The Effect Of Feeding Oil Palm Biology Essay


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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of oil palm frond (OPF) feeding on meat quality of Kacang crossbred goat. For this purpose, 24 kids were used and allocated to 3 treatment groups receiving a 50% of OPF(OPF), 25% of OPF(HAF), and concentrate diet (CON). All groups received 3% feed daily according to body weight. At the end of the growth trial which lasted for 100 days, all goats were slaughtered. Samples of longissimus dorsi(LD), bicep femoris(BF) and infraspinatus(IS) muscle were used for meat quality study.

The shear force value of OPF treatment group was significantly lower in LD muscle in compare to CON group. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of IS and BF of OPF group was significantly (P<0.05) higher in OPF animal in compare to other groups. Redness (a*) in all treatment group and all evaluated muscle was not significantly different.

Very little is known on meat quality of goats raised using locally available feed resources in tropical condition. Malaysia is currently the largest producer and exporter of palm oil and palm kernel  oil  in  the  world,  with  a  total  of  4.48  million  hectares  of  the Malaysian  agriculture  land  cultivated  with  this  tree  crop   (MPOB, 2009). The oil palm frond (OPF) is one of the most available and abundant agricultural by-products in Malaysia. The fronds are typically considered as waste products following the pruning practice. Total production of oil palm frond is estimated at 24.4 million metric tons dry matter per year (Dahlan, 1996). The OPF has great potential for use as a roughage source or as a component in compound feeds for ruminants (Khamseekhiew et al., 2002 and Goh, 2002). Oil palm frond can be used as forage or supplement for sheep and goat in case of food shortage. Conversely, there is no reference concerning its effects on animal products and particularly meat quality. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of feeding diets supplemented with oil palm fronds (OPF) on the meat quality of Kacang crossbred goats.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of oil palm frond on tenderness properties and meat quality of Kacang crossbred goats.




Twenty-four male local goat (21.8 ± 1 kg body weight and approximately of six months of age) were randomly divided in three groups (n=8 per group). The animals were fed 3 % of bodyweight twice daily. The treatment groups included:  CON (100 % commercial concentrate), HAF (25 % OPF, w/w) or OPF (50 % OPF, w/w). The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric (CON 4.27; HAF 4.19; OPF 4.38 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (CON 16.50; HAF 17.45; OPF 17.22 %) using soybean meal and palm oil. goats were housed in individual wooden pens during the growth trial which lasted for 100 days with 3 week adaptation period


Muscle samples after slaughtering the animals were obtained and stored at - 80 0C for Meat colour score and meat tenderness, The Warner-Bratzler shear values were determined with three cores with three 1.27-cm-diameter cores were removed from each cut of meat parallel to the muscle fiber orientation using a hand-coring device. A single, peak shear force measurement was obtained for each core using the Warner-Bratzler shear values instrument (Stable Micro Systems, TA.HDPlus, Great Britain).


Colour  measurements  were  carried  out  using  a  Hunter Lab-Scan (Hunter Associates Laboratory,Inc., Reston, USA)  Colour  View  Spectrophotometer. Determinations were done in 2.5 cm thick meat obtained from the 13th rib of longissimus dorsi, bicep femoris and infraspinatus. CIE Lab system provides the values of three colour components; L*(black*white component, lightness), a*(+red to *green component) and b*(+yellow to *blue component).


All the data generated in this study were analyzed by the PROC GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with class variables including diet and weight block (heavy, medium or light weight block).




Warner Blitzer Shear force value for meat tenderness determined in three different muscle including Longissimus dorsi, Bicep femoris and Infraspinatus. The OPF animals were fed by 50% of OPF had lower shear force value in compare to another treatment groups. In LD muscle the shear force value of OPF (1.88) group was significantly different than CON (2.46) animal (P<0.05).

  Table 1: Warner-Bratzler Shear force values of muscles (Mean ± SE; n=8)




Shear Force (KG)


  2.46 ± 0.22 a

    2.23 ± 0.10 ab

  1.88 ± 0.13 b

BF ns

3.65 ± 0.26

3.56 ± 0.24

3.53 ± 0.15

IS ns

2.51 ± 0.26

2.46 ± 0.24

2.19 ± 0.15

Values with different superscripts within row differ significantly at P<0.05; ns No significant difference


IS muscles from goats fed high levels of oil palm frond had greater and significantly (P < 0.05) b* (yellowness) values than those HAF and CON group (Table 2). Longissimus muscles from goats fed a high level of oil palm frond (OPF group) had greater (P < 0.05) a* (redness) values than HAF group. The L* value (lightness) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) among the diets, with the highest value for OPF treatment diet in IS and BF Muscles. LD tended to less redness. Muscle from OPF animals tended to be brighter and more yellow. Redness (a*) in OPF animals in BF and IS muscles were significantly (P<0.05) lower than CON and HAF groups. Yellowness (b*) in OPF treatment animals tended to be higher in compare to CON group.

     Table 6: Meat colour score of muscles (Mean; n=8)





LD colour L*ns












BF colour L*ns












LD colour L*ns












Values with different superscripts within row differ significantly at P<0.05; ns No significant difference




There is little literature concerning oil palm frond intake on meat quality. OPF group always had lower shear force value in compare to HAF and CON. This result showed that by increasing the oil palm frond level in treatment diet, meat tenderness tends to decreased. Tenderness values for goats are often lower than for lamb/mutton and beef and normally are acceptable for human (Pike et al., 1973). The Warner-Bratzler shear force values encountered in this study ranging from 1.88 to 3.65 kg/cm2 for all the three LD, BF and IS muscles were below 3.65 kg per cm−2 which qualify as acceptable tender samples (Devine et al., 1993). The values obtained were less than those reported by Kadim (2003) for Jabal Akhdar goats (7.34) and Babiker and Bello (1986) for desert goats (5.98) but are comparable to Criollo goats (2.99) (Gonzalez et al., 1983). Shear force values were within the range 1.88 to 3.65 kg/cm2 for the three selected muscles. The difference in shear force values between the three treatments group in LD muscle may be due to the greater connective tissue content of the LD muscle in CON (Gonzalez et al. 1983) or sarcomere length (Purchas, 1979).


Goat because of the lower intramuscular fat content in goat carcasses tends to be darker and redder than lamb (Babiker et al., 1990). Colour of meat depends on several individual factors and their interaction, therefore. In case of lightness and redness the  differences for BF and LD muscle colour were small and lower than the range reported by Kadim et al. (2003), Babiker et al., (1990) and Dhanda et al., (1999) but higher in case of yellowness (b*).



Based on this experiment, it has been shown that the various OPF in goat feed showed different rate of colour after trial. The LD muscle had higher overall a* indicating that those muscle were redder in colour than the other two types of muscle. There was a dramatic value of shear force value in LD muscle when fed OPF diet. However, the effects of different levels of OPF on organoleptic traits, such as juiciness, and flavor, and physical traits such as sarcomere length need additional investigation.


The authors are very grateful to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Faculty of Agriculture, UPM.  This research was supported by an E-Science grant No. 5450151.



Babiker, S.A., I.A. El Khider, S.A. Shafie 1990. Chemical composition and quality attributes of goat meat and lamb. Meat Sci. 28: 273-277.


Dahlan, I.  (1996). Oil palm by-products:  its utilization and contribution for livestock industry.  In:  Proceedings of the Agricultural Conference on International Oil Palm Congress, Kuala Lumpur, 23- 28 September 1996. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 269 - 274. 

Dhanda, J.S., D.G. Taylor, P.J. Murray, J.E. McCosker. 1999. The influence of goat genotype on the production of capretto and chevon carcasses. 2. Meat quality. Meat Sci. 52: 363-367.

Devine, C., Graafhuis, A., Muir, P., & Chrystall, B. (1993). The effect of growth rate and ultimate pH on meat quality of lambs. Meat Sci. 35(1), 63-77.

Goh, Y.M.  (2002). Dietary manipulations using oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fronds to increase the unsaturated fatty acid content of mutton under tropical conditions  Ph.D. Thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

 Gonzalez, F. A. N., J. E. Owen, and  M. T. A. Cereceres. 1983. Studies on the Criollo goat of northern Mexico: Part 2- physical and chemical characteristics of the musculature. Meat Sci, 9: 305-314. 

Kadim I.T., O. Mahgoub, D.S Al-Ajmi, R.S. Al-Maqbaly, N.M. Al-Saqri, A. Ritchie. (2003) An evaluation of the growth, carcass and meat quality characteristics of Omani goat breeds. Meat Sci. 66: 203-210

 Khamseekhiew, B., J.B.  Liang, Z.A. Jelan, and C.C. Wong. (2002).     Fibre     degradability of oil palm frond pellet, supplemented with Arachis pintoi in cattle. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Tech. 24(2): 209-216.

 Malaysia Palm Oil Board (MPOB). (2009). Overview of the Malaysian Oil Palm Industry 2008.

 Pike, M.I., Smith, G.C., Carpenter, Z.L., 1973. Palatability ratings for meat from goats and other meat animal species. J. Anim. Sci. 37: (269) (abstract 159).

 Purchas, R. W. (1979). A comparison of the fatness of weaned and unweaned lambs. Proc. the N.Z. Soc. Anim. Prod. 39: 211-216.


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