a variety of processes such as fat metabolism, steroid synthesis, and protein synthesis and transport is known as endoplasmic reticulum. The apparatus that is a part of the membrane system inside the cell and works closely with the endoplasmic reticulum is called the Golgi apparatus is which modifies the proteins and then brings then to the surface of the cell so that they may be secreted. Hormones, enzymes, antibodies, and other molecules are what are then being secreted after the Golgi apparatus brings them to the cell's surface. The digestion of molecules is aided by a membrane bound vesicle with an acidic interior that contains digestive enzymes known as a lysosome. Amino acids, sugars, and their bases, which help to create the foundation of the very macromolecules they digest, are also made by lysosomes.
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The most important element of animal cells is the cell membrane being that it protects the organelle and keeps the unwanted particles from coming into the cell's body. The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer that contains floating proteins. The inside and outside of the cell and the membrane are spanned and touched by the proteins. The proteins outside the cell, which are made up of blood group proteins, antibodies, and HLA antigens, serve the purpose of interacting with the molecules outside of the cell, which includes the abilities of serving as protein receptors for hormones, binding to cells to help heal wounds and in the immune response, and to move molecules in and out of the cell. There is an electrical gradient across the membrane which provides a force that is used to help move material in and out of the membrane. The membrane is very thin and is only 100 mV across, which is equal to about 10,000 volts per centimeter. The nerve and muscle cells carry electrical impulses along the cell through the cell membrane. So, by pumping ions in and out of cells across a cell membrane an organism such as an electric eel could generate enough voltage to kill a human being!