The Importance Of The Influenza Vaccination In Pediatrics Biology Essay

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I feel strongly that there is a tremendous need to educate parents on the importance of vaccinating healthy children and high risk children such as those with asthma or other co-morbidities. My position includes providing support for the importance of vaccinating children against the flu by providing examples and explanations through current statistics.

The traditional way to prevent influenza is vaccination. It makes the appropriate strain of the leading influenza vaccine and contains, as a rule, antigens of three strains of influenza virus that are selected on the basis of recommendations by the World Health Organization. Offered influenza vaccine can be in the form of live, killed (inactivated), a subunit vaccine. Vaccination is particularly indicated among the high-risk groups - children, the elderly, patients with chronic heart or lung disease, as well as doctors. It is usually carried out when the epidemiological forecast shows the usefulness of events (usually in mid-autumn). There's also the second inoculation in the middle of winter. The effectiveness of vaccination depends on how the creators manage to predict the circulating strains of this epidemiological season. In addition to vaccination for emergency prevention of influenza and acute respiratory viral infection, is used intranasal administration of interferon. This method is used to calm down the ill after their contact with patients with respiratory infection during the epidemic rise in incidence. In this case, IFN blocks the replication of viruses in the place of their introduction into the nasal cavity, as described in The Journal of the American Medical Association.

As no specific prevention in the room where there are the patients with influenza, wet cleaning is carried out using any disinfectant, which has antibacterial effect. For air disinfection is used ultraviolet radiation, aerosol disinfectants and catalytic air purifiers. Sneezing and coughing patients are dangerous to others. Prevention of influenza must include their removal from the public places. It is not uncommon sue the patients who came to work while still being ill.

Vaccine - is a medicine for creating immunity to infectious diseases. The vaccine is made from weakened or killed microorganisms, their metabolic products, or their antigens produced by genetic engineering or chemical means. Principles of vaccination are: vaccination stimulates an adaptive immune response by the body's specific memory cells; subsequent infection by the same agent causes a persistent; there is more rapid immune response; vaccine should be safe and accessible.

Side effects and complications are different for different vaccines. Often there are these types of reaction as a mild fever and soreness at the injection site. Children have often been long crying, along with the appetite loss. Allergic reactions are possible, including (rarely) - angioedema, anaphylactic shock. Some live vaccines cause reactions that resemble mild course of disease. For example, vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella often (5%) causes a mild rash. 

Possible but not proven, the relationship of vaccination (as well as any antigenic stimulation of the immune system) with the development of rheumatic disease, glomerulonephritis and other autoimmune diseases. The decision to vaccinate should be made by the patient or his legal representative on the basis of informed consent, after consultation with useful effects and possible risks of procedure, as described in Seasonal Influenza (flu).

Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, WHO, has registered and investigated cases of quite serious side effects when using these or other vaccines. It was revealed that: universal immunization of the population - is not an option, but vaccination of risk groups, with the obligatory view of medical contraindications, which is carried out in the pre-epidemic period, can be effective. Complications arise after vaccination, which is divided into two categories - local, in the place of administration, and system as a response to the whole organism. In the first were found about 38 percent of cases, in the second - 20. And the 11 percent of all complaints were headaches. 45 million doses of subunit vaccine were 25 cases of neuropathies and 23 deaths. The most frequent complications of vaccination, especially allergies are caused by the use of the first three types of vaccines. Therefore, in recent years in the vaccinations are mainly used subunit vaccines. They consist of the antigens of the influenza virus, detached and purified after growth of whole viruses. Side effects of injections of inactivated / killed vaccine can be the following: moderate pain, redness, (very rare), swelling at the injection site, the rise in body temperature, various kinds of pain. Typically, these problems start shortly after injection and last 1-2 days.

As a rule, the facts of each case of a cold with a runny nose and fever are followed by sneezing, simply called "the flu". Meanwhile, not all of the flu includes sneezing, because the apparent commonality of the clinical picture includes more than 200 different viruses that cause influenza-like acute respiratory diseases, which vary in severity, consequences and epidemiology. Clinicians are aware of the difficulty of diagnosis, the first flu at the beginning of the epidemic season. True influenza is usually heavier than the ARD, with intoxication, severe headache, gastroenteritis, and frequent development of complications, especially among children, the weak and elderly, as described in Vaccination.

The epidemic of influenza often occurs each winter. Annually, in the U.S. 36,000 people die from flu and related opportunistic infections and complications, and losses from influenza illness exceed $ 80 billion. Numbers of annual related to the disease influenza hospitalizations are many times greater than the number of deaths. "The high cost of hospitalization of young children because of the influenza creates a significant burden in the U.S., stressing the importance of injection for the safety of children and persons with whom the children are in regular contact ..." In Canada, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization, which serves an advisor to the Agency's public Health of the Government, recommended that to make an invitation to all persons aged from two to 64 years for annual influenza vaccinations, and children aged six to 24 months and persons in contact with them, be regarded as a high priority group for such vaccinations. The U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends: "In general terms, anyone who wish to reduce their risk of influenza should be able to do so." Vaccination is particularly important for individuals at high risk of serious complications or for those who live with persons at high risk of complications or care for people at high risk of serious complications. Specific recommendations include all children and adolescents aged six months to 18 years. The purpose in raising the upper limit of 18 years is to reduce the time lost by parents and children on visits to pediatricians, skipping classes at school and the need for antibiotics when complications arise...  Usually updated annually, in its composition for the prevention of influenza vaccine is designed to protect against quickly changing influenza virus. "Vaccination against influenza - it is the most effective method of prevention of influenza virus infection and its potentially serious complications", as stated in Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2010-2011.

Before 2007 most of the years (16 years from 19), vaccine strains are well consistent with epidemic strains. In the season 2007/2008 this correspondence was smaller. But even the inadequate vaccine is able to provide some protection: antibodies produced in response to a vaccine strain of influenza virus can provide protection against the other, but related strains. Imperfect compliance can manifest itself in lower vaccine effectiveness against the variant viruses, but still be able to give sufficient protection to prevent or reduce disease severity and influenza-related complications. As a fact, the flu vaccine contains three virus strains, so this vaccine is also capable of protecting against two other viruses. On this basis, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention United States continues to recommend influenza vaccination, even in seasons when the match is less than ideal. This is especially important for persons at high risk and their entourage.

Analysis of the studies concluded that people over 65 who got flu vaccinations have 50% more chance not to die in winter than their unvaccinated peers, what was generally agreed. However, it should be noted, that the number of deaths among the elderly in the U.S. between 1980 and 2005 remained at 5%, although vaccination coverage increased from 15% in 1980 to approximately 70% in 2005 another prospective advantage of grafting was observed before the flu season began. While acknowledging that the vaccination reduced the risk of death from influenza, the analysis noted the need to develop better statistical methods for measuring the effectiveness of influenza vaccination.

Nowadays, there are different vaccinations available for the current influenza season. On the February 18, 2010 World Health Organization has recommended the following composition of influenza vaccine for use in the epidemic season 2010-2011 in the Northern Hemisphere: like (H1N1) virus A/California/7/2009; like (H3N2) virus A/Perth/16/2009; Such a virus B/Brisbane/60/2008. All in all, people have to understand the importance of the Influenza Vaccination, as it is possible to prevent the flu or influenza.

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