Textile Has Undergone A Very Long Journey Biology Essay

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Textile has undergone a very long journey of research, development and innovation from the era of caveman to present, always introducing something new. Long ago where textile was used for only covering the body, today performance textiles are the new paradigm for textile industry. Textiles are no more limited to the apparel industry and have step into multiple sectors like agriculture, food, engineering, construction and even medical.

Textile and medicine has gained great popularity and the use of textile materials was supported by the prices, availability and re-usability. Long ago people were applying crushed medicinal plants to wounds and tie them with a piece of cloth. Then came bandages which were more practical to use and more hygienic after being treated by anti bacterial agents. After more research we came with wound care dressings in which the medicines were integrated bringing forward a more convenient way to treat wounds. Nowadays the use of textile is shown in organ replacement, grafting and tissue engineering.

Healing Textile brings a new area that is worth to discover with their herbal touch to have a better living and a better health. They are the simple casual garments with the ability to relieve you from your great trouble of diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, rheumatisms, among others.


In vertebrates, the skin is the body's largest organ. An average adult has from 18-22 square feet of skin (about 2 square meters), which weighs about 3.6kg - 4.5kg (8-10 pounds). It is the body's internal structures and the environment serving as a protective coat against mechanical injury and possible invasion by bacteria and germs. While maintaining the body's internal environment to within to within a few degrees of normal throughout our lifetimes, the skin also secretes fluids that lubricate it and barricade toxic substances. It also plays a vital role of sensory perception and some immunological responses. Human skin is only about 0.07 inches (2mm) thick.

Skin is made up of two layers that cover a third fatty layer. The outer layer is called the epidermis; it is a tough protective layer that contains melanin (which protects against the rays of the sun and gives the skin its color). The second layer (located under the epidermis) is called the dermis; it contains nerve endings, sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles. Under these two skin layers is a fatty layer of subcutaneous tissue (the word subcutaneous means "under the skin").


Fig. 1: Skin Anatomy

Source: http://faculty.irsc.edu/FACULTY/TFischer/AP1/AP%201%20resources.htm

A versatile organ, the skin creates a first line of defense. This body's boundary is tough enough to resist all sorts of environmental assaults yet many environmental toxins and chemicals in conventional clothing are assimilated into the body through the skin as it can breathe.

Anything which can improve the skin's natural ability to block and resist harmful chemicals and toxins from entering the body will be beneficial to health.

2.2.1 The Scalp

The Scalp is formed by the movable soft tissues which cover the skull. The scalp is a multilayered structure with layers that can be defined by the word itself;

S - Skin

C - Connective Tissue (Dense)

A - Aponeurotic Layer (galea


L - Loose Connective Tissue

P - Pericranium


Fig. 2: Scalp Anatomy

Source: http://www.instantanatomy.net/headneck/areas/scalplayers2.html

The skin of the scalp is probably the thickest in the body, although not so dense as that of the heel. The skin of the scalp contains numerous sebaceous glands. These glands produce Sebum (natural oil) that protects the hair.

However, due to harsh gasses are present in the atmosphere as well as pollution, the skin of the scalp gets dirty and need special care. Washing the hair everyday is not recommended by doctors as they result in dry skin making the hair follicle to frail thus many scalp disorders like Dandruff, scalp sore, scalp eczema and others produce which affects the life of people.


Fig.3: Dandruff (flakes entangled in the hair shaft)

Source: http://www.coolhaircare.com/dandruff-treatment-home-remedies.html

The white flakes that appear on your shoulder and even the white patches that stick to your scalp and hair shaft are known as Dandruff. Dandruff is simply the loose dead epidermal (skin) cells from the scalp. We all undergo the natural process of shedding dead skin cell of the scalp and the only difference that lies behind dandruff is that some of us shed more than others. Dandruff is also said to be caused by the overpopulation of the micro organism named Pityrosporum Ovale newly declared as Malassezia Globosa, which are present in everybody's scalp.feline-dandruff.jpg

However, many people think that dandruff is a disease and has a cure but dandruff is only a natural process of getting rid of dandruff just like any other skin on the body and it can only be treated and controlled.

Neither dandruff is dangerous, nor contagious even if it looks so and not even causes baldness. Nevertheless, if not treated accordingly, dandruff can lead to several complications like Skin Eczema and Psoriasis.

2.3.1 Causes of Dandruff

Dandruff does not have a precise cause but there are some ideas that are worth giving a thought about the causes of dandruff, which are firstly sensitivity to a fungus named Malassezia Globosa that is present in the scalp. An overpopulation of the fungus causes dandruff as well as the overactive oil glands in the scalp which encourage the shedding of dead skin cells and its opposite that is the presence of clogged oil glands get the scalp overly dry and produce dry flakes. Moreover bad hygiene, dry environments, cold weather or wearing tight hats and stress can worsen dandruff.


Fig.4: Malassezia Globosa

Source: http://multivu.prnewswire.com/mnr/spectrumscience/30363/Different causes of Dandruff:

Dry and irritant skin

Seborrheic Dermatitis

Not shampooing often enough

Scalp problems: Psoriasis and Scalp Eczema

Sensitivity to hair care products or excessive use of hair styling products like gel, mouse, hair dye or hair straightener cream or hair curler.

Weather (Hot and humid or cold and dry)

Poor hygiene

Excessive emotional and mental stress

Sweating too much

Increased oil production on the scalp.

Shampooing daily

Shampoo with hot water

Unhealthy diet: fatty and junk foods, lack of Selenium and Zinc and inadequate hydration.

Hormonal imbalance

Allergic reactions

Lack of sleep

Inherited genetic trait

Tight fitting caps and hats

2.3.2 How Dandruff works

Unlike other region of the body, the scalp is the only location where we can find sebum (a fatty oil secreted from the sebaceous glands located beneath the scalp on either side of an individual hair follicle and lubricant the hair) secretion along with thousands of individual follicles. As the scalp is highly humid, it becomes the favourite place for the fungi Malassezia Globosa, which feeds on sebum, and so it removes moisture from the scalp skin. But the scalp responds by producing more new cells that pile up. Unlike the cellular structure of a healthy scalp which has cells neatly overlapping to create a near water-tight seal, due to the fungus the cellular arrangement becomes jagged and the cells that do not fit stand out, flakes and end up on your shoulder.

However, as everyone has Malassezia Globosa fungus on his or her scalp and produces sebum, everyone has the potential to experience a certain level of dandruff at least in their lifetime.

Fig.5 : Anti Dandruff Head and Shoulders brand shampoo

Source: http://www.lifestylo.com/2010/08/summer-dandruff/2.3.3 Dandruff Treatmentshead-and-shoulders-anti-dandruff-shampoo1.png

Treatment with Shampoo

Dandruff suffering people often opt for self care treatment at home, which includes of daily head shampooing with cleansers over the counter. The common consumer branded shampoos available in our supermarket shelves for treating dandruff are:

Head and Shoulders (most common)

Selsun Blue Medicated Shampoo (available in pharmacies)

Pill Food anti dandruff Shampoo (available in pharmacies)

Elsève Shampoo anti pelliculaire

Nivea anti dandruff Shampoo

Pantène Pro-V Shampoo

DOP Shampoo anti pelliculaire

Dove anti dandruff Shampoo

L'Oreal Elvive antidandruff Shampoo

Garnier Fructis anti dandruff Shampoo

Palmolive anti dandruff Shampoo

Some dermatologist and pharmacist recommend washing the affected areas like scalp, forehead, ears and shoulders with the therapeutic shampoo. Increasing the shampooing frequency with therapeutic shampoo often clears mild dandruff. Tar, Salicylic acid, Zinc Pyrithione like in Head and Shoulders, Selenium Sulfide in Selsun Blue Shampoo and Ketoconazole found in Nizoral Shampoo an antifungal shampoo.

Treatment with Cortisone

Since sometimes dandruff leads to some kind of skin inflammation, dermatologists recommends the use of cortisone cream or lotion. Available in pharmacies and under prescription, Hydrocortisone 1% lotion cream or lotion and Cortaid cream, if applied on affected areas according to doctor's prescription, can relieve one from dandruff, thus decreasing the inflammation of the skin.


Nutritional Treatments


Fig. 6: Omega 3 pills

Source: http://www.genesmart.com/products/gene_smart_omega_3/2.php?page_id=132The benefits of healthy diets are not limited to keep your brain and heart in good physical shape only, especially fatty acids which bring many benefits to the functions of the body. Sometimes an imbalance of Omega 3 fatty acids found in mostly fish, cold water, olive oil and walnuts cause dandruff. An intake of Omega-3 fatty acids maintains the structure and fluidity of cell membrane by helping nutrients to enter the cell and removing waste products as well as keeping the skin cells moist and strong.


Fig.7 :Sources of zinc contents

Source: http://www.sparknotes.com/health/minerals/minor/section2.rhtmlZinc can be found in anti dandruff shampoo but if intake it in food helps to control dandruff. With its anti bacterial and anti fungal properties, Zinc helps to drop overproduction of skin cells, which further stops flaking and scaling problems of the scalp skin. Including foods of high in zinc like red meat, poultry, whole grains, dairy products, oyster, cereals, nuts and beans in the diet will help in relieving dandruff.



Fig. 8 : Selenium in food

Source: http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Programs-and-Services/Urology-Center/Prostate-Cancer/Nutritional-Information/Selenium.aspxWheat germs, brewer's yeast, kidneys, livers, tuna and other oily fish are rich in Selenium which has been proven very useful in combating dandruff as it helps in the sound functioning of the immunity system, defends the cells all through the body and can even lessen the number of Malassezia Globosa fungus on the scalp. Selenium can be found in anti dandruff shampoos but including it in the diet help in giving a better result for the combat against dandruff. However, side effects that have been deduced from a high intake of Selenium are that they can cause discolouration of the hair, hair loss and even mild nerve damage. Therefore it is advisable to take around 80-200 micrograms (mcg) of selenium per day at adults.

Fig.9 : Water treatment

Source: http://dandrufftips.com/tag/water-treatment-dandruffGood Hydration. glass-of-water-225x300.jpg

"You are not just what you eat; you are what you drink".

Water has always brought miracles in the curing of several types of disease and for the good functioning of the body. It is important to take a minimum of 8 glasses of water per day and fresh fruit juice for a good hydration and to keep your skin healthy and moist. Failing in taking enough amount of water can lead to dry skin all over your body and even on the scalp with dehydration, flaky and crack skin.


During Summer, it has been noticed that many people get a relieve from dandruff, especially those who make it a must to walk under some sunlight. Sunlight is very beneficial for fighting off stress and its ultra-violet rays (UV) have an anti inflammatory effect on scaly and flaky skin. Sun shine is a great source of Vitamin D, which promotes blood circulation and strengthens hair and a casual exposure of around 30 minutes under the sun, which rays is easily absorbed by the skin, permits one to get around 80-100% Vitamin D per day. Nevertheless, excess exposure to sun can be harmful making the body generate heat and dehydrating the skin.

Herbal Home Remedies

Your kitchen and yard may have some special ingredients and plants that are very beneficial for treating dandruff.

Some kitchen ingredients are:

Some plants and fruits from your garden:


Olive oil

Fenugreek seeds

Gram flour


Sesame Oil


Snake gourd



Aloe Vera

Snake gourd

2.3.4 Therapies for Treating Dandruff Aromatherapy

"The treatments themselves do not 'cure' the condition; they simply restore the body's self-healing ability."

-Leon Chaitow, N.D., D.O. [1]

The miracles of aromatic and essential oils are not new to man, in fact since ancient civilisations the awareness of its effectiveness has been handed down from generation to generation. The use of sweet smelling oils is known as Aromatherapy. Essential oils are derived from botanicals and plants through distillation, solvent extraction and expression. Since essential oils in their concentrated form are volatile and can cause allergic reaction, they are diluted in carrier oils or vegetable oils, which are produced from nuts and seeds, to act as a medium to penetrate the skin.


Aromatherapy Decoder:

Fig. 10 : Aromatherapy Wheel

Source: http://www.natures-energies.com/aromatherapy_decoder.htmConsists of 36 different profiles of essential oils, the aromatherapy chart is a handy wheel that gives a wide knowledge about essential oils from their botanical name, conditions that can be treated by the oil, their properties, their nature their mode of using, their benefits, how to blend and any warning. The data is broadened across the rotating wheels and in words and in a clever symbolic referencing system.

Clinical Aromatherapy

Made out of natural aromatic molecules, essential oils are clever enough to cure and treat several diseases through their physiological and pharmacological properties. That is why essential oil is so common in the medical sphere as well as the preventive medicine approach. The effects of essential oils slightly differ from people to people, between men and women but they are effective and useable by people of all ages. Unlike aromatherapy which ultimate aim is to provide relaxation and relieve from stress, clinical therapy use essential oils for their therapeutic properties to cure and treat ailments. These oils are able to act as anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulating, antibacterial, choleretic, carminative, circulation stimulating, expectorant, deodorising, tranquillizing, granulation stimulating, hyperaemic, insect repellent as well as insecticidal.

Fig. 11 : Action pathway for essential oil in clinical therapy

Source: http://www.aromatherapy.ir/article/Aroma%2008.pdf

As their natural antimicrobial agent take action against virus, bacteria and fungi, these medicinal essential oils are effective to treat dandruff related skin disorders. Clinical therapy is carried out through massages which are more towards a holistic method. This approach does not only treat the symptoms but cure the whole person by treating the source of the problem.

How does Essential Oil works on human body

Essential oils bring quite fast results as they affect the mind and body via two principle routes; Olfactory system (nose) - which while inhaling immediately goes to the lung and stimulate the Olfactory nerves, which signals the signals the Limbic system, the control mechanism of the brain to have an effect on your emotions and memory; and through the skin - they pervade through cell tissues since they are fat soluble molecules and then presents to the capillaries. Through massage and heat the rate of absorption rises, thus bringing quick remedy for mental imbalance and relaxing troubles.


Fig.12 :Pathway of essential oil stimulating the Olfactory System

Source: http://www.kgstiles.com/electro-chemical_effects.pdf


Fig.13 : how essential oils act on human body's skin

Source : http://aromagia.info/published/publicdata/AROMAG/attachments/SC/images/aromatherapy3.jpg

List of Aromatic and Essential oils that can treat dandruff:

Rosemary Oil

Lavender Oil

Sesame Oil

Peppermint Oil

Myrrh Oil

Ylang Ylang Oil

Sandalwood Oil

Mandarin Oil

Citrus Oil

Lemon Citrus Oil

Atlas Cedarwood Oil

Chamomile Oil

Juniper Oil

Bay Leaf Oil

Neem Oil

Sandal Oil

Tea Tree Oil

Geranium Oil

Patchouli Oil

Basil Oil

Burdock Oil Phytotherapy for Dandruff

"The art of healing comes from nature and not from the physician. Therefore, the physician must start from nature with an open mind."

-Paracelsus [2]

Also known as Botanical medicine and Herbology, Phytotherapy is the use of plant and plant extracts in curing ailments. Originated since decades, herbal medicines are very popular in traditional medicines and herbal medicine system to augment the human health for they possess many qualities like anti inflammatory, diuretic, vulnerary, vermifuge, antiviral as well as they play a major role in protecting the environment. Plants extracts are obtained in several standard ways of infusions, decoctions, tinctures, macerations, dried and powdered and even as poultices.

List of valuable plant extracts that help in treating Dandruff:

Plant Extracts:


Part Used:


Hibiscus Flower (Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis)

Anti-Dandruff, Moisturizer, Anti-inflammatory, Conditioner


2% - 8%

Bramhi (Bacopa Moniera)

Strenthener, anti-dandruff, stimulate hair growth

Whole plant

2% - 5%

Jal Brahmi (Centella Asiatica)

Strenthener, anti-dandruff, stimulate hair growth

Whole plant

2% - 5%

"Moroum"(Moringa Oleifera)

Anti-fungal, anti-bacteria, anti-oxidants, anti-inflamatory, anti-dandruff

Leaves, flowers and roots

2% - 9%

Neem (Azadirachta Indica)

Anti-dandruff, Anti-irritant, Anti-fungal,

Leaves and bark

2% - 8%

Shikakai (Acacia Concinna)

Anti-dandruff, Conditioner, wound-healing, Anti-irritant.

Fruits and seeds

2% - 6%

Amla (Emblica Officinalis)

Conditioning, Lightening, Silky feel, Shiny-ness, anti dandruff


2% - 10%

Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum Gracum)

Anti-blemish, Anti-irritant, Anti-dandruff.


2% -5% Homeopathy for Dandruff

"The highest ideal of cure is the speedy, gentle, and enduring restoration of health by the most trustworthy and least harmful way."

-Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1844), Founder of Homeopathy [3]

Developed by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), Homeopathy is a medical science that is based on the belief "like cures like". It is thus an ancient method of treating ailments in which the body, on its own accord is expectant to cure slowly but surely. Homeopathy, mobilizes the body's instinct thus shielding on its own to brawl diseases. Homeopathy can treat dandruff in totality by treating its core origin thus helping to prevent its reappearance. This is a unique way of treating ailments as it boosts the immune-system in clearing away the irritating factors in dandruff. Homeopathic therapy should always be done under the guidance of a Homeopath.

The list of homeopathic remedies for dandruff:


:For Specific Dandruff Problems


:For moist, greasy scalp - sensitivity around the hair roots


: For encrusted, moist, smelly scalp


: For dry, sensitive, itchy scalp and dandruff patches

Natrum Mur

: For dull and greasy hair and dandruff caused crusts around hairline


: For thick dandruff and washing dries the scalp Magnetic Therapy for Dandruff

Since several decades, magnets have been used for much stuff from small toys to rockets and satellites. This small steel made or cast iron made item has a great contribution in alleviating human health as it creates powerful waves that improves vitality of the body and help in the sound functioning of the human body system not forgetting the good stimulation of blood circulation. Every magnet has 2 poles - North Pole and South Pole. North Pole is considered to be a germ killer and the South Pole creates heat thus strengthening the body. Gauss, the magnetic unit differs from sizes and powers of magnets, with around 2000 Gauss are considered highly powerful magnets suitable for adults, medium powered is of about 1000 Gauss used for children and low powered Gauss for sensible areas of the body parts. Magnetic therapy is somewhat a natural therapy nevertheless it is important to consult a magnetic therapist.


Fig.14 :How magnetic waves work

Source: http://www.australiamagnetictherapy.com.au/

For dandruff, magnetic therapist recommends to wash the scalp with North Pole water by keeping constant contact with a jug full of potable water under room temperature. For this type of treatment 2000 Gauss magnets are considered very suitable. Even magnetic oils are believed to help in treating dandruff. Since North Pole is a germ killer, it helps to destroy the fungi name Malassezia Globosa using a mix magnetised water will also improve hair growth and strengthening the hair root. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) for Dandruff

LLLT has earn great popularity in the past 30 years in Europe for its proving effective in healing many ailments including dandruff however severe the scalp condition may be. The LLLT use a particular powerful ray to cure ailments. LLLT is also known as phototherapy for it stimulates tissue repair through a process of PhotoBioStimulation. It has the ability to treat all types of dandruff from low to heavy, from greasy to dry dandruff, and it is suitable for both men and women. Along with dandruff, it treats thinning hair, hair loss and bad scalp conditions.

Laser Energy Diagram Medium.jpg

Fig. 15: How reacts Laser Therapy

Source: http://www.pachypnosis.com/PACLaser.html

The laser emits a red light. Unlike natural light, its emitted light is of only one precise colour, which passes through the scalp while stimulating the dead cells causing them to fall off and on the other hand, it promotes the re growth of new cells. In this way it clears dandruff completely from the scalp as well as heals the scalp by restoring the micro circulatory system.

Low Level Laser Therapy is a safe and efficient method with no reported side effects which is painless and non toxic. However, this therapy is a very costly one and is not suitable for children, pregnant women and old people. Other Therapies that help in improving dandruff are:

Pranic Healing - balance, harmonize and transform the body's energy processes.

Colour Therapy - uses of chakras, energy centres to bring harmony of body energy. This is closely related to aura healing.

Goody Hairstyling therapy - use of brushes infused with special ingredients to treat dandruff

Meditation and yoga - since dandruff is often caused by stress, meditation is important to keep a good emotional and stress equilibrium.


Structures and materials that have the ability to sense and react as well as respond to the environmental conditions are known as Smart Textiles. They have extra properties than just covering the body of the wearer as they have the ability to measure, react, show advance reactions and have several functionalities.