THE EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES IN ORAL HEALTH OF SCHOOL CHILDREN

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EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES IN ORAL HEALTH OF SCHOOL CHILDREN

INTRODUCTION:

The oral health of people with low socio economic status is more affected by caries than that of people with high socioeconomic status.1 There are different causative factors that are considered to be the reason like improper oral hygiene maintenance, cariogenic foods and lack of dental preventive programs, systemic infrastructure deficiencies that prevent proper screening of oral diseases.2,3

Dental a carries is a progressive irreversible microbial disease affecting the hard parts of tooth. Fermentation of dietary carbohydrates that produce acid and cause the initial lesion to get started.4 60 to 90% of the schools going children of developing countries are affected.5

In developing countries like Pakistan oral health of the child is not considered a major problem. Oral health improving strategies in the community are very costly and often inefficient.6,7

Not only people with low socioeconomic status but every human will experience poor oral health in their life.8

Inequalities of oral health are not clearly understood by sampling and measurement methods described in previous studies and causing difficulty in development of further practices and optimal policies.

oral health promotion policies will be effective in reducing inequalities of oral health.9

Improvements in oral health can occur by using fluoridated tooth pastes and social and economic environmental factors.10

No standard indices have been used to quantify and evaluate trends of socio economic inequality in child oral health. Inequalities in the distribution of dental carries among 12yrs old Brazilian school children with sample of 792 was undertaken. In that percentage of carries prevalence was 39% and mean DMFT was 0.9 (SD 1.15)

In Pakistan a cross-sectional study on dental ailments among school children with age of 11 -12 yrs with high and low socioeconomic status was undertaken (62.06%) of DMFT with SD 1.84 and mean DMFT with those whose socioeconomic status is high.11

In Pakistani context only few studies have been carried out that clarify the factors of oral health associated with high and low socioeconomic status

Aim is provide a baseline data that identifies the effects of socioeconomic status on oral health among school children of Qasimabad with age of 12 and 15 years. so that more effective policies should buildup for

Setting: Blue sea high school

(Private) Qasimabad and

Government boys and girls high school Qasimabad Hyderabad.

Implementation of preventive programs that meets its need as no survey is undertaken in this area.

OBJECTIVES:

  • To compare the effects of oral health in high and low status of school children

(Government School and private school in Qasimabad Hyderabad)

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

DURATION:

Duration of the study will be 6 months after approval of synopsis.

SAMPLE SIZE:

Study will be conducted in 200 school children consists of boys and girls form which 100 students of Government School and 100 of private school

SAMPLE TECHNIQUES:

Non probability (convenience)

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross sectional (descriptive)

DATA COLLECTION

  • INCLUISION CRITERIA:

Age ranges from 12 and 15 years

Both genders (boys and girls)

  • EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

Children who are mentally and physically ill will not be included in this study.

Children who are not be willing for examination.

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE:

Study will be carried out in Blue sea high school (private) and Boys and girls high school (GOVT). Total four hundred children of both boys and girls will be examined during the study periods. A consent form in Urdu and English will be given to the principle and head mistress for permission of dental examination of school children for study purpose (Annex1)

All the information regarding the variables of the study like age, gender, class, socioeconomic status, brushing habits will be obtained by using international criteria standardization by WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION for oral health survey 12and questionnaires consisting closed ended questions. (Annex2)

The clinical examination of the study subjects will be performed to check oral health status by using CPITN probe and plane dental mirrors for DMFT and DFT index.

DATA ANALYSIS PLAN:

Data will be analyzed by SPSS version 16 frequencies and percentage of different variables with mean together at standard deviation will be calculated and reported.

REFRENCES:

1. Haleem A, Khan AA. School-based Oral Health Education in

Pakistan. The need and possible strategies. Pak Oral Dent J.

2006; 26(1):119-24.

2. Shawn lin and Allison malik 2011

3. Shujaat NG, Idris SH. Prevalence Dental Caries among 6-10

old children in a suburban area of Lahore. Pak Oral Dent J.

2009; 29(2):317-20.

4. Idris SH, Shujaat NG. Effectiveness of health promoting

school and illicit drug abuse, mental health and healthy eating

habits. Pak Oral Dent J. 2009; 29(2):327-30.

317-20.

5. Situation Analysis-Results

Oral Health Services in Pakistan

6. Oral health inequalities in a national sample of Australian children aged 2–3 and 6–7years

Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 DOI:10.1111/j.1834-7819.2011.01644.x

7. Beagle hole, Benzie, , Crail and Mackey 2009

8. Health policy: Inequalities in oral health: a review of the evidence and recommendations for action. British dental journal 187, 6 – 12 (1999)

9. Inequalities in the distribution of dental carries among 12 year old Brazilian school children. Braz. oral res. vol. 25 no. 1 Sao Paulo Jan/ Feb. 2011

10.Trend of Income related Inequality of child oral health in Australia J Dent Res 2010 sep

11. Pakistan Oral and Health Journal Vol 31, No. 2 December 2011 Dental ailments among and high socioeconomic status

12.World Health Organization. Oral health survery: asic methods, 4th ed. Geneva World health organization 1997.

ANNEX-2

Questionnaires profarma and data collection I would like to know some of your particulars regarding your social and oral health in order to facilitate study analysis

1. Name: __________

2. Age: ______

3. Class: ______

4. Gender: _____

5. Address: _______________________________________________

6. Economic status:

A. Lower class B. Middle class C. High class

7. What type of tooth brushing do you use for tooth cleaning?

A. Brush B. Miswak C. Finger D. Salt E. Nil

8. What is the time of tooth brushing on a day?

A. Morning B. Evening C. Noon D. Before going to bed E. None

9. Have you taken any dental treatment?

A. Yes B. No

10. What is the frequency of tooth brushing in a day?

A. Once B. Twice C. Thrice

DENTAL EXAMINATION/ CARRIES STATUS (DMFT & dft INDEX)

Permanent Teeth (DMFT)

18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Primary Teeth (dft)

55 54 53 52 51 61 62 63 64 65

85 84 83 82 81 71 72 73 74 75

1

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