The Definition Of Anthropometry Biology Essay

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Anthropometry measures all physical aspects of the human body like height and weight. a More thorough body of measurements is usually needed for Human Factors work such as the length from your elbow to the tip of your finger or the circumference of your skull are some examples. But from a Human Factors perspective having anthropometric data for a single individual is only useful if you are designing something specific to that individual, such as a prosthetic limb. The real power comes from a statistical data set for a population which is basically measurements of a lot of people.

If you have data from a statistically significant portion of a population you can extrapolate the data you don't have. With the knowledge through statistics, you can measure a few people and have enough knowledge to determine what the rest will be like with a high degree of accuracy. The population can be as general as "men", which represents all the males in the world across all races and countries or it can be tailored to a tighter demographic such as "White American Men".

This data can be plotted and the set follows a bell curve if plotted by number of occurrences. That means that there are more people at the 50th percentile and only a few at the extremes of 5% and 95% moving almost to nothing for 1% and 99%. There are countless applications for anthropometric data sets but they usually center on designing or evaluating for a range in that specific data set as per example the range of women between 20 and 40 years of age.

3. Definition of Ergonomics :

Ergonomics is the science of making things comfortable and to makes things efficient with ergonomics (or human factors) as the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system. Ergonomics can be equally useful in the design of services or processes and is not limited to products alone.

Comfort is one of the greatest aspects of a design's effectiveness and is the human-machine interface of whether an item feels pleasing to the user. If you do not like to touch it you will not operate it and then it is useless. Better ergonomics mean better quality which means you will be more comfortable with the value of the item.

Efficiency is quite simply making something easier to do. Efficiency comes in many forms and efficiency can be found almost everywhere. By reducing the number of parts makes repairs more efficient and by reducing the number of steps in a task makes it quicker (i.e. efficient) to complete. So the next time you hear the term ergonomics you will know what it means to you in terms of comfort and efficient usage of an utility.

The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) classified ergonomics (or human factors) as the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data, and other methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.

Data processing and graph representing results:

Physical data has been collected of the women in the designated age group for their height and their elbow height while standing and inserted into an excel spreadsheet as indicated underneath. Consequently the average height and elbow height resulted in 1.710 and 1.128 meter respectively and the standard deviation on the height and elbow height calculated to 0.252 and 0.022.

Measurements for 100 women

Height (m)

Elbow Height (m)

1

1.458

1.106

2

1.504

0.939

3

1.530

0.950

4

1.538

0.948

5

1.541

1.093

6

1.542

0.98

7

1.543

0.926

8

1.548

0.965

9

1.549

0.909

10

1.550

0.960

11

1.564

0.957

12

1.565

0.896

13

1.572

0.998

14

1.572

0.943

15

1.574

0.970

16

1.580

1.020

17

1.583

1.023

18

1.589

0.978

19

1.593

0.955

20

1.593

0.931

21

1.609

0.996

22

1.610

1.000

23

1.610

0.980

24

1.610

0.966

25

1.620

0.980

26

1.620

1.060

27

1.620

1.060

28

1.621

0.984

29

1.623

0.995

30

1.627

1.167

31

1.630

1.030

32

1.632

1.029

33

1.632

1.029

34

1.640

0.983

35

1.643

1.035

36

1.643

1.036

37

1.650

1.040

38

1.652

1.034

39

1.657

1.057

40

1.660

1.070

41

1.660

1.056

42

1.661

1.185

43

1.670

1.090

44

1.674

1.054

45

1.676

1.142

46

1.680

1.060

47

1.680

1.080

48

1.682

1.131

49

1.683

1.083

50

1.683

1.053

51

1.690

1.140

52

1.691

1.006

53

1.700

1.125

54

1.700

1.040

55

1.700

1.030

56

1.701

1.091

57

1.710

1.026

58

1.710

1.026

59

1.711

1.041

60

1.715

1.120

61

1.720

1.060

62

1.720

1.087

63

1.720

1.087

64

1.720

1.087

65

1.723

1.320

66

1.725

1.120

67

1.729

1.147

68

1.730

1.080

69

1.732

1.153

70

1.736

1.026

71

1.736

1.139

72

1.740

1.085

73

1.740

1.085

74

1.745

1.103

75

1.750

1.050

76

1.750

1.075

77

1.750

1.150

78

1.750

1.150

79

1.753

1.157

80

1.756

0.976

81

1.762

1.015

82

1.770

1.170

83

1.771

1.176

84

1.780

1.100

85

1.782

1.125

86

1.783

1.162

87

1.785

1.135

88

1.786

1.127

89

1.800

1.130

90

1.800

1.095

91

1.810

1.170

92

1.810

1.186

93

1.810

1.120

94

1.812

1.128

95

1.822

1.088

96

1.830

1.210

97

1.834

1.092

98

1.835

1.200

99

1.852

1.113

100

1.962

1.149

Average

1.710

1.128

STD

0.252

0.022

Normal distribution graphs for height and elbow height can be drawn as follows:

Graph for women's height

Figure 1: Normal distribution graph for women's height

Cumulative Probability

 

 

xmin

1.5

xmax

2

Pr(x<xmin)

20.23%

Pr(x>xmax)

12.49%

Pr(xmin<x<xmax)

67.28%

Figure 2: Graphs of Cumulative Probability

S - Curve Graph of Cumulative Probability

z

-0.84

36

x

1.49832

F(x)

20.05%

Figure 3: S - Curve Graphs of Cumulative Probability

Interesting analyses and conclusions can now being made from this graph like:

Figure 2 graph indicates that 20.23% of the total population will be less than 1.5 meters tall and 12.49% will be more than 2.00 meters tall with 67.28% exactly between 1.5 and 2.0 meters;

Figure 3 graph indicates that the probability for a person to be less than 1.5 meter in height, is actually 20.05% (area underneath normal distribution graph) that has been covered in blue.

The very same graphs shown above for the height of the women, can now being drawn for the elbow height of the same group of women to analyse this phenomenon as well.

Graph for women's elbow height

Figure 4: Normal distribution graph for women's elbow height

Cumulative Probability

 

 

xmin

1.11

xmax

1.15

Pr(x<xmin)

20.66%

Pr(x>xmax)

15.87%

Pr(xmin<x<xmax)

63.47%

Figure 5: Graphs of Cumulative Probability

S - Curve Graph of Cumulative Probability

Figure 6: S - Curve Graphs of Cumulative Probability

The following statistical analyses and conclusions can now being made from this graph like:

Figure 5 graph indicates that 20.66% of the total population elbow height will be less than 1.11 meters and 15.87% will have a elbow height more than 1.15 meters with 63.47% exactly between 1.11 and 1.15 meters;

Figure 3 graph indicates that the probability for a person's elbow height to be less than 1.128 meter, is actually 50.00% (area underneath normal distribution graph) that has been covered in blue.

Conclusion:

Anthropometry is concerned with the size and proportions of the human body and this is why the science of anthropometry is important to interior students. According to Dul & Weerdmeester (2001), the designers of workplaces and their accessories have to bear in mind the differences in body size of the possible consumers of interior designers products.

When designing objects like chairs and tables, it is important to keep in mind that the consumers of these products must be comfortable in using it whether it is for a short period of time or for a whole day at the office or home. If the science of anthropometrics is not included in a designers research on things like a chair for instance, it can cause pain and muscle stiffness to the consumer and will reflect a bad image towards potential or existing customers.

Therefor we can make the conclusion that when we as interior students, have to design a workplace or related accessories, we have to take the statistics of human beings into account and design a object or a product which is suitable for all consumers, whether small, large, short or tall.

Source Reference :

Dul, J & Weerdmeester, B. 2001. Ergonomics for beginners, second edition. London: Taylor & Francis.

The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES). Online: http://www.hfes.org/. As on 3 March 2013.

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