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Cloning is the process of producing a similar population of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as insects, bacteria and plants, asexual reproduction. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. The term also refers to the production of multiple copies of products such as digital media or software.
Molecular cloning refers to the process of creating molecules. Commonly used cloning to amplify fragments of DNA containing genes of everything, but can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence, promoters, and non-coding DNA sequences at random and piecemeal. E 'is used in a wide range of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from DNA to produce a wide range of proteins. Sometimes, the term cloning is used to refer to the misleading identification of the chromosomal location of genes associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. In practice, a Muslim of the genes of a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily make it possible to isolate or amplify the relevant gene sequence. To amplify any DNA sequences in living organisms, which must be of a sequence to the origin of replication, a DNA sequence capable of directing the beating itself and any sequence of connected. However, there is a need for a number of other features and a variety of vector cloning specialized (a small piece of DNA that can insert a part of the DNA foreign) which permit the existence of protein expression, signs, and a single stranded RNA and DNA production and a from other processors.
The effects of human cloning at some scientific researchers in the Roslin Institute in Scotland to make the first experiment in cloning Dolly the sheep. According to Raeburn, Paul Keenan, Faith Weintraub, and Arlene (2002) that cloning simply by copying. According to the Roslin Institute (1997), reproduction is a term usually used by scientists to explain the phase is identical to the biological material is equal. The cloning of the request by many, if what is moral or immoral in our society. The purpose of this study was to discover whether human cloning.
For all these reasons, code cloning is a big problem. Pilot assessments Are produced in a number of cloned animals in real systems usually numbers between 15 - 20% of Congress. For example, according to CCFinder, mature code clone analysis, to 21.35% Is reproduced JDK code (Kamiya et al, 2002).
The emergence of technology of human cloning or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SNT) - and the world's political orientation of scientific genetic research. Discussion on ethical and legal issues surrounding the use of cloning for reproductive purposes has led to public debate associated with stem cell research. While this speech, and warned Americans of the growing role of genetics in health care, in addition to this, but surprise, has generated much confusion. Policy makers can help guide the learning process and ensure the formulation of sound public policies of the cloning technology with an understanding of the potential benefits, uses and risks of reproductive cloning and therapeutic. (Alissa Johnson et al, 2002)
According to Ehrenfeld, et al, (2002), That animal cloning for conservation is an experimental technique which, in its mandate in 2006, can not be expected to work, if not purely by chance and failed completely in the analysis of costs and benefits. In addition to that, he said, is likely to siphon funds from established projects and the work does not comply with any of the issues behind the extinction of animals (such as habitat destruction and hunting, over-exploitation of others, and the genetic pool depleted). While the techniques of cloning for the purposes of well-defined and used on a regular basis in plant conservation, care must be taken to ensure genetic diversity.
What is cloning, and the type of cloning?
Cloning Is a term used traditionally by scientists to clarify dissimilar steps for mismatching biological material. According to Uppangala (2010), there are three types of cloning:
Reproductive cloning, which is for creating the exact replicate for organism that exist. A technique called ââ‚¬Å“Somatic cell nuclear transferââ‚¬Â is used to perform reproductive cloning. In the process cell nucleus are taken out from all the cells except for the germ cell. After that they remove the cell nucleus of the egg is removed as well, the taken out nucleus is moved into enucleated egg. After the egg gets the outsider stimuli, it divides. It will grow, divide, and at last develop into an embryo. Then the embryo is inserted into a gestational surrogate mom.
Therapeutic cloning, which is used for medical purposes. Biotechnology cloning is frankly used in growing organs, which may be used in replacing the organs that do not function of patients. It is used in operating the skin in order to cure burnt patients, and also used in creating some nerve cells to cure patients who suffer from nerve degenerative illnesses. Therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning are both done by doing the ââ‚¬Å“somatic cell nuclear transferââ‚¬Â techniques. Biotechnology cloning plays a large part in medical treatments as it may grow substitution organs for the body parts that has been damaged in patients.
DNA cloning, which is used to make a lot of copies of DNA parts. DNA cloning could be used to clone random parts of DNA, particular sequence of DNA may be used in cloning gene sequence. The process of DNA cloning represents a lot of steps. First the extracting of interested DNA parts from the genome by the assist of enzymes that are restricted. To make many copies of DNA parts, they use cloning vectors.
DNA cloning is mainly used in genetic engineering to make plants, animals with wanted features, and microorganisms. It can be exercised in DNA fingerprinting and gene sequencing.
Members may be reproduced for use in transplant operations?
The scientists hope that cloning can be used on a single treatment to generate tissues and organs for transplantation. You can use stem cells to create an organ or tissue that is a genetic match to the recipient. Theoretically, the device can then be cloned can be planted in the patient's body without the risk of rejection. If it is possible to create devices from cloned human embryos, can the need for organ donation significantly reduced.
A lot of challenges that must be overcome in order to clone members of the transplant achieved. More efficient technologies for the creation of human embryos, harvesting stem cells, should be put in the production of members of stem cells. In 2001, claimed scientists with biotechnology company Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) to be the first cloned human embryos, but only in order to survive the cloning process, the fetus stopped developing after dividing into six cells. In February 2002, informed the scientists with the biotechnology company itself, which was successfully transplanted organs as the kidney, as is the case in cattle. Create a team of researchers cloned cow embryo by removing the DNA of the egg cell and then inject the DNA from the ear skin cell donor cow. Since little is known about the manipulation of embryonic stem cells from cows, scientists have cloned embryos develop into fetuses. Then bring together scientists from cloning human embryos and transplanted tissue in the donor cow. Within three months of observation after transplantation, with no signs of immune rejection was noted in the recipient.
Another potential application of cloning to organ transplants is the creation of genetically modified pigs that can be harvested organs suitable for human transplantation. And called the transplant of organs and tissues from animals to humans organ transplantation.
Why pigs? Can documents be closer match genetically to humans, but it is difficult to reproduce and have a significantly lower rate of reproduction. Among the animal species that were cloned successfully, tissues and organs of pigs are similar to those of humans. To create a "knockout" pigs, and scientists must disable the genes that cause the human immune system to reject a pig implanted. Is disposed of genes in the cells and one, which is then used to create clones from which organs can be harvested. In 2002, it was a biotechnology company that was the first British production of "double-knockout" pigs that were genetically engineered to lack both copies of the gene involved in transplant rejection. There is a need to conduct further research to study the transplantation of organs from "knock-out pigs and other animals.
What are the risks of cloning?
Reproductive cloning is expensive and not very effective. More than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring. May be required more than 100 nuclear transfer procedures to produce a version viable. In addition to low success rates, cloned animals tend to suffer from weakness in the immune function and high rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders. Japanese studies have shown that cloned mice live in poor health and early death. About one third of the cloned calves born alive and died young, many of whom were very high. Many cloned animals have not lived long enough to generate good data about how to clone age. Appearing healthy at an early age, unfortunately, is not a good indicator of long-term viability. It is known that cloned animals to die in mysterious circumstances. For example, the first cloned sheep appeared healthy and vibrant Australia on the day of his death, and the results of her autopsy failed to determine the cause of death.
In 2002, said researchers at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which is the risk that the genome of cloned mice. Analysis of more than 10000 of the liver cells and the placenta of cloned mice, they found that about 4% of the genes function abnormally. Anomalies do not result from mutations in the genes, but with the development of the normal activation or expression of specific genes.
Problems can also arise from programming errors in the genetic material of the cell donor. When the embryo is created from the union of sperm and the egg, the embryo receives copies of most genes of both parents. A process called "stamps" on the occasion of chemically the DNA of the mother and father are activated so that only one copy of the gene (or genes of the mother or father). Have defects in the genetic fingerprint of the DNA of the cell donor lead to some abnormal development of cloned embryos.
Should human cloning?
Issued and doctors and scientists from the American Medical Association with the American Association for the Advancement of Science official public statements advising against human cloning. Currently, the United States of America, Congress is considering passing a law to ban human cloning.
Due to the inefficiency of animal cloning (only about 1 or 2 children is vital for each test 100) and the lack of understanding about human cloning, many scientists and physicians strongly believe that it would be unethical for a seeker of human cloning. Not only the most attempts to clone mammals fail, affected about 30% of clones born alive with "large offspring syndrome" other debilitating conditions. And killing of many clones of early infections and other conditions. It is expected that the same problems of human cloning. In addition, scientists do not know how that can affect the reproduction of mental growth. While factors such as the mind and mood may not be as important for a cow or a mouse, are crucial for the development of healthy human beings. With this large number of uncertainties about human cloning, in an attempt to clone humans and is considered at this time are likely to be dangerous and morally responsible.
Can imagine several possible scenarios. Instead of using the sperm, eggs or embryos from the donor is unknown, may couples who are infertile due to lack of genetic selection for the reproduction of one of the partners. If the husband was the source of DNA and the wife has an egg that had received the transfer of nuclear and then carry the fetus, they will have a child biologically related to each and every one of them, you will not need to rely on anonymous donation of gametes or embryos. Of course, had many couples suffering from infertility still prefer to donate gametes or embryos or adoption. But there is nothing inherently wrong with wanting to be biologically related to their children, even when they can not be achieved through sexual reproduction.
The second question would be acceptable to the couple at high risk of having children with genetic disease. Couples must be in this situation now choose whether to risk the birth of a child infected to undergo prenatal diagnosis or preimplantation embryos, abortion, or refusal, to accept the donation of gametes, to continue to adopt, or to remain without children. If reproduction is available, however, it may be some couples, in line with the concepts prevailing in the family, kinship and paternity and maternity, and is strongly recommended for the reproduction of one of them or a family member. Instead, if you already have a healthy child, who may choose to use cloning to create a twin born after this child. In the distant future, it is also possible that a child who was not DNA replication have been born healthy, but will not be through gene therapy healthy after birth.
The third question relates to the production of tissues or organs for transplant. A child in need of transplant organs or tissue may lack a suitable donor to the doctor. Couples in this situation may coitally sometimes portray the child in the hope that he or she will have the right kind of cloth to serve, for example, on a bone marrow donor for an older brother. If a child's illness is not hereditary, a couple may prefer to clone a child with to make sure that the fabric will be playing.
Science is a step towards human cloning. U.S. scientists announced on Wednesday that he had succeeded in cloning a monkey. And published in the British journal Nature. To prove that this is not a hoax, and confirm that human cloning in South Korea in 2004, these findings were confirmed by an independent scientific panel in Australia. Because monkeys are our closest relatives the wild, it is possible that human cloning is not far behind.
We hope that we do not see the so-called reproductive cloning, which is where a real person, the duplicate is created. Although there are safeguards against this in some countries and many countries are just waiting for the mad scientists to do something crazy. In 1996, when he announced the cloned sheep Dolly, and I thought it might be nice to have another me. As a result of the selfishness of 13 years, I thought I could do my homework and large clean my room, I'd be away from problems. Yes, in the wisdom of my years, I see the implications of cloning people, but I also see medical benefits.
Therapeutic cloning could certainly benefit humans. In this process, have created embryonic stem cells to repair damaged organs or cure diseases. Such a method actually be safer from the surgery. Will also be the cells with the DNA of a real person, there is no risk of rejection. It's safe to say that stem cells, because of its ability to transform into any kind of healthy cells, are the next great advancement in technology to heal. However, we still a long way to treat diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, diabetes and others.
Major obstacle is how. Using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create a clone, but the success rate is low. In this process is replaced with the nucleus of an egg's genetic nucleus of an adult cell and stimulating the egg is then directed to the Division. Of this work process the world needs a lot of unfertilized eggs from women, and each group of stem cells will be the destruction of eggs 150. Given the limited human eggs, as is the success rate should increase significantly and should be considered the first human trials.
The second obstacle is political. In 2005, the United Nations attempted to prohibit all forms of cloning human embryos. Did not adopt the ban and reproductive cloning is not a crime in the United States, but some countries have laws against it. The research on stem cells heated debate in this country for some time. He said that the religious right instead of keeping a group of cells a real person who is suffering. Bush vetoed a bill in Congress also would have funded research of this treatment. Can with the possibility of cloned human embryos in sight except to say that we have not seen the end of this debate.
It seems that science is a step against the people who were trying to protect. Perhaps this step opens a dialog box on the benefits of honest and fears of pitfalls that stem cells and cloning can produce. If the positives outweigh the negatives of treatments, and we owe it to people to keep this research move forward. We hope that humanity can understand, before taking the next big step, and human cloning.
Cloning is important because it is the first in a series of effective means of genetic selection that can be claimed by families seeking to be healthy children and back from the biological standpoint. Had planted in the future of gene therapy mitochondria in the germ line, genetic improvement, and other forms of genetic modification is possible before birth. With each new technology, such as cloning, the key question is whether it was important to the health of the reproductive system, or the needs of the family, and whether the benefits outweigh any potential damage. Cloning demonstrates the principle that when the legitimate uses of technology are likely, and regulatory policy should be to avoid the ban and focus on ensuring that technology is used in a responsible manner for the benefit of those who participate directly. Genetic knowledge continues to grow, the challenge of the organization will occupy us for some time in the future.
Cloning provides a vision of an extraordinary force of creation taken by mankind in the ranks. Analysis of the theological says that human beings are co-creators with God, and is probably more accurate to say that human beings are increasingly making to the position of children, instead of having children. Human cloning is the major restraint, wisdom and institutional development, one of the many ways to get to know the moral characteristics of biotechnology in 2010.