The functions of organs of the digestive system

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TAQ 1

  1. A three day menu has been created for the following to encourage good healthy diet utilising a website called nutrifacts.com;

Teenage male athlete 3 day diet:

Day 1:

Early morning

Breakfast; 1Lt fruit squash; glass of concentrated fruit juice; 1-2 thick slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread and honey/jam; large bowl of cereal e.g. porridge, Wheatabix or muesli.

Training; 1Lt sports drink.

Mid-morning

Post training 2nd breakfast/Recovery meal; Baked beans, scrambled/poached eggs, 1-2 rashers of lean bacon, mushrooms and tomatoes, 2 thick slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread; 1Lt fruit squash.

Training; 1Lt sports drink, 500ml low fat milkshake post training.

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Lunch; Bolognese sauce with pasta, mixed salad, fruit e.g. x2 kiwi, and 1Lt fruit squash.

Afternoon Training; 1Lt sports drink

Post-training snack; Large bowl of cereal with half a pint of semi-skimmed milk/or 4 slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread with jam, with a large glass of semi-skimmed milk; fruit; 500ml water.

Dinner; Grilled fish/lean meat; 6-7 boiled new potatoes/ or a large sweet potato/ or boiled rice; large portion of green vegetables; 1 bagel; 1 low-fat yogurt and 1 banana; 750ml squash.

Bedtime snack; Low-fat hot chocolate and a cereal bar.

Day 2:

Early morning

Breakfast; 1Lt fruit squash; glass of concentrated fruit juice; 1-2 thick slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread and honey/jam; large bowl of cereal e.g. porridge, Wheatabix or muesli.

Training; 1Lt sports drink.

Mid-morning

Post training 2nd breakfast/Recovery meal; Baked beans, scrambled/poached eggs, 1-2 rashers of lean bacon, mushrooms and tomatoes, 2 thick slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread; 1Lt fruit squash.

Training; 1Lt sports drink, 500ml low fat milkshake post training.

Lunch; stir fry noodles and mix vegetables, fruit such as a pear, and 1Lt fruit squash.

Afternoon Training; 1Lt sports drink

Post-training snack; Large bowl of cereal with half a pint of semi-skimmed milk/or 4 slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread with jam, with a large glass of semi-skimmed milk; fruit; 500ml water.

Dinner; Grilled fish/lean meat; 6-7 boiled new potatoes/ or a large sweet potato/ or boiled rice; large portion of green vegetables; 1 bagel; 1 low-fat yogurt and 1 banana; 750ml squash.

Bedtime snack; Low-fat hot chocolate and a cereal bar.

Day 3:

Early morning

Breakfast; 1Lt fruit squash; glass of concentrated fruit juice; 1-2 thick slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread and honey/jam; large bowl of cereal e.g. porridge, Wheatabix or muesli.

Training; 1Lt sports drink.

Mid-morning

Post training 2nd breakfast/Recovery meal; Baked beans, scrambled/poached eggs, 1-2 rashers of lean bacon, mushrooms and tomatoes, 2 thick slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread; 1Lt fruit squash.

Training; 1Lt sports drink, 500ml low fat milkshake post training.

Lunch; Diced Chicken with cream sauce with pasta, mixed salad, fruit e.g. apple, and 1Lt fruit squash.

Afternoon Training; 1Lt sports drink

Post-training snack; Large bowl of cereal with half a pint of semi-skimmed milk/or 4 slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread with jam, with a large glass of semi-skimmed milk; fruit; 500ml water.

Dinner; Grilled fish/lean meat; 6-7 boiled new potatoes/ or a large sweet potato/ or boiled rice; large portion of green vegetables; 1 bagel; 1 low-fat yogurt and 1 banana; 750ml squash.

Bedtime snack; Low-fat malt drink and a cereal bar.

A soon-to-be mother in her thirties 3 day diet:

Day 1;

Breakfast; 500ml fruit squash; glass of concentrated fruit juice; a medium bowl of cereal e.g. porridge, Wheatabix or muesli.

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Lunch; Medium Chicken breast with cream sauce and pasta, mixed salad, fruit e.g. apple, and 500ml fruit squash.

Dinner; Medium Grilled fish/lean meat; 3-4 boiled new potatoes/ or a large sweet potato/ or boiled rice; hand full portion of vegetables; 1 low-fat yogurt and 1 banana; 300ml squash.

Day 2;

Breakfast; Baked beans, scrambled/poached eggs, 1-2 rashers of lean bacon, mushrooms and tomatoes, 2 thick slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread; 500ml fruit squash.

Lunch; Medium Grilled salmon or other preference fish/white meat, mixed salad, fruit e.g. pear, and 250ml fruit squash & 500ml of milk.

Dinner; Medium Spaghetti Bolognese & 2 slices of garlic bread; 1 low-fat yogurt and peach slices; 300ml squash.

Day 3;

Breakfast; 500ml fruit squash; glass of milk; 1-2 thick slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread and honey/jam.

Lunch; Cheese and Ham Toastie, piece of fresh fruit and 500ml fruit squash.

Dinner; Medium Roast dinner; 1 low-fat yogurt and fruit salad; 300ml squash.

An elderly male hospital patient 3 day diet:

Day 1;

Breakfast; 250ml fruit squash; glass of milk; 1-2 medium slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread and honey/jam.

Lunch; Small Cauliflower cheese dish; apple pie with custard; 250ml fruit squash.

Dinner; Small Cottage pie, 1 yogurt; 200ml squash.

Day 2;

Breakfast; 250ml fruit squash; glass of concentrate fruit juice; a small bowl of cereal e.g. porridge, cornflakes, wheatabix or muesli.

Lunch; Small Roast dinner, piece of fresh fruit and 250ml fruit squash.

Dinner; An Omlette; Trifle; 200ml squash.

Day 3;

Breakfast; 250ml fruit squash; glass of milk; 1-2 medium slices of wholegrain toast with sunflower spread and honey/jam.

Lunch; Small Fish, chips and mushy peas; rice pudding and 250ml fruit squash.

Dinner; Soup and a wholegrain bread roll; cake and custard; 200ml squash.

(739 words)

2)

I have chosen a 6000 calorie daily intake for the teenage male athlete as during intense training the young athletic male body requires a good amount of lean protein for muscle, fibres and cell recovery to enhance his performance. The athletic body will be burning greater amounts of calories as the body is conditioned to fitness that the metabolism is higher than an average individuals and burns energy quickly. Therefore, to maintain a good source of steady energy to be burnt a slow releasing carbohydrate such as potatoes, rice and porridge are great to keep you going. Plenty of fluids are a necessary to keep well hydrated organs for during intense activity and recovery throughout the day.

Soon to be mother in her thirties depending on her weight, height and age will depend on how much calorie intake her body needs. With being heavily pregnant the body requires approximately 300 extra calories to maintain energy levels. And with the ever growing foetus good nutrition is vital. Wholegrain bread and fruit and vegetables aid good digestion and prevent constipation, which is a greater digestion hindrance during pregnancy. The meats and eggs in the meal plan are essential for a good source of protein intake for the baby and mothers’ organs growth and repair.

An elderly male hospital patient doesn’t require as many calories for energy as the body isn’t exerting much energy. However, the healing body is recovering, so a high protein diet is desirable. Protein is vital for the repair of damaged cells and muscle tissue. Which is why on selecting food for this type of individual for a menu, a regular daily intake of protein is important for the recovery of the organs affected by injury or illness. Some elderly while in a hospital environment suffer from a loss of appetite. Softer food choices such as mashed potato, peas, yogurts and fruit salad are more accepted with elderly individuals while recovering. It is important to encourage protein based foods as not many unlike eggs are readily soft enough to eat with ease. One way to effectively encourage good dietary intake while hospitalised is to assist in the cutting up of pieces of meat on patients plates into manageable size pieces.

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TAQ 2

Type 2 diabetes can occur from an inadequate diet and has a risk of advancing to Type 1 diabetes. Where dietary change such as enhancing the amount of healthy foods selected in a persons’ diet are implemented might result in a person no longer being diet controlled diabetic should their habits change indefinitely. Type 2 diabetics can occur as a temporary implication, brought on by conditions such as pregnancy. This means where spotted, monitored and correctly managed, the bodies’ ability to self-manage glucose levels once again without further medical intervention is a possibility. Diabetes is a condition that is mildly life threatening depending on the individual and their lifestyle choices. There are devices out there that are accurate and capable of monitoring blood sugar levels to assist in diet choices. Accessible information for this condition can allow for good treatment and avoidance of dangerous circumstances arising.

Atherosclerosis does not tend to show any obvious signs and symptoms until the condition is more severe to the individual. Atherosclerosis (also referred to in simple terms as the hardening of the arteries), can become a health issue when individuals have high intake of saturated fats in their diet. This is because not only does a high intake of saturated fats harden the arteries it is also narrowing them making them work harder to pump blood around the body. This is because the arteries are being clogged up with fat deposits. There is not enough evidence to prove high intakes of saturated fats is the main contributing factor to the onset of atherosclerosis. However, there is a significant relationship between the two. Atherosclerosis has the risk of causing the onset of conditions such as peripheral arterial disease, angina, aneurysm, heart attack or stroke. Other less life threatening symptoms of this condition is numbness or weakening in the areas or extremities where the clogged arteries are affected. Should a blood clot get caught in the narrow passage of an artery and blood flow to the brain becomes blocked an ischemic stroke may be caused. This condition is a progressive and severely life threatening one that can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle and diet.

Rickets is a condition that can occur when an individuals’ diet is significantly lacking in mineral intake. Minerals such as calcium, vitamin D and phosphorous. Rickets is the medical term used to describe the permanent softening and weakening of the bones. This is a rear problem that tends to occur in malnutrition children. Children with rickets are greatly at risk of fracturing their bones. Rickets can lead to bone pain, poor growth, and in worse cases deformity. Deformities such as curvature of the spine, bowed legs, and thickening of the joints such as ankles, wrists and knees. Rickets is a condition that can greatly be avoided by many of the population by eating a well nutrition filled diet. It is a condition that is unpleasant and slightly life threatening.

(488 words)

TAQ 3

  1. Digestion is important in terms of absorption and assimilation of nutrients to ensure the body is gaining vital vitamins, minerals and nutrients need to thrive. The products absorbed from foods are essential in the growth, repair and energy the day requires to use of store in order to use at a later time when food resources are not readily available for eating. The molecules absorbed goes through a process called assimilation which is the transition of ingesting the molecules into the blood stream to the areas of the body where they are required.

(94 words)

b)

Organ/body part

Process

Importance

Mouth/Buccal cavity

Churning and initial break down of solid foods for digestion by using the teeth and saliva to soften foods to a smash consistency.

To allow for the particles of food to go through the digestive tract without damage to the walls of the digestive tract.

Oesophagus

The muscular tube carries food from the mouth the stomach. The oesophagus is often referred to as the gullet or food pipe.

Its strong muscular walls and sphincter allows for ease of food passage to the stomach.

Stomach

Process

Churning food into a consistency that is easier for the intestines to digest. 5% of the digestion and absorption of food takes place in the stomach.

Importance

This churning role of the stomach is important so the intestines don’t struggle to digest the food. If larger particles of foods are not broken down properly prior to this point it is likely damage to the digestive tract walls will occur. The tiny glands within the lining can be harmed.

Small intestine

90% of foods goodness is absorbed her in the small intestine.

This absorption Is highly important in this organ as it is the main intake of vital nutrients and minerals from the foods eaten. The body depends of these enzymes for energy and sustainability.

Large intestine

Along with the stomach, 5% of digestion and absorption continues to occur within the large intestine. More importantly the large intestine extracts water and salts from the solid wastes that were not drawn out on foods in the small intestine. Essentially the large intestine ensures all final materials worth keeping are absorbed back into the body. Then more importantly prior to elimination of the waste food products the large intestine releases large bacteria known as flora-aided fermentation ready for ease of evacuation through the anus.

The important function of the large intestine is the return of water to the body to ensure there is not too greater loss of vital fluids the body needs to thrive. However the large intestine is also the retainer of water when there is bad bacteria or virus particles in the digestive tract. It does this to ensure these unwanted materials get flushed out the system thoroughly to prevent further illness. This is a protection mechanism.

Anus

The anus evacuates waste products from the foods that have been digested. This is essentially the end of the bodily food digestion process.

It is important the anus functions correctly in removing faeces to rid of waste toxins from the body that will if left in the body over long periods of time can become harmful.

(422 words)

c)

Name of digestive juice

Site of production

Enzymes in digestive juices

Functions of the enzymes

Saliva

Mouth & Throat

Amylase

Starch to Maltose

Gastric Juice

Stomach

Pepsin

Proteins to Polypeptides

Pancreatic Juice

Small intestine & Duodenum

Trypsin,

Lipase & Amylase

Proteins to Polypeptides,

Triglycerides to Glycerol & Fatty Acids,

Starch to Maltose

TAQ 4

a) Label diagram (1-13)

1. Mouth/Tongue 2. Liver 3. Ascending colon 4. Cecum 5. Vermiform appendix 6. Rectum 7. Oesophagus 8. Stomach 9. Duodenum 10. Large intestine 11. Jejunum 12. Sigmoid colon 13. Lleum

b)

Digestive system organ

Function(s)

Oral cavity, teeth, & tongue

To initially break down the solids of foods ingested to allow for ease through the digestive system down through the oesophagus to the stomach.

Salivary gland

To help soften and weaken solid foods during digestion making it much easier to swallow. The amylase enzymes released through the saliva can turn starch form the foods to maltose creating manageable molecules of glucose essentially for the body to absorb.

Pharynx

The muscular tissue in the neck is the pharynx which moves the food mass down the neck and into the oesophagus with its sphincter motion.

Oesophagus

With sphincter muscular walls allows for this organ in the digestive tract to push the food along to the stomach to allow for the body to obtain the nutrient rich foods.

Stomach

Using its gastric juices to release enzymes to turn the proteins digested into polypeptides for absorption and further break down of food for the small intestine to absorb the majority of the foods goodness.

Liver

The liver’s key role in the digestive system is to produce bile, detoxify chemicals digested and metabolize drugs. The bile created in the process of this break down of molecules is passed on through to the intestines. The bile helps to break down fats during its journey through the small intestine. This organ also creates the release of specific proteins which are important for the bodies clotting of blood as well as other functions.

Gallbladder

This organs main job is to store bile that is produced by the liver in the gallbladder ready for when this bile is needed to help digest fatty foods that will come along and the bile will proceed to break down these fats within the duodenum in the small intestine.

Pancreas

The small intestine relays on the pancreas to produce enzymes and pancreatic juices for secretion into the small intestine to further break down food particles for absorption. These enzymes released by the pancreas break down proteins, triglycerides, and starch into absorbable molecules. The pancreas gland also produces insulin, a hormone for secretion into the bloodstream to regulate the bodies’ sugar levels.

Small intestine

To breakdown and absorb nutrients and minerals from foods.

Colon [cecum, appendix, rectum & anus]

Reabsorption of fluids back into the body and the removal of waste products from the body.

(421 words)

TAQ 5

Identify layers of the gut wall and how the structure of digestive tract relates to the role in digestion using a diagram

Within the stomach, small and large intestine the structure is in essence very similar aside of the three organs shape. All three organs have a lumen which is otherwise known as the centre hollow space of the organ where food travels through. On the inner organ wall layer is a lining of mucosa. Which is otherwise referred to as tiny glands that produce gastric juices in the stomach, and pancreatic juices in the small intestine and duodenum. These digestive juices are vital for the assistance in the breakdown of food solids. The pancreatic juices follow the food on down the tract and into the large intestine. This is where excess water that the body wishes to obtain gets absorbed back into the system. This is done to maintain a good level of hydration.

Submucosa is the layer of dense irregular connective tissue which supports the inner layer of the gastric organs wall and is the joining tissue with the organs muscular layer.

The muscle layers of the organs allow for the movement of foods to pass through the digestive tract.

The outer layer of the digestive tract is called the serosa membrane which secretes serous fluid. This fluid that the serosa secretes reduces the friction that could be created from muscle movement.

(212 Words)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Gut_wall.svg/640px-Gut_wall.svg.png

Bing.com

References

TAQ 5, Bing Image of the gut, www.bing.com (Accessed June 2015).

Bibliography

Diabetes. www.diabetes.co.uk (Accessed June 2015).

Atherosclerosis-Symptoms-NHS Choices. www.nhs.uk/conditions/atherosclerosis.com (Accessed June 2015).

Rickets-causes-NHS choices. www.nhs.ukconditions/rickets.com (Accessed June 2015).

Human body digestive system organs, how it works. www.webmd.com/heartburn-gerd/your-digestive-system (Accessed June 2015).

Maltose – New world encyclopedia. www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Maltose (Accessed June 2015).

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