The Municipal Corporation Of Greater Mumbai Biology Essay

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The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai supplies potable water to the city from six lakes, most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa Lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway. The water is filtered at Bhandup, which is Asia's largest water filtration plant.

R/North Ward is the ward on the North most boundary of western suburb of Mumbai. The total area of R/North Ward comprises 18.00 sq. km. it includes the development of Residential, Commercial buildings, with various types of projects such as Residential and commercial complex, Educational buildings and slum redevelopment projects. The R/North ward contains Government, Municipal and private slums causing increasing in population and population density. It contains seven Municipal Councillor Zones.

The flow path of existing water supply system starts from Bhandup treatment plant to Borivali hill reservoir which has a capacity of 74 Million litres with inlet pipe of 1800 mm diameter. Further, from the reservoir the water supplied to Dahisar (E) i.e. R/North Ward with two outlet pipes of 1200 mm and 900 mm diameter and water is supplied through tunnel of 3m diameter, which travels from Bhandup treatment plant to Malad reservoir and further to Charkop reservoir and thereafter it supplies to Dahisar West region.

Many authors have done research in the field of water supply and sewage disposal in terms of quality aspects. However, a live case study considering a developing ward in Mumbai city has not been reviewed seriously with aspects to sufficient water supply and effective sewage disposal. Therefore, the author here was passionate to study and analyse the existing water supply systems in R/North Ward of Western Suburb of Mumbai city, thereby correlating the factors of water supply to water demand for existing and projected population. (R/North Ward of Mumbai Suburb)

2. Literature Review

Fei Du, Gwendolyn J. Woods, Doosun Kang, (2012), discussed that Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was performed for six commonly used types of water and wastewater pipe materials: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ductile iron, cast iron, high density polyethylene (HDPE), concrete and reinforced concrete. They compare the six pipe materials in terms of global warming potential (GWP) through four LCA phases: pipe production, transport, installation and use;

determine the primary source(s) of differences in LCA results; and examine the effectiveness of currently used pipe size selection criteria when LCA GWP is considered. Results for unit lengths of discrete pipe sizes were used to generate functions relating GWP per kilometer of pipe to diameter and material selections. For pipe diameters ≤ 61 cm (24 in), GWP due to pipe manufacture, transport, and installation of ductile iron pipe was largest among the six materials compared.

"TIMES OF INDIA" on 02-07-2012 had published an article "Floor space index, precious than gold?" which quoted, in the city's lucrative construction industry, floor space index (FSI) has become perhaps, more precious than gold. On the other hand, the powerful builders' lobby has been rooting for a substantially higher FSI as a panacea for solving the city's housing problem. Although the FSI is still restricted to the standard 1.33 for the island city and 2.0 (with TDR) for the suburbs, the government over the past decade hiked it manifold for a slew of schemes including redevelopment of slums, housing authority colonies and cessed properties.

Among the most controversial decision of the government recently has been to offer a huge FSI bonanza to builders if they construct multi-storey public car parks on a portion of their land and hand them over to the BMC free of cost. The FSI could go up to as high as 4.0 in this scheme. This resulted in skyscrapers sprouting up on narrow plots in congested and traditionally low-rise localities.

"TIMES OF INDIA" on 13-07-2012 had published an article "Now, BMC pushes TDR in island city" which quoted, Municipal Commissioner said TDR should be generated and consumed uniformly across the city, "reversing imbalanced development in the suburbs". It has recommended that non-cessed buildings in the island city-currently allowed a floor space index (FSI) of just 1.33 during redevelopment, be sanctioned another 1.33 as TDR, taking the total FSI to 2.66. However, cessed buildings, most of which were built more than 70 years ago, today receive virtually unlimited FSI when they are redeveloped. The commissioner has suggested that FSI up to 4 be allowed on such plots. "The balance, if any, shall be given in the form of TDR'' which can be utilized at another place.

From the study it is observed that the government is concentrating on increasing in FSI and providing more space to the occupant. But they have not investigated the effect of increase in population on various amenities. Considering the above facts following objectives are formulated for the area under consideration. (R/North Ward of Mumbai).

3. Objectives of Study

To collect the information related to population in last four decades and also collect the information related to amount of water supply.

To forecast the population and estimate the quantity of water required to be supplied in the next two decades.

To prepare a plan for water supply distribution system to meet the future demand.

4. Data Collection for R/North Ward

The scope of study is confined to the impact of extensive growth of population on water supply in R/North ward located in part of Borivali and entire Dahisar area of Mumbai. It involves forecasting population growth and finding the deficiencies of facilities in water supply.

Table No.1 shows, zone wise population, variation of population and population density in R/North Ward of Western Suburb of Mumbai City. It indicates the total population in year 1981 is 1,42,762, it increased to 2,70,083, 3,63,991 and 4,31,791 in year 1991, 2001 and 2011 respectively..

Table No. 1 Zone wise Population and Population Density of R/N Ward

Zones

Area in sq.km

Population and population density

1981

1991

2001

2011

Population

Density

Population

Density

Population

Density

Population

Density

1

6.13

39,761

6,486

76,464

12,474

103,329

16,856

121,564

19,831

2

4.52

31,281

6,921

66,853

14,790

89,882

19,885

106,245

23,506

3

1.16

9,053

7,804

15,608

13,455

20,010

17,250

25,654

22,116

4

1.64

19,991

12,190

37,020

22,573

52,885

32,247

61,494

37,496

5

1.68

14,299

8,511

25,086

14,932

34,842

20,739

39,148

23,302

6

0.68

7,749

11,396

14,090

20,721

18,787

27,628

22,365

32,890

7

2.20

20,628

9,376

34,963

15,892

44,257

20,117

55,321

25,146

Total

142,762

270,083

363,991

431,791

Source: Census Department and MCGM web portal

The table also indicates that the rate of increase in population density in Zone 1 is high whereas the rate of increase in population density in Zone 7 is very low. The population in year 2011forecasted for next two decade by Arithmetic Mean Method, Geometric Increase Method, Incremental Increase Method and Decreasing Rate of Growth Method and maximum of the population is adopted for further analysis.

The Table No. 2 shows the summary of forecasted population of R/North Ward of Mumbai Suburbs in next two decades. From the table below, it is observed that the forecasted population obtained by decrease rate of growth method is giving maximum population; hence this value is used for all further calculation in subsequent sections.

Table No 2 Summary of Forecasted Population of R/N Ward of Mumbai Suburb

Year

Arithmetic Mean Method

Geometric Increase Method

Varying Increment or Incremental Increase Method

Decreasing Rate of Growth Method

2011

431791

431791

431791

431791

2021

528134

598678

588407

664526

2031

624477

830067

805297

1024035

5. Water Demand

The annual average water demand (i.e. per capita demand) considerably varies from different towns and cities. This figure generally ranges between 100-360 litres per capita per day for Indian conditions. These variations in total water consumption of different cities or towns depend upon various factors. These factors like Size of city, Climatic conditions, Habit of people, Industrials and Commercial activities, Quality of water supplies, Pressure in the distribution system, System of supply, Cost of water supply project etc. In the present study per capita water demand assumed to be 180 litres and the required water demand estimated.

Table No. 3 shows the average values of existing water supplied in MLD to different zones in R/North ward, the amount of water demand and deficiency in year 1991, 2001,and 2011was collected. The calculation of existing water supplied was carried out from the reading available and the discharge capacities of various pipes. The correlation between the existing water supplied to the existing water demand for various zones in R/ North Ward and deficiency in water supply for each zone is highlighted.

Table No 3 Existing Water Supply in R/North Ward of Western Suburb of Mumbai

1991

2001

2011

ZONE

Water supplied in MLD

Water demand in MLD

Deficit

Water supplied in MLD

Water demand in MLD

Deficit

Water supplied in MLD

Water demand in MLD

Deficit

1

11.85

14.15

2.29

16.02

19.12

3.10

20.02

22.49

2.47

2

10.87

12.37

1.50

15.53

16.63

1.10

18.49

19.66

1.17

3

2.41

2.89

0.48

3.17

3.70

0.54

4.22

4.75

0.52

4

5.81

6.85

1.04

8.54

9.78

1.24

10.17

11.38

1.21

5

3.79

4.64

0.85

5.83

6.45

0.62

6.94

7.24

0.30

6

1.72

2.61

0.88

2.21

3.48

1.27

3.68

4.14

0.46

7

5.48

6.47

0.99

7.83

8.19

0.36

9.32

10.23

0.91

TOTAL

41.93

49.97

59.12

67.34

72.84

79.88

Source: Water Department of R/North ward (MCGM)

Table No. 4 shows the projected population for different zones in R/North Ward. The corresponding water demand shows that the forecasted population for the year 2021 and 2031 are found to be 6, 64,526 and 10, 24,035 respectively. It indicates, there shall be a rise of 154 % and 237 % in the year 2021 and 2031 respectively with respect to present population. Also the total water demand in year 2021 and 2031 found to be 123.01 MLD and 189.45 MLD.

From the study it can be concluded that before construction of the high rise structures in R/North Ward of Mumbai City it is recommended to provide the additional water supply line to meet the forecasted demand of water.

Table No. 4 Projected Populations and water demand in R/North Ward

ZONE

PROJECTED POPULATION

 

2011

2021

2031

Population

Water demand in MLD

Population

Water demand in MLD

Population

Water demand in MLD

1

121,564

22.49

187,209

34.63

288,301

53.34

2

106,245

19.66

163,617

30.27

251,970

46.61

3

25,654

4.75

39,507

7.31

60,840

11.26

4

61,494

11.38

94,701

17.52

145,839

26.98

5

39,147

7.24

60,288

11.15

92,843

17.18

6

22,365

4.14

34,442

6.37

53,040

9.81

7

55,321

10.23

85,194

15.76

131,198

24.27

TOTAL

431,791

79.89

664,958

123.01

1,024,035

189.45

6. Conclusions

The following conclusions are drawn from the present study.

The existing population of R/North ward in year 2011 is recorded as 4, 31,791. The Decreasing Rate of Growth Method gives the most critical value of forecasted population amongst all four methods utilized. The forecasted population in year 2021 and 2031 are found to be 6, 64,526 and 10, 24,035 respectively. The projection shows that there shall be a rise of 154 % and 237% in year 2021 and 2031 respectively with respect present population.

2. From the discharge capacities of the existing water supply system in R/ North ward, it is understood that, the present water supply scheme is 72 MLD which is lesser than the standard water demand of 79.89 MLD.

3. Considering the standard water supply, the actual water demand in year 2021 and 2031 is found to be 123.01 MLD and 189.45 MLD respectively. Hence, enhancement of the existing system is necessary to meet the water demand for next two decades.

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