The Gender Based Stratification Is Flawed Biology Essay


The gender based stratification is flawed as there are basic physiological differences between men and women and thus women can't be assigned as controls for the treatment men receive as their responses will vary greatly.

The selection of students should be done by using matched pairs on the basis of weight, height, existing physiological conditions if any. One subject from each matched pair should be assigned in the control group. The other subject should receive the treatment and should be compared to the control group.

b) Even though the probability of getting heads and tails in coin flip is 0.5% the division of 10 subjects into 2 groups of 5 each cannot be accounted for as the coins may not necessarily flip 5 times as heads and 5 times as tails.

The randomization should be done using the simple random sample applet or by using Table B as given in the book.

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c) This process is incorrect as the comparison of data will be flawed. Each batch of rats will have received different diets and be treated under varying environmental conditions as the treatment lasts for 2 weeks and the batches arrive within a gap of 1 week.

Instead of assigning an entire batch to one treatment, the rats should be in a batch should be randomly assigned to each treatment such that the treatments all have a minimum of 2 rats each. As each new batch of rats arrives, the response of the rats can be evaluated and data can be compared.

3.23) Calcium and Vitamin D.

a) The factors for this experiment are the various doses of the combinations of calcium and vitamin D and placebo, there are 6 levels and 9 treatments.

b) Randomization

180 Students

Group 1 [90 students] Group 2 [90 students]

-Treatment 1 (0 mg Ca+0 IU Vit D) [10] -Treatment 1 (0 mg Ca+0 IU Vit D) [10]

-Treatment 2 (0 mg Ca+50 IU Vit D) [10] -Treatment 2 (0 mg Ca+50 IU Vit D) [10]

-Treatment 3 (0 mg Ca+100 IU Vit D) [10] -Treatment 3 (0 mg Ca+100 IU Vit D) [10]

-Treatment 4 (200 mg Ca+0 IU Vit D) [10] -Treatment 4 (200 mg Ca+0 IU Vit D) [10]

-Treatment 5 (200 mg Ca+50 IU Vit D) [10] -Treatment 5 (200 mg Ca+50 IU Vit D) [10]

-Treatment 6 (200 mg Ca+100 IU Vit D) [10] -Treatment 6 (200 mg Ca+100 IU Vit D) [10]

-Treatment 7 (400 mg Ca+0 IU Vit D) [10] -Treatment 7 (400 mg Ca+0 IU Vit D) [10]

-Treatment 8 (400 mg Ca+50 IU Vit D) [10] -Treatment 8 (400 mg Ca+50 IU Vit D) [10]

-Treatment 9 (400 mg Ca+100 IU Vit D) [10] -Treatment 9 (400 mg Ca+100 IU Vit D) [10]

Measure of TBBMC Measure of TBBMC

Comparison of Data

3.25) Compare two versions of the product-

a) For the comparison of the 2 varieties of coffees we can divide the day into specific time slots of 4 hours each starting from 7 am to 11 am, 11 am to 3 pm, 3 pm to 7 pm and 7 pm to 11 pm. Then randomly select 10 customers from each of the time slots and give both the varieties of the coffee in alternate pattern to the 10 customers to sample. Thus a total of 40 customers are surveyed.

Issues with randomization may include bias by the customers who may not care enough to give an adequate response.

The evaluation data which will be collected will be include details like whether the specific variety of the coffee should be included on the menu, would customers be willing to take it again.

b) If both the types of coffee are to be sampled by each individual customer, the blindfolded sampling method can be used. Random 10 customers throughout the day are given both the coffees to sample but the contents or types of the coffee are not revealed to the customer and then their responses are recorded.

c) The method of blindfolded survey is more preferable as it eliminates the possible existence of bias. Also when an individual samples both the coffees, the comparison will be easier than giving single type to single customer to sample as the customer may compare the sample to their preferred coffee and may result in biased opinions.

3.30) Does Aspirin prevent heart attacks and strokes?

a) The experimental subjects are the 22000 male physicians involved in the study, the factor and its levels include aspirin and placebo and the response involves the occurrence of heart attack and stroke.

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c) The statement that the aspirin group had significantly fewer heart attacks suggests that both groups had occurrence of heart attacks but the aspirin group had fewer heart attacks than that observed in the control group and thus aspirin was found to influence the prevalence of heart attacks.

3.38) Use the simple random applet-

40 students were chosen in a study to test the effects of cell phones on driving. The 40 students were randomly labelled as:

25, 22, 20, 7, 26, 32, 9, 10, 40, 21, 27, 28, 5, 17, 14, 3, 33, 36, 6, 1, 15, 2,29, 30, 37, 39, 31, 24, 13, 12, 16, 38, 4, 8, 34, 11, 35, 18, 23

20 students were chosen using the applet randomly:

23, 5, 16, 8, 20, 33, 39, 3, 18, 37, 6, 14, 19, 26, 7, 1, 11, 40, 29, 38

The rest of the 20 were treated as control.

3.52) What kind of sample?

a) This is a multistage sample as there are various levels of sampling like 3 random samples out of 7 samples are chosen out of which randomly 8 students are selected.

b) This is a simple random sample wherein out of a population of 55 members, 5 are randomly selected.

c) This is a voluntary response sample in which the subjects get the option of whether they want to take part in the survey or not.

d) This is a stratified random sample in which the first year college students are first grouped in male and female students.

3.54) What's wrong?

a) In this method just by reading the third chapter, it wont give a true measure of the difficulty level of the book. To evaluate the difficulty level of the book, random chapters should be selected and random pages out of those chapters should be selected as samples and evaluated.

b) This method is convenience sampling. It samples just the 100 students who come in at 7.30 am who may or may not be interested in the contents of the questionnaire. To remedy this, voluntary response sample method should be used. This will ensure that only interested students will participate in the questionnaire as it directly impacts them and will eliminate flaws like bias or non response.

c) This is an incorrect way of random sampling. The subjects should be given random numerical labels and then random sample of 10 should be selected using the simple random sample applet.

3.83) Describe the population and sample.

a) The population is students in the four year colleges in US and sample is 17096 students.

b) The population is restaurant workers and sample is 100 restaurant workers.

c) The population here is 584 longleaf pine trees and sample is 40 of those trees.

3.84) Bias and variability.

a) High bias, high variability.

b) High bias, low variability.

c) Low bias, high variability.

d) Low bias, low variability.

3.92) Use the random sample applet-

Population- 1 to 100

Population mean- 50.5

a) The numbers chosen were-

62, 46, 83, 71, 10, 33, 61, 93, 94, 70

Mean- 62.3

b) The numbers are-

42, 13, 14, 73, 19, 60, 90, 79, 24, 91

Mean- 50.5

c) The numbers are-

9, 55, 4, 11, 37, 21, 68, 67, 87, 73

Mean- 43.2

The numbers are-

12, 73, 41, 84, 40, 60, 29, 16, 58, 10

Mean- 42.3

The numbers are-

94, 44, 6, 8, 15, 19, 32, 67, 71, 85

Mean- 44.1

The numbers are-

21, 18, 48, 53, 28, 19, 70, 66, 34, 47

Mean- 40.4

The numbers are-

77, 3, 54, 44, 71, 6, 91, 48, 68, 33

Mean- 48.8

The numbers are-

97, 74, 24, 18, 65, 23, 19, 26, 86, 70

Mean- 50.2

The numbers are-

43, 100, 68, 35, 13, 70, 93, 38, 88, 42

Mean- 59

The numbers are-

41, 44, 17, 2, 1, 98, 57, 70, 37, 25

Mean- 39.2

Thus a conclusion can be drawn from the histogram that as the sample size goes on increasing, the mean gets closer to the population parameter which is 50.5.