The nutritional status of fish feed and ingredients used in south-west region of Bangladesh.

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Nutritional status of fish feed and ingredients used in south-west region of Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, the world has witnessed spectacular growth in the aquaculture industries of many developing countries. It is unequivocally agreed that global aquaculture production will continue to increase, and much of this will occur in the developing countries of Asia and Africa, through the expansion of semi-intensive, small-scale pond aquaculture. Nutrition and feeding play a central and essential role in the sustained development of aquaculture and, therefore, fertilizers and feed resources continue to dominate aquaculture needs. This paper reviews a number of specific issues in the fields of aquatic animal nutrition and feeding which are critical for sustainable aquaculture production in both industrialized and developing countries, e.g.: nutrient requirements of fish and their supply under practical farming conditions, availability and supply of feed resources and their implication on development of aquafeeds, forecasting of demand and supply of marine resources, and maintenance of environmental quality and sustainability of aquaculture systems. While discussing the nutrient requirement of fish under farming conditions, the possibility of accessing existing databases on nutrient requirements is examined, along with their application for establishing general nutritional principles. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the contribution of naturally available food in semi-intensive aquaculture and its role on the development of on-farm feed management strategy. Other issues such as nutritional effects on immunocompetence and disease resistance of fish, understanding of broodstock and larval nutrition, role of nutrition on fish quality, and development of regional nutritional databases for aquaculture development are also discussed. Recommendations for improvement of nutrition and feeding protocols in support of sustainable aquaculture development in the third millennium are also made.

KEY WORDS: Aquaculture, Feeding, Aquafeeds, Nutrition.

Introduction

Over the last decade, spectacular growth has taken place in aquaculture. Most production in Bangladesh is realized from pond-based or open-water extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive practices using polyculture farming technologies.

It is unequivocally agreed that global as well as Bangladesh aquaculture production will continue to increase, and much of the increased production can be achieved through the expansion of semi-intensive, small-scale pond aquaculture. Nutrition and feeding will play an essential role in the sustained development of this aquaculture. Therefore, it is imperative that fertilizers and feed resources continue to be produced and refined. Sustained development of aquaculture, however, must take into account and ensure that the needs of competing users are met, and that environmental integrity is protected.

The importance of aquaculture feed is increasing with the intensification of fish culture. Fish production fully depends on quality feed. Traditionally extensive and semi-intensive fish farmer use different types of industrial feeds and supplementary feeds. Use of fish feeds extensively used depends on its low cost, nutritional quality and easy availability. The nutritive value fish feeds vary in different branded feeds. But the farmers do not know the actual nutritive value and its variation in different branded feeds. So it is necessary to investigate the actual nutritive value of fish feeds, ingredients and its variation among different branded feed. In any successful aquaculture the biggest cost of growing fish/shrimp. At present different types of drugs and chemicals used with feed. Growth performance is deeply related with nutritional composition of used feeds. For this reason nutritional composition of collected feed were determined and analyzed.

This paper will review a number of specific issues in the fields of aquatic animal nutrition and feeding that are critical for sustainable aquaculture production in Bangladesh.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Feed samples collection

Samples were collected from retail market, shrimp farms and feed industries (Table 1.1.1&1.1.2) and transported to the Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh and preserved in refrigerator. About 50gm samples of the collected samples are supplied to Fish Nutrition Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh agricultural University, Mymensingh for chemical composition analysis at BAU, Mymensingh (Plate 1.2.1).

DSC01676

Methods for Proximate Composition analysis

The samples were taken out from the refrigerator and kept in room temperature for one hour. The proximate compositions were analyzed in duplicate according to standard procedure given in Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 2000). Briefly, the methods are described below.

Moisture

Moisture content determined by placing an accurately weighed amount (about 2 g) ground sample in a pre-weighed porcelain crucible in a thermostat oven (Gallenkamp, HOTBOX, Model OVB-306) at 105°C for about 24 hours until a constant weight was obtained. The loss of weight was calculated as percent moisture content.

Moisture (%) = ------------------------------------------------------------------- × 100

Ash

Accurately weighed samples (about 1 g) were taken in porcelain crucibles and placed in a muffle furnace at 550°C for 12 hours. The crucibles were than taken out cooled in desiccators and weighed. The average percentage of each sample of the remaining material was taken as ash.

Moisture (%) = --------------------------- × 100

Crude protein

Crude protein was determined indirectly by measuring total nitrogen content. Standard micro-kjeldahl method was followed for the determination of crude protein. Accurately weighed sample (about 0.5g) was digested with 10 ml concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in presence of catalyst (Kjeldahl tablet) in Kjeldahl flask for about 45 minutes at 420°C in a digestion unit (Digestor, Model-2020). The digesta was then distilled with 33% sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) and 40% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution in a Kjeltec system distilling unit (Kjeltec system, distilling unit, Model-1026). The distillate was collected in 25 ml 4% boric acid (H3BO3) and was titrated with standard hydrochloric acid (0.2 N). The nitrogen values obtained was converted into percentage of crude protein by multiplying with a factor of 6.25 assuming that protein contains 16 % nitrogen.

% Nitrogen = ------------------------------------------------------------- × 100

Crude lipid

Crude lipid was determined by extracting a weighed quantity of samples with analytical grade acetone in an all ground joint Soxhlet apparatus. Accurately weighed sample (about 2-3 g) was taken in pre-weighed thimbles. Extraction was allowed to continue by heating in an electric heater at 70°C temperature until clear acetone (without oil) was seen in siphon, which took about 6 hours. Then the round bottom flask of the apparatus was separated and the extract was transferred to a pre-weighed beaker and left for evaporation of acetone. After the evaporation of acetone, only the lipid was left in the beaker which was later calculated in percentage.

Total lipid (%) = --------------------------------- × 100

Crude fibre

A small amount of finely ground sample (1-2 g) was taken in to a filter crucible and was inserted into the hot extraction unit (Hot Extractor, Model-1017). Sufficient amount of pre-heated 0.128M H2SO4 was added into the reagent heating system and few drops of octanol were added through the valves. The mixture was digested for 30 minutes. Acid was then removed from it by filtering and washing with boiling water. The residue in the flask was boiled with required amount of 0.223M KOH for 30 minutes and then filtered with subsequent washing in boiling water and acetone. The residual content was then dried in an oven at 130°C for 2 hours and then ignited in muffle furnace at 500°C for 3 hours. The loss of weight represented the crude fibre.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As described in previous section-1, a total 160 samples were collected which included 38 samples of shrimp feed, 27 samples of fish feed, 22 samples of poultry feed and 74 samples of feed ingredients (poultry litter and snail samples (dried shell whole, dried shell crushed and live form). Results of nutritional analysis for 160 samples were obtained from Laboratory of Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh (Appendix-6) and their summary of good and poor quality is given in Table 1.2.3 according to the references given in Table 1.2.1 and shows the recommended protein percentage of fish feeds and ingredients. The recommended protein level for shrimp feed should be in the range of 30-40%, fish feed should have 25-30% and poultry feeds should contained 20-30% protein. In the case of feed Ingredients the recommended level should be in the range 50-60% protein.

Table1.2.2 shows that in total feed sample collected, 70% samples were found of poor quality and the rest 30% are of good quality in terms of recommended protein conrent. In Bagerhat district, among the feed and feed ingredients collected from Fakirhat, Chitalmari, Mollarhat, Rampal upazilla. 14 out of 42 (33%) samples were found of good quality In Khulna district 11 samples were of good quality among the total 35 samples (31%) collected from this region. In case of Jessore district, 13 samples were found good quality among 35 samples (37%). In case of Gazipur and Mymensingh district, 3 out of 24 (13%) and 8 of 24 (33%) were of good quality respectively according to protein content, as standard set by the Lab. of Nutrition, BAU.

All feed samples collected were found as in satisfactory level for Lipid, Ash, Carbohydrates, and Moistures. But in terms of protein content most of feed samples were found to be in poor quality.According to Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme (ADCP,1983), the nutritive value for typical fish feed should be 8-12% moisture, 22-35% crude protein, 5.4% crude lipid, 7-11% crude fibre, 8-12% ash, 30-40% carbohydrate. The nutritional result obtained is similar with ADCP, 1983 except protein level. The details of nutritional results obtained from feed studies are shown in appendices -6.

Although shrimp/prawn has one of the highest levels of protein requirement among the aquaculture species, farmers in Bagerhat, Khulna and Jessore were using low quality feed in their ponds. The study revealed that the feed industries did not follow nutritional standard to produce good quality feeds, and the nutritional facts mentioned as label on the container did not match the actual values.

Analyzed results were listed as good and poor quality feeds. Table1.2.3 shows the list of good and poor quality shrimp feed, fish feed, poultry feed and Feed Ingredients.

Table 1.2.1 Nutritional standard of feed and feed ingredients

Feed type

Recommended protein level (%)

Reference

Feed

Shrimp feed

30 - 40

Akiyama et al. 1992

Fish feed

25 - 30

Nutrition Lab, BAU

Poultry feed

20 - 23

-Do-

Feed ingredients

Ingredients of animal origin

50 - 60

-Do-

Table1.2.2 Nutritional status of feed and feed ingredients used in study area: cumulative and area-wise percentage

Cumulative

Area wise percentage

Good Quality Feed

Poor Quality Feed

District

Good Quality Feed

Poor Quality Feed

30%

70%

Bagerhat

14(33%)

28(67%)

Khulna

11(31%)

24(69%)

Jessore

13(37%)

22(63%)

Mymensingh

3(13%)

21(87%)

Gazipur

8(33%)

16(67%)

*Values in the parentheses indicate percentage of good and poor quality feed.

Fig 1.2.1 Nutritional status of feed and feed ingredients used in study area: cumulative (A) and area-wise percentage (B).

Table 1.2.3 Summary of good and poor quality feed and feed ingredients interms of crude protein content

Feed categories/names

Good quality feed

Poor quality feed

Shrimp feed

Mega shrimp feed

Shrimp feed Starter-3-Saudi-Bangla Fish feed Ltd.

Borak super (golda/bagda)

Titas grower (golda/bagda) Bismillah Feed Mills

2008 S-Bagda feed-CP Aqua (India) Ltd.

Balaka special prawn feed, Bismillah Feed mills

2002-Bagda feed-Crumble-CP Aqua (India) Ltd.

Sunny shrimp feed (grower)

9051 Scampi feed-Fine crumble-CP Aqua (India) Ltd.

Shapla shrimp grower

9042 Scampi feed-crumble-CP Aqua (India) Ltd.

Shawkat shrimp feed

ACI Godres, Misha Chingri Feed

Shapla grower (golda/bagda)

Tanin prawn feed (grower) golda/bagda

Jamuna Chingri Feed (Bismillah Feed Mills)

Chamak shrimp feed (grower)

Premium shrimp feed

Capital shrimp feed

2005-Bagda feed-CP Aquaculture (India) Ltd.

2003-Bagda feed-CP Aquaculture (India) Ltd.

Special prawn feed-Supreme Agrovet Ind.

NK feed (prawn)

Shrimp grower special-Paragon Poultry Feed Ind.

Niribili Shrimp/Prawn Feed (Special Grower)

Niribili Nursery Grower (Prawn/Shrimp)

Supreme Economy (Prawn/Shrimp)-Supreme Agrovet Ind.

Olympic Shrimp Feed

Aftab Prawn Feed

Shawkat Shrimp Feed

Unique Fresh Feed (Prawn), Unique Hatchery & Feed

Fish feed

Fresh Fish Feed (Special Grower Pellet), Unique Hatchery

Sunny fish feed

Chamak Fish Feed

Bismillah Fish Feed (Titas)

Quality fish feed (Special grower)

Titas Gold (Bismillah Feed Mills )

Quality gold pre-nursery

Diamond fish feed (grower pangus)

Quality feed (Tilapia grower)

AIT Feed

Chamak feed (Tilapia starter)-Jessore Feeds Ltd.

Modhumoti fish feed

AIT Koi grower

ACI Fish Feed (Godres), Misha Fish Feed

AIT Carp feed

Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

Koi fish feed-Starter-Saudi Bangla Fish Feed

Titas grower fish feed, Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

Mega feed (102) Tilapia

Aftab Tilapia Grower

Pangus/Tilapia/Carp Starter Crumble-602, Spectra Hexa Ltd

Titas grower fish feed

Quality feed (Golden grower)

Progoti Pellet Nursery Feed , Progoti Fish Feed Ltd.

SGS fish feed

AIT tilapia grower

AIT Pangus starter

Poultry Feed

Quality Poultry Feed (Special grower-Suborno)

Shawkat poultry feed

Bisshas Broiler-Starter

Sughondha poultry feed (broiler/grower) Satkhira Feed Ind.

United Fresh Feed ( Broiler)

Rupsha broiler chicken feed

Dhaka poultry feed

Jamuna Poultry Feed-Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

Kazi Poultry Feed

Advanced Poultry Feed

Usha poultry feed (broiler/grower)

Jamuna Poultry Feed (collected from market)

Feed categories/names

Good quality feed

Poor quality feed

SGS grower feed (poultry)

JC Feed (Broiler/Grower), Poultry Feed

Poultry Layer, United Fresh Feed Ltd.

SGS Feed Industries (poultry feed Broiler& Starter)

Poultry Feed (Locally prepared)

Sunny broiler/grower feed

Jessore Poultry Feed (Layer)

Aftab Poultry Feed

Feed ingredients

Dry fish-Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

Anpro-USA (protein 60%)

Hydence protein concentrate (USA origin)

Mustard Oil Cake

BC fish pack (protein 60%)

Croatian super meat and bone meal

F-60 classic white protein concentrate

Meat and bone meal (Spain origin)

Jasoprot (Protein Concentrate 60%) USA

Bone meal, New Khulna Bone Mill

ACI Fish Meal (Protein Concentrate) Protein 60%

Meat and bone meal (non-branded)

Meat and bone meal-Netherlands origin-AIT Feed Mills Ltd.

Snail Shell (Jasoprot) Jayson Agrovet Ltd.

Dried fish-1, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Dried fish 2, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Meat and bone meal-imported, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Fish meal-1 (imported) , Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

Fish meal-2 (imported), Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

Snail meat

Table 1.2.4 List of good quality feed-feed ingredients but contaminated with harmful chemicals on the basis of nutritional standards in terms of protein content

Feed types/names

Comment*

Shrimp feed

Mega shrimp feed

Borak super (golda/bagda)

2008 S-Bagda feed-CP Aquaculture (India) Ltd.

2002-Bagda feed-Crumble-CP Aquaculture (India) Ltd.

9051 Scampi feed-Fine crumble-CP Aquaculture (India) Ltd.

9042 Scampi feed-crumble-CP Aquaculture (India) Ltd.

Shrimp feed Starter-3-Saudi-Bangla Fish feed Ltd.

SEM 8.25 ppb

ACI Godres, Misha Chingri Feed

Fish feed

Titas grower fish feed, Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

SEM 2.36 ppb

Mega feed (102) Tilapia

Fresh Fish Feed (Special Grower Pellet), Unique Hatchery

Chamak Fish Feed

Aftab Tilapia Grower

SEM 1.39 ppb

Quality fish feed (Special grower)

Pangus/Tilapia/Carp Starter Crumble-602, Spectra Hexa Ltd

CAP 5.70 ppb

Titas grower fish feed

CAP 2.36

Quality gold pre-nursery

Quality feed (Tilapia grower)

Chamak feed (Tilapia starter)-Jessore Feeds Ltd.

Quality feed (Golden grower)

SEM 6.73 ppb

Progoti Pellet Nursery Feed , Progoti Fish Feed Ltd.

CAP 2.0, SEM 3.17 ppb

AIT Koi grower

AIT Carp feed

Koi fish feed-Starter-Saudi Bangla Fish Feed

Poultry feed

Jamuna Poultry Feed-Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

SEM 2.33 ppb

Kazi Poultry Feed

AHD 1.9, SEM 2.82 ppb

Advanced Poultry Feed

CAP 0.63 ppb

Usha poultry feed (broiler/grower)

AOZ 1.17 ppb

Quality Poultry Feed (Special grower-Suborno)

Bisshas Broiler-Starter

United Fresh Feed ( Broiler)

Dhaka poultry feed

Padma Poultry Feed (Meghna Agro Industries)

Feed ingredients

Dry fish-Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

Hydence protein concentrate (USA origin)

BC fish pack (protein 60%)

Snail meat

F-60 classic white protein concentrate

Jasoprot (Protein Concentrate 60%) USA

ACI Fish Meal (Protein Concentrate) Protein 60%

Meat and bone meal-Netherlands origin-AIT Feed Mills Ltd.

Dried fish-1, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Dried fish 2, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Meat and bone meal-imported, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Fish meal-1 (imported) , Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

Fish meal-2 (imported), Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

*Feed and feed ingredients contaminated with CAP/AOZ/AHD/SEM beyond their acceptable limit are not regarded as quality feed for shrimp culture (Please See Table 3 for acceptable limit of CAP/AOZ/AHD/SEM).

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