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Food safety is an important issue. The trust of consumers, food safety and quality, and this will be they expected to. Consumers also expect to be able to provide the information; you can help them make informed decisions about the composition of the food, this information, whether it is on the product label or by advertising, not false or misleading. Food safety is a discipline to be describing the handling, preparation and storage food to prevent food borne illnesses. The statistics on food borne illness speak for themselves. Regulatory officials and their management of retail and food service industry must cooperate the other side, if we want to prevent or reduce food borne illness. This Manual was prepared by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in partnership with federal, state and local regulatory agencies, industry, academia and consumers, to help you operators of the retail and food service establishments, your efforts to produce safe food. This includes many routines of that should be followed to prevent potentially severe of the health hazards. In this line of thought is the safety of the track between the industry and the market, between the market and consumers. Considerations in food safety, including consideration of industry market practices, the origin of the food, including on food label, food hygiene and food of the additives, as well as biotechnology and food policies and government import and export management guidelines for food inspection and certification system. Consider the market of consumer behavior, it is usually thought that the food should be on the market should be safe, concern consumer food safe delivery and preparation.
2.0 Answer of Question 1
As a food safety expert, what considerations that needs to advocate to ensure a food safe facility is the steps of receive until serving are the most important part. When you have followed the steps nicely then it can avoid from being affect by bacteria. And if you already follow the steps then it will sure your food will be cleanness and healthier. The steps for the food safe facility are very important. Below retail on common steps, in order to assist in your decision-making, and steps you through the procedures in this document. All of the steps are receiving, storage, preparation, cooking, cooling, reheating, holding and serving.
The receiving food safety is an important step. In the receiver, the main concern is the contamination of pathogens, and the formation of harmful toxins. The importance of the proposed control measures in steps are rapidly into cold storage at the proper temperature and food spoilage of food and access to food, food additives and packaging materials from legitimate sources. Ready to eat, potentially hazardous food received special attention. This will not be cooked before the food service, the growth of pathogenic bacteria, refrigerated in this step, the food can be eaten at any time can be considered to be an important risk. Prerequisite programs, in order to control the temperature of the product is generally of the hazard, these products are mostly in the receiving sufficient control. At a suitable temperature, and when it arrives, if there is a potential danger if it is at a temperature of 5°C or below freezing, if it is at a temperature of 60°C or above heat and it is the frozen hard, rather than partially thawed. When this problem happens, then reject potentially dangerous food to pass internal temperature between 5°C and 60°C. Unless the supplier can prove a time segment, in which the food has been at 5°C and 60°C not impair food security. In addition to checking the temperature of the product, you should check the appearance, smell, color and condition of the packaging.
When the food in refrigerated storage, food safety management system should focus on maintain temperature control to limit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that may be present, in the preparation of food products and store food, such as ready to eat foods, cross-contamination of raw animal foods to prevent. When determining the storage temperature and the frequency of monitoring in refrigeration products, you may decide to set the temperature lower than what is required by local regulations. Set temperature is lower than what your regulatory requirements, the bacteria begin to grow small upward bias temperature detected by frequent monitoring, can be quickly corrected. For example, if you are storing potentially dangerous, ready to eat food under refrigeration, you may decide to set critical limits of the refrigeration unit to run in 38°F. This provides a safety cushion, you have the opportunity to see the trend of more than 41°F and the appropriate corrective measures to intervene before the bacteria begin to grow to dangerous levels. Ready to eat food, it is best to check the temperature inside the control procedures. You should assess whether it is realistic and feasible for you to do this depends on your food storage volumes. You can choose your monitoring system based on air temperature refrigeration equipment as a prerequisite for the program. How often you should monitor the air temperature depends on your capacity and the use of refrigeration equipment and the number and type of food stored in the cold storage units.
Of all the operational steps, preparation has the greatest variety of activities that should be controlled, monitored, and in some cases, documented. This is impossible, including a summary of the manual covers a variety of menus, the skills of the staff and facilities design, influence the preparation of food. The preparation step may involve a plurality of procedures, including thawing, mixing together ingredients cutting, chopping, slicing, or breading. Preparatory steps, the premise of the program can be developed, to control some of the hazards, and assist in the implementation of food safety management system, to minimize the growth of bacteria and from the staff and equipment contamination. Prepared in small quantities for controlling bacteria growth it because the restriction of the amount of food prepared is an important tool that allows the growth temperature, maintained at the time of food minimized. The pre-planning of the volume of the food and minimize the time for preparing the desired time the food is in the dangerous temperature region, the steps in this operation. The thawing of the frozen food products to maintain the proper temperature and time management is the primary control, to minimize bacterial growth. Procedures should be in place to reduce the potential for microbial, chemical and physical contamination during thawing.
Animal derived food cooking is the most effective steps to reduce or eliminate biological contamination. Cooking time specified to the proper temperature will kill most harmful bacteria and parasites. Therefore, frequent cooking temperature monitoring, it is strongly recommended. You should be determined to ensure that the proper cooking temperature and time to achieve the best system to use. Cooking raw animal foods, special consideration should be given to the time and temperature. In the development of the HACCP plan or prerequisite, it is important to understand the critical limit is a particular product in the cooking steps. For example, security cooking temperature or time for the poultry is 165°F is 15 seconds; 15 seconds with 155°F minced beef is safe cooking temperature.
If you want to cook, you intend after cooling and the use of potentially hazardous food, and then you need food cooled to 5°C or lower temperature as quickly as possible. Possible, even if it has been cooked foods cause food poisoning bacteria. These bacteria are able to grow faster cooling time limit or the formation of toxins. Cooling cooked potentially hazardous food, within a period of cooling food are from 60°C 21°C within in two hours and from 21°C to 5°C within a further four hours. This means that you have a cold food for up to six hours, from 60°C to 5°C or below. If you do not know how your food fast cooling, using a probe thermometer to measure the most warm food - usually in the center section. Rapid cold food, break it down into smaller parts in shallow containers. Be careful not to contaminate the food when you do so.
If the food does not correct the temperature is maintained at a sufficiently long time, the pathogens have the opportunity to breeding dangerous figures. Appropriate reheating provides an important control to eliminate these organisms. Remember although proper reheating will kill most organisms of concern, it does not eliminate the toxins in the body, such as Bacillus cereus food borne viruses produce. Immediate use of any potentially hazardous food has been held between 5°C and 60°C, and more than two hours, but discarded food, has been held more than 5°C and 60°C for 4 hours.
When cooking process to eliminate the bacteria, the spore-forming bacteria should be destroyed. If not at the proper temperature, without temperature control, held at the appropriate time in the cooked food, the rapid growth of this spore-forming bacterium is a big problem. Keeping food products at 135°F or above during hot holding and keeping food products at or below 41°F is effective in preventing microbial growth. As an alternative, the temperature control details of Food Code action, when used alone as a control, including a comprehensive monitoring and food labeling system to ensure food safety.
Food before it reaches the customer, which is the last step of the operation. When employees work with food and food contact surfaces, they can easily spread bacteria parasites and viruses. Manage personal hygiene is important to control these hazards. Recommend employees personal health management program, implemented to solve the following proper hand washing procedures, appropriate use of gloves and dispensing utensils and the control bare hand contact with ready to eat food. Specific program recommends that customers self-service displays, such as to protect food from contamination of salad bars and buffets. Special consideration should be given to prevent cross-contamination, contaminated equipment and equipment to minimize pollution customers.
3.0 Conclusion of Question 1
In conclusion, when you cook or have a food then you should follow the steps that mention above. You take positive measures to improve the security you establish food sales. As we know, food is very important for us and it may cause us healthier or death. So that we should follow the steps nicely and make sure that the food is clean and make sure it safe to eat. Bacteria is the most difficult thing to prevent when you want to cook, bacteria will around any place and we cannot feel it or touch it but it can easily make the food become unhealthy. If you follow the steps that mention at above then it sure will help prevent those bacteria and also can easier cook out a healthy food.
1.0 Introduction of Question 2
In order to strengthen food security, food production per stage is from are receiving, storage, preparation, cooking, cooling, reheating, holding and serving strict monitoring should be carried out. Food security has already become important and most of the proprietor or customer will be attach importance to this food security. The HACCP system is a scientific, systematic approach to identify assess and control hazards in the food production process. HACCP system, food safety control integrated design process, rather than relying on the testing of the last product. Therefore, the HACCP system in food safety, it can prevention and cost-effective way.
2.0 Answer of Question 2
The Codex Alimentarius Commission sets out seven principles for the basis of HACCP systems. Applies only to the seven principles of HACCP has completed a preliminary step in the development of the HACCP plan.
2.1 The seven principles of HACCP
2.1.1 Principles 1-Conduct a Hazard Analysis
The application of this principle relates to the steps in the listing process and identify significant harm is likely to occur. HACCP team will focus on hazards is to prevent, eliminate or control the HACCP plan. Reported reasons include or exclude the danger, and to determine the possible control measures.
2.1.2 Principles 2-Identify Critical Control Points (CCP)
Critical Control Point (CCP) is a point, and it is step or procedure can be applied to control the food safety hazard can be prevented, can be eliminated or can be reduced to an acceptable of a level. HACCP team will use the CCP decision tree to help determine the critical control points in the process. The critical control points can control more than one food safety hazards, or in some cases, it is necessary to control a single dangerous more than one of CCP. CPC needed depends on the number to ensure that the required processing steps and control of food safety.
2.1.3 Principles 3-Establish Critical Limits
Critical limits (CL) is a CCP, in order to avoid, eliminate or reduce become an acceptable of a level, biological, chemical or physical parameters of food safety hazards must be controlled at the maximum and or minimum value. Usually a key restriction measures, such as time, temperature, water activity (Aw), pH value, weight, or some other measure is based on the scientific literature and or regulatory standards.
2.1.4 Principles 4-Establish Monitoring Procedures
Once you have determined the critical control points and critical limits, need someone to track the critical control point, food flows through operation. Monitoring, including direct observation or measurement of critical control point is under control, insist on the establishment of critical limits.
2.1.5 Principles 5-Establish Corrective Actions
Occasional processes or procedures in monitoring critical control points will not be able to comply with the established critical limit. It happens when this step is to establish a plan has not been met in the critical limit to the critical control points. The operator can determine the action of these actions is to convey to the employees, and train them to make the right of the decisions. This preventive are approach to this heart of the HACCP. Problems, but you need to find them, correct them before they lead to illness or injury.
2.1.6 Principles 6-Establish Verification Procedures
This principle is to ensure that the system is the science of sound, effective control of hazards. In addition, this step ensures that specified when the system is running according to plan. Specified personal favorite manager regularly observe the activities of staff supervision, calibration equipment and temperature measuring devices, review of records or actions with employees to discuss the program. The purpose of all these activities is to deal with the issue of food security to ensure that the HACCP plan, if not, check to see is it needs to be make it better or modified.
2.1.7 Principles 7-Establish Record Keeping Procedures
There are written records or documents needed to verify that systems are still working. This record is usually involved in the HACCP planning and monitoring, corrective action is taken, or calibration records of the operation of the HACCP system in the production. You can also include verification records. Maintenance records, records in the HACCP system is a sustained and effective system is in the place. Record of keeping it should be as simple as possible, so that more staff will have enough time to keep the records.
2.2 Risk Analysis
Food safety risk analysis is essential, not only to the production or manufacture of goods and products of the highest quality, to ensure the safety and protection of public health, also in line with international standards and national standards, market regulations.
2.2.1 Risk Assessment
The Centre for Food Safety (CFS) of the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department adopts the risk analysis framework promulgated by international food safety authorities in controlling food safety. The risk analysis consists of three functions, namely, risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. The risk assessment can control the scientific basis for action. Risk assessment should incorporate the four steps of risk assessment example is hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Experienced in the risk assessment process, with the food or food ingredient hazard assessment and the potential risks of the population to be evaluated in order to develop appropriate risk management measures and risk communication information to protect public health.
2.2.2 Risk Management
The risk assessment and risk communication, risk management is an important part of the risk analysis. This introduces a factor of the process of the successful implementation of the risk management needs. It describes the steps to identify and assess food safety risks, evaluate all available options to manage these risks, implementation of risk management decisions, and to ensure that the decision was the most appropriate. Risk management should take a comprehensive view of possible human health risk management. The process of risk management and decision-making should be transparent and appropriate records for different audiences. The risk management needs of a wide range of communication, coordination and collaboration, risk management and risk assessment, and with external stakeholders.
2.2.3 Risk Communication
Therefore, if this is very important, in the end what is a food safety risk communication? While risk communication is a very complex subject, it is very simple in nature. Food safety risk communication is a three-step process, began to conduct a risk assessment, food safety scientists and statisticians part of the assessment of the likelihood of public health risk. The second step is risk management, health officials, scientific experts, food manufacturers and retailers work together to determine exactly what steps you need to ensure public safety. The third step is to risk communication, sharing of information and advice, with the consumption of the general public, and with the other parties in the production and preparation of food, food distribution and sales. From their experience in risk communication, International Food Information Council has developed a set of guidelines to help ensure that the right information reaches stakeholders and consumers, enabling them to make informed decisions about the food they eat, their security. It is Understand and addresses the public concern and communicates with clarity and sympathy.
3.0 Conclusion of Question 2
Nowadays, food safety has become very important. Most of the proprietor and customer are attach importance to the food safety. Because when restaurant make out the food with not safety and the customer having the stale food then it may cause food poison or more serious it also can cause death. So to avoid this thing happen then HACCP is the better way to help you prevent the bacteria. Those seven principles are very important; all of restaurant, supplier should follow the principles to prevent bacteria and provide a healthy food. And then about risk analysis also one of the important thing for us. So, if you want make food safety then you should follow the steps of HACCP with nicely.