The Food To Be Absorbed Digestive Enzymes Biology Essay

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The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract-a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus-and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.

In order for the food to be absorbed digestive enzymes are needed. Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.  Digestive enzymes are diverse and are found in the saliva secreted by the salivary glands, in the stomach secreted by cells lining the stomach, in the pancreatic juice secreted by pancreatic exocrine cells, and in the intestinal (small and large) secretions, or as part of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.

Diastase was the very first enzyme discovered. It is the natural form of amylase. This enzyme helps break down carbohydrates and turn them into sugar, which makes them easier to digest.  The enzyme can also be found and extracted from sources such as milk, saliva and other plants. Diastase helps in digestion of dietary starch, fats and lipids, proteins etc.

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Starch is just a carbohydrate consisting of large number of glucose molecules. This as mentioned before can be digested by the enzyme diastase.

People who have deficiency of this enzyme might develop problems digesting certain foods. Hence conditions like acid reflux and such occur. In such cases foods like honey and milk can be consumed as it naturally contains this enzyme or they might have to take the enzymes supplements.

Aim:

To study the rate at which starch (10%) digests under different concentrations f diastase enzyme (0 to 5 %).

Hypothesis -

The enzyme diastase digests starch into maltose. My hypothesis for this experiment is that as the concentration of diastase enzyme increases the time taken for the starch to be digested decreases.

Variables:

Independent variable -

Concentration of enzyme (%)

0% - 10ml of water ( diastase not added)

1% - 10ml of water and 0.10g of diastase

2% - 10ml of water and 0.20g of diastase

3% - 10ml of water and 0.30g of diastase

4% - 10ml of water and 0.40g of diastase

5% - 10ml of water and 0.50g of diastase

Figure 1 - 0.50g of diastase for 5% diastase solution.

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Dependant variable -

Time taken for starch to digest (seconds)

Control variable -

Glass wares used,

Amount of starch in starch solution(2ml of starch),

Amount if iodine (2ml) and

Amount of amylase (2ml)

Materials required:

Diastase

Test tubes

5 Measuring cylinders

3 Droppers

Electric balance

Iodine ml

Water ml

Starch 10g

Hot plate

Magnetic stirrer

Magnet

Glass jars 3

Distilled water

Stop watch

Preparation of Diastase solution:

0% - 10ml of water ( diastase not added)

1% - 10ml of water and 0.10g of diastase

2% - 10ml of water and 0.20g of diastase

3% - 10ml of water and 0.30g of diastase

4% - 10ml of water and 0.40g of diastase

5% - 10ml of water and 0.50g of diastase

Method:

I measured 100 ml of water and 10 g of starch.

Figure 2 - 10g of starch

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I prepared a solution of 10% starch concentration by dissolving the starch in hot water and magnetic stirrer.

I then prepared the enzyme solution by taking different concentration of diastase ( as mentioned in the materials used) and dissolving it in 10ml of distilled water.

I did so for each concentration - 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%

Figure 3 -Prepared diastase enzyme solution in %

C:\Users\sanjay\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Word\Photo-0073.jpg

Figure 4 - 2ml starch + 2ml iodine

C:\Users\sanjay\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Word\Photo-0076.jpg

I then started the trials by mixing 2 ml of iodine (iodine so that the time taken to dissolve the starch can be noted) to 2 ml of starch solution after which 2ml of diastase solution is added giving the solution a blue color as starch is present.

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Immediately after I added the diastase solution (starting with 0%) I started the stop watch.

The blue color given by iodine will disappear as soon as the entire starch is digested. Once the blue color is replaced by white, I stop the watch and record the time taken for the color change (the starch to digest).

I do this for all concentrations of enzyme up to 5% concentration.

And this experiment is repeated 5 times entailing 5 trials.

Result:

Table 1 -

Concentration of enzyme in %

+ 0.05%

Change recorded over time in seconds

+ 2.00 seconds

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Average

SD

+

0%

No change over time

1%

140.00

154.04

160.70

159.24

179.20

158.64

14.1060866

2%

38.47

44.32

42.70

47.07

43.23

43.16

3.12

3%

22.23

28.71

32.53

27.22

30.33

28.20

3.88

4%

16.56

21.55

21.96

28.21

28.51

23.36

5.04

5%

11.61

11.83

13.14

8.87

12.91

11.67

1.70

Graph 1 - Averages of time taken to digest the starch in different concentrations of enzyme.

Discussion:

The solution with 0% diastase concentration remains blue as the starch is not digested since no enzyme is present to react on it. Hence I haven't included this reading in graph 2 which shows the average.

The solution with 1% diastase concentration takes around 158.64 seconds on an average for the color to change from blue to white (for the starch to be digested).

The solution with 2% diastase concentration takes around 43.16 seconds on an average for the color to change from blue to white (for the starch to be digested).

The solution with 3% diastase concentration takes around 28.20 seconds on an average for the color to change from blue to white (for the starch to be digested).

The solution with 4% diastase concentration takes around 23.36 seconds on an average for the color to change from blue to white (for the starch to be digested).

The solution with 5% diastase concentration takes around 11.67 seconds on an average for the color to change from blue to white (for the starch to be digested).

I noticed, as the diastase concentration increases, the time taken to digest the starch decreases. These both are inversely proportional. It is obvious though because, more the enzyme faster the reaction takes place hence the starch being digested and change in color from blue to white faster.

The 2% and 3% enzyme reading did not have much difference as seen in graph 2. A significant difference is seen though between 1% and 2% enzyme's reading.

Conclusion:

Limitations -

Since I have taken the readings manually by a stop watch, it widens the scope for mistakes. Had I found another way to measure the time it takes for the starch to be digested by varied diastase concentrations, it would have minimized any scope for mistakes.

Also the enzymes solution used for all the trials was made and used on the same day but it was done over the period of a few hours which might have affected the quality of the enzyme solution.

Since not much difference is seen in the readings of 2% and 3% there is a chance for some error as when I notice the difference between the readings of 1% and 2% it shows the appropriate amount of difference in the time taken for the starch to dissolve.