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A lower gastrointestinal series, also called barium enema is a medical procedure used to examine and diagnose the problem with human colon (large intestine). X-ray pictures are taken while barium sulfate fill the colon through the inspection rectum.This used to survey changes in bowel habits, pain, no abdominal mass, malaena (blood in the stool) or obstruction of the stomach. Because of the severity of the reaction when the barium enters circulation, it is contraindicated in patients who had undergone intestinal surgery, new or rectal biopsy. If the tight constriction is shown, only carry a small volume of barium proximal to determine the margin, because if not, barium may be affected. A barium enema is a diagnostic test. During the exam, the doctor puts a contrast material called barium into the rectrum. Enough barium is given to fill the colon (large intestine). A plain abdominal x-ray was taken.
By filling the cavity of the intestine doctor can also see the contours layer of the colon. Diverticula of polyps, ulcers, fistula, kriptus (certain types of cavities) and inflammatory changes can also be detected. Tumor like mass, is particularly interesting because this test is often used to screen for colon that had cancer.
Mostly, barium enema is used to exclude all diseases in the bowel such as colorectal cancers. In recent years, barium enema was used to assess and determine the conditions such as:
-Colorectal adenoma (tumor is not dangerous)
-Colon diverticula (pockets in the colon)
Diverticulitis of the colon-
-Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction
-Lower gastrointestinal bleeding
Although barium enema was originally a way to diagnose the disease, its role has changed. Doctors use the test as a screening tool for certain people at risk for colorectal cancers.
Also, barium enema is usually used in some cases to treat the condition and treatment. The pressure is given when barium is placed into the large intestine often lead to solve a situation intussusceptions seen in infants.
A modified test, double contrast barium enema, was developed to look at the mucous membrane of the colon better. This is achieved by using a fluoroscope (machine to look at internal structures) and by manipulating the position of the person and the amount of barium and air are introduced.
A barium enema clearly demonstrates herniasi colon. Barium enema is the most commonly used to check the health of the intestine, they are used to help assess and exit diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease such as colitis ulserativa. Polyps can be seen through such a test is not removed during the colonoscopy, they may have cancer. Other problems such as diverticulosis (small bag formed in the colon wall that can become inflamed) and intussusceptions can be found (and in some cases the test itself can cure intussusceptions). A Aappendikitis acute or play loops of bowel can also be seen. If the images music causes such as irritable bowel syndrome, functional (IBS) can be considered.
In colon health, colon barium to fill a uniform and showed normal bowel contour, patency (must be open free) and position.
During barium enema procedure, contrast material can be perforated colon and spilled into the abdominal cavity during the year. Layers of the abdominal cavity may become infected (this is called chemical peritonitis). intestine may be narrow and clogged.
Because of these problems may be, certain people would not be good candidates for this procedure.
colon before the procedure is completed. Anyone undergoing barium enema should be monitored for bowel preparation procedures.
Rate of perforation of the various types of enemas are probably due to more than perforations occurred before enema, and the pressure exerted on the large intestine, more than the contrast material.
There is less radiation exposure from abdominal CT. X-ray monitor to monitor and assess controls to give the smallest number of x-ray radiation exposure needed to produce photos. Most members feel and think that the low risk compared with benefits. Ionizing radiation is more sensitive to risk and children and pregnant women.
CT scans and ultrasound tests are now optional for the initial evaluation of pelvic masses, and colonoscopies become standard for routine colon screening for those aged over 50 or with the family of polyps or colon cancer, although not infrequently a barium enema after a colonoscopy should be done to further evaluation.
Miller disposable enema tube. If incontinent patients, it is allowed to use the inflatable cuff tube. However, the use should be limited in cases like that, because of the increased risk of perforation.
Barium sulfate is the most common type of positive-contrast media used for barium enema. The concentration of barium sulfate suspension vary by study. Standard mixture used for the single contrast barium enema media ranged between 15% and 25% weight to volume (w / v). Thickness of the barium enema is used for double contrast barium to contration volume weighs between 75% and 95% or higher.
PREPARING CONTRAST MEDIA
Mixing directions as provided by the manufacturer must be followed exactly. Cold water has been reported anesthetic effects on the intestine and increase the retention of contrast media. And cold water can cause colon spasms, so the temperature should be used to prepare barium sulfate is (40-45F). If we use the hot water may heat up the lining of the intestinal mucosa bocose of barium sulfate to produce colloidal suspensions, shake the bag before insertion of enema tip is essential to prevent the separation of barium sulfate water.
Barium enema PREPARATION
To obtain accurate x-ray images of the surface of the large intestine, feces should be cleaned. This is achieved by cleansing enemas.
Also, interpretation of procedures and tests so that the intestines can interfere with faecal material should be clear to the drug through the oral laxative. Before the test, you will not be allowed to take food or liquids after midnight the night before the test or procedure. You will be given fluids by IV dextrose after the procedure.
It is essential that the patient has an empty bowel for inspection and cleaning up the strict regime should be started before the procedure. Examples of this regimen would be low-residual diet for 2 days before the procedure, then the day before, a strong aperients, Picolax example, should be taken and then blocked for a clear liquid, but each center will be a special regime for their own bowel preparation.
If the female patients of reproductive age, the radiographers will ask if there is a possibility you are pregnant. Because this study shows the hip area of radiation, it is important that you tell the radiographers date of your last menstrual period and whether there is a possibility that you might be pregnant.
Intestine should be completely empty. Typically, patients will be asked to follow the restricted diet for two days before the examination. This may include software or liquid food diet.
In large hospitals or centers x-ray, barium enema is usually given to patients and performed on the same day and after you return home. When you arrive, staff will check for radiographers through the last time if you have liquid or food in the stomach. They will also ensure that you are intestine was prepared enough (with the cleansing enemas, or laxatives, or both).
Before examining patients, the radiographers will explain the procedure to patients and answer any questions patients may have.
While barium enema procedure performed by radiographers, you will remain awake. Plastic tube dress to contrast material (barium) through the rectum. A side of the discomfort, you may feel the pressure of the fluid being handled. If not, the pain should be minimal.
Before you perform barium enema examination, radiographers will give patients a hospital gown to wear. This dress is not locked metal on it, because metal can interfere with the accuracy of the image. It is important that everything under the dress is removed, including jewelry and clothing.
Many x-ray film to be taken, will determine the speed of the process to fill the required area of interest and also the additional pictures and barium are needed to assess properly.
After the movie finished, the radiographers will display your toilet facilities to expel the barium. After you have expelled the barium, radiographers may take another x-ray to rate them, barium was fixed.
AFTER THE PROCEDURE PERFORMED
When this procedure is most people have no time for recovery and return home. These images are evaluated and read by a qualified person who presented the findings to your doctor to see a picture as possible. Results usually come in a week when the doctor calls and tells you to come to the hospital. If any abnormal results with your films or the results, your doctor will discuss and committed to you about further management plans and additional diagnostics, which could include the operation and biopsy.
The barium will make your white dirt for a few days. This is normal. If patients experience constipation following the examination, tell the doctor. It might encourage you to take your medicine purge. You also have to increase your water consumption in a few days after the inspection.
WHEN SHOULD LOOK FOR MEDICAL CARE
Contact your doctor if you have a problem with all the symptoms of constipation, severe diarrhea, bloating, and moderate to severe abdominal pain and inability to take liquid food. Also you should consider all of the cramps, vomiting and difficulty breathing. You have to take medical care to the nearest medical facility or hospital.
Also, you should see your doctor if you have an unusual problem after a barium swallow test, such as vomiting, bleeding pain, or trouble breathing. If you do not have a bowel movement within 2-3 days after the test, or you should call your doctor.
Go to the nearest hospital if you have fresh bleeding in your stool or when you pass through the dark material. Furthermore, any severe abdominal pain, bloating, and cramps need assessment in hospital.
FILM TAKEN DURING PROCEDURE
There are various bars in view of the recommendation, and the following scheme is used in the department.
1. Spot films of the rectum and sigmoid colon (lying)
RAO / Disturbed / LOP / Time lateral rectum
2. spot films of flexible bending liver, spleen and rectum (vertical)
Laos to open out-bending lienalis
RAO for open-heart out bending
3. spot films of appendicitis (lying). Positioning the patient supine.
4. the movie sofa (usually with a tube ceiling) to show all of the large intestine (lie)
Supine / Prone / lateral decubitis Time / Right lateral decubitis / exposed, with the tube angled 45 degrees caudad and was centered 5 cm above the posterior iliac spine on your back.
5. Other post-evacuation appendicitis while other films have failed.
6. Extra spot films of each regional variations are taken as necessary.
For now, the test is usually performed for evaluation of colonoscopies and abdominal masses by computer tomography (CT scan) and ultrasound, has become standard for routine colon screening for a history of colon cancer and polyps. Although the use of barium enema after a colonoscopy test for further evaluation. Barium enema test remains useful for identifying anatomical abnormalities in patients with narrowing of the colon are too small to pass kolonoskop for inspection.