The Effects Of Cigarettes On Our Body Biology Essay

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Nowadays, smoking problems became one of the most important problems in many nations. Smoking not only destroys the bodies of people who smoke, but also destroys the environments. Despite of these devastating effects of smoking cigarettes, more and more people are beginning to smoke and the age starting to smoke is becoming younger and younger every year. However, significant numbers of people continue to smoke cigarettes even after they learn about the effects of cigarettes. In most cases, they are not aware of the effects of the cigarettes because they wouldn't feel the effects of cigarettes until years after their first smoke. However, more than 4,000 harmful ingredients of a cigarette are killing one who smokes slowly but definitely.

Almost every organs in human body are affected by the chemicals in the cigarettes one smoke. Let's see what organs in human body are affected the most by smoking.

Starting at the top of the body, the first risk is cancer of the mouth. Smoking cigarettes also causes gum disease, tooth decay, and stinking breath.The teeth become yellow and breath starts to stink.

Because smoking produce bad effects to the ability of inhaling oxygen, smokers feel frequent headaches, which resulted from lack of oxygen in the body.

Moving down to your chest, smoke passes through the bronchi, or breathing tubes. Hydrogen cyanide and other chemicals in the smoke attack the lining of the bronchi, inflaming them and causing that chronic smoker's cough. Because the bronchi are weakened, you're more likely to get bronchial infections. Mucus secretion in your lungs is impaired, also leading to chronic coughing. Smokers are 10 times as likely to get lung cancer and emphysema as nonsmokers.

At the chest, smoking has devastating effects on smoker's heart. Nicothine, which is main source of the smokes that smoker inhales, raises blood pressure and makes blood clot more easily. Also carbon monoxide takes oxygen from the blood and helps cholesterol to pile up and stick to the blood vessels, and it becomes hard to be washed away. All of these efffects add up to cause crucial damages to smoker's heart and increase risk of heart attack. Also, the poor circulation resulting from cholesterol deposits can cause strokes and loss of circulation in fingers and toes.

Down to the stomache, digestive organs are affected. The tars in smoke can cause cancer of the esophagus and throat. Smoking increases the amount of acids that are made in the stomache and leads it to the secretion, causing heartburn and ulcers. By followed reasons, smokers have higher rates of deadly pancreatic cancer. Many of the carcinogens from cigarettes are excreted in the urine where their presence can cause bladder cancer, which is often fatal. High blood pressure from smoking can evne damage the kidneys.

The health effects of smoking have results we can measure. Forty percent of men who are heavy smokers will die before they reach retirement age, as compared to only 18 percent of nonsmokers. Women who smoke face an increased risk of cervical cancer, and pregnant women who smoke take a chance with the health of their unborn babies.

Besides the many effects of smoking cigarettes, which are visible or sensible after long time, there are some immediate effects occur on the body.

The first sensible occurrence is coughing. At the first time you are smoking, you would cough lots of times, and you would think you cough because it is the first time smoking, but actually the coughing continues as you keep smoking. Coughing is a natural occurrence from the body to get rid of the poisonous fumes that you inhale. It is the sound of lung protecting itself from poisonous effects of smoking.

Yellow teeth and yellow fingers are other visible occurrence. After smoking for so long, people would be aware of my yellow stained teeth. For evidence, lots of smokers try to smile with their mouth covered or closed to hide their yellow teeth. Even though they whiten their teeth, it would be go back to yellow color soon.

Thirdly, there is shortness of breath. When smokers play sports, they feel they get tired easily and can't hold their breaths long enough. As the years go by they would find they always started coughing after any kind of physical exercise. Their lung capacity is reduced by smoking. They would find that they cannot hold their breath for very long. When they have to blow into a meter to test lung capacity, and they just know that their attempt will be well below average. They then get a read out that tells you that you have the lungs of a 50 year old, and your only 35.

Fourthly, there are circulation problems. Smoking blocks arteries and reduces blood flow. Smokers would feel the cold, especially in my feet. Because the circulation system doesn't work well, smokers would have much pain when the temperatures change suddenly. Smoking can also lead to varicose veins and impotence.

Fifthly, there is grey complexion. You can tell a heavy smoker from the way their skin looks. They look grey and paler than non smokers. Smoking makes your skin age quicker. You may not think this is a problem when you are young, but you will see the effects of cigarette smoking when you get older. You are starving your skin of essential nutrients.

Sixthly, there is lack of energy. Smokers wouldn't think this is a problem. However, it would be clear that their energies were lacking a lot when they get old or they quit smoking. According to my father who smoked for 20 years and quitted smoking last year, he felt his body was balanced much better and didn't get tired easily. He would wake up in the morning feeling completely awake.The reason is that when you smoke you are starving your body of oxygen, and this leads to a lack of energy.

Seventhly, there is dry mouth. Because many chemical ingredients in a cigarette interrupt salivary glands to work, mouth wouldn't obtain enough saliva.

Eighthly, there are problems in taste and smell. When you smoke you gradually lose the ability to smell things properly and your taste buds don't work like they used to. You will smell of tobacco smoke if you smoke, but you can't tell.

Ninthly, there is dizzy spell. If smokers get out of the bath too quickly they would get funny bright lights in their head. It was a strange sensation, and it affects some them more than others. Most people will get dizzy spells if they sit upright quickly, but a smoker will feel even dizzier because they have less oxygen in their bodies.

Other than visible and sensible effects, there are also crucial effects happening inside of the body, where the effects might be sensible but not visible. Most significantly, there are immediate occurrences in the brain. In addition to well -understood chemical dependency, smokers also show evidence of a higher rate of behavioral problems and suffer from following immediate and crucial effects.

Most of smokers, or probably all of the smokers, believe that smoking cigarettes would relieve their stresses from the works or lives. However, the recent research shows that smokers have higher rate of stress than non-smokers have, on average. The relaxed feeling that smokers have while they are smoking is actually the feeling that non-smokers always have.

Even more, smoking changes brain chemistry. When compared to non-smokers, smokers' brain cells, specifically brain cell receptors, have been shown to have fewer dopamine receptors. Brain cell receptors are molecules that sit on the outside of the cell interacting with the molecules that fit into the receptor, much like a lock and key. Receptors are important because they guard and mediate the functions of the cell. For instance when the right molecule comes along it unlocks the receptor, setting off a chain of events to perform a specific cell function. Specific receptors mediate different cell activities. Smokers have fewer dopamine receptors, a specific cell receptor found in the brain that is believed to play a role in addiction. 9 Dopamine is normally released naturally while engaging in certain behaviors like eating, drinking and copulation. The release of dopamine is believed to give one a sense of reward. One of the leading hypotheses regarding the mechanism of addiction theorizes that nicotine exposure initially increases dopamine transmission, but subsequently decreases dopamine receptor function and number. The initial increase in dopamine activity from nicotine results initially in pleasant feelings for the smoker, but the subsequent decrease in dopamine leaves the smoker craving more cigarettes. New animal studies have shown that brain chemistry and receptors may be altered early in the smoking process. Habitual smoking may continue to change brain chemistry, including decreasing dopamine receptors and thus yielding a more intense craving and risk of addiction. These brain chemistry changes may be permanent. In addition, because the role played by receptors in other cognitive functions, such as memory and intelligence, is unknown, how cigarette smoking effects.

Other organs that have second most crucial effects are respiratory systems, which include from nose to sinuses down into the lung. Because they are connected and working together with each other, the crucial effects from smoking cigarettes affect them at the same time.

First, Bronchospasm, which refers to "airway irritability" or the abnormal tightening of the airways of the lungs. Bronchospasm makes airways smaller and leads to wheezing similar to that experienced by someone with asthma during an asthma attack.16 While smokers may not have asthma, they are susceptible to this type of reaction to tobacco smoke. An asthmatic that starts smoking can severely worsen his/her condition. Bronchospasm makes breathing more difficult, as the body tries to get more air into irritated lungs.

Second, the lungs produce mucus to trap chemical and toxic substances. Small "finger like" hairs, called cilia, coat the lung's airways and move rhythmically to clear this mucus from the lungs. Combined with coughing, this is usually an effective method of clearing the lungs of harmful substances. Tobacco smoke paralyzes these hairs, allowing mucus to collect in the lungs of the smoker. Cigarette smoke also promotes goblet cell growth resulting in an increase in mucus. More mucus is made with each breath of irritating tobacco and the smoker cannot easily clear the increased

Third, as I have stated above, coughing is the body's natural response to clear irritants from the lungs. Without the help of cilia, a smoker is faced with the difficult task of clearing increased amounts of phlegm with cough alone. A persistent cough, while irritating, is the smoker's only defense against the harmful products of tobacco smoke. A smoker will likely have a persistent, annoying cough from the time they start smoking. A smoker who is not coughing is probably not doing an effective job of clearing his/her lungs of the harmful irritants found in tobacco smoke.

Forth, smoking decreases physical performance. When the body is stressed or very active, for example, running, swimming, playing competitive sports, it requires that more oxygen be delivered to active muscles. The combination of bronchospasm and increased phlegm production result in airway obstruction and decreased lung function, leading to poor physical performance. In addition, smoking has been shown to stunt lung development in adolescent girls, limiting adult breathing capacity. Smoking not only limits one's current state of fitness, but can also restrict future physical potential.

The cardiovascular system includes the heart and all of the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the organs. Blood vessels include arteries, veins, and capillaries, which are all connected and work in unison with the lungs to deliver oxygen to the brain, heart, and other vital organs.

Adverse lipid is a Lipid, which is a form of fat that is a source of energy for the body. Most people use this fat in its good form, called high-density lipoproteins, or HDLs. Some forms of fat, such as low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, triglycerides and cholesterol) can be harmful to the body. These harmful forms have their greatest effects on blood vessels. If produced in excess or accumulated over time, they can stick to blood vessel walls and cause narrowing. Such narrowing can impair blood flow to the heart, brain and other organs, causing them to fail. Most bodies have a balance of good and bad fats. However, that is not the case for smokers. Nicotine increases the amount of bad fats (LDL, triglycerides, cholesterol) circulating in the blood vessels and decreases the amount of good fat (HDL) available.25 These silent effects begin immediately and greatly increase the risk for heart disease and stroke.26 In fact, smoking 1-5 cigarettes per day presents a significant risk for a heart attack.

Heart rate increase follows as a result of smoking. Heart rate is a measure of how fast your heart is pumping blood around your body. Young adult smokers have a resting heart rate of two to three beats per minute faster than the resting heart rate of young adult nonsmokers. Nicotine consumption increases a resting heart rate, as soon as 30 minutes after puffing; and the higher the nicotine consumption (through deep inhalation or increased number of cigarettes) the higher the heart rate. Smokers' hearts have to work harder than nonsmokers' hearts. A heart that is working harder is a heart that can tire-out faster and may result in an early heart attack or stroke.

Along with the heart rate increase, blood pressure increases. Blood pressure is a measure of tension upon the walls of arteries by blood. It is reported as a fraction, systolic over diastolic pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the highest arterial pressure reached during contraction of the heart. Diastolic blood pressure is the lowest pressure, found during the heart's relaxation phase. Nicotine consumption increases blood pressure. Older male smokers have been found to have higher systolic blood pressure than nonsmoking men do. Higher blood pressure requires that the heart pump harder in order to overcome the opposing pressure in the arteries. This increased work, much like that related to increased heart rate, can wear out a heart faster. The higher pressure can also cause organ damage where blood is filtered, such as in the kidneys.

The smoking also constricts blood vessels. It has been shown that smoking, even light smoking, causes the body's blood vessels to constrict (vasoconstriction). Smoking does this by decreasing the nitric oxide (NO2), which dilates blood vessels, and increasing the endothelin-1 (ET-1), which causes constriction of blood vessels. The net effect is constriction of blood vessels right after smoking and transient reduction in blood supply. Vasoconstriction may have immediate complications for certain persons, particularly individuals whose blood vessels are already narrowed by plaques (atherosclerosis), or partial blood clots, or individuals who are in a hyper-coagulable state (i.e. have sickle cell disease). These individuals will be at increased risk of stroke or heart attack.

Thrombosis occurs, too, as a result of smoking. Thrombosis is a process that results in the formation of a clot inside a blood vessel. Normally, clots form inside blood vessels to stop bleeding, when vessels have been injured. However, components of tobacco smoke result in dangerously increased rates of clot formation. Smokers have elevated levels of thrombin, an enzyme that causes the blood to clot, after fasting, as well as a spike immediately after smoking. This process may result in blockage of blood vessels, stopping blood flow to vital organs. In addition, thrombosis especially occurs around sites of plaque formation (above). Because of this abnormal tendency to clot, smokers with less severe heart disease, have more heart attacks than nonsmokers. In addition, sudden death is four times more likely to occur in young male cigarette smokers than in nonsmokers.

There are still hundreds of harmful effects of smoking cigarettes besides the ones that I stated above. Some say that smoking cigarettes makes them feel good and so it won't harm their bodies, however, smoking cigarettes is like taking poison every day. In other words, if one is smoking cigarettes every day, one is killing oneself with one's own hands. In conclusion, smoking cigarettes doesn't give any single benefits to people.