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The climate change is currently considered by global community as a big issue. It threatens every single living individual in the world. Since 1980, global society has already aware that the decrease of the forest influences the amount of carbon dioxide CO2 in the atmosphere (Liski et al., 2000).
Forest is important because it's ability in storing CO2 and release O2. The IPCC said that around 17.3% of world's emission is coming from deforestation (IPCC, 2007). In Asia, forest degradation reaches 49.5% of the total carbon release to the atmosphere (Houghton, 2003). Moreover, regarding the land use and forestry management, Indonesia is the largest emitters. The most cases for deforestation were illegal logging, forest management, land use and agriculture (Wertz-Kanounnikoff and Kongphan-Apirak, 2008).
There have been many forest researches which estimating the amount of Carbon that forest could capture. The research revealed that forest especially tropical forest could store more carbon than any other forest type. However, to include the forest plantation in the Carbon trading mechanism, technical instruments and Carbon accounting standard need to be design. Moreover, the forest management need to be monitored all the time in (Carle et al., 2002).
Teak forest is one type of the tropical forests in the world. In Indonesia teak forest is a plantation forest which located in Java island and managed mostly by state enterprise named Perum Perhutani  . Together with Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia, through its research agency FORDA (Forestry Research and Development Agency) Perum Perhutani designated a teak plantation research forest name Forest Area for Special Purpose (FASP)  . FASP has a long history in teak plantation forest in Java Indonesia. It is part of the massive teak plantation established by the Dutch colonialism since 18 century.
This essay is trying to propose a Carbon assessment in the FASP Cemoro Modang, Cepu, Central Java Province, Indonesia as a representative forest for the whole teak forest area in Java Island. This essay will firstly describe the area and show the important information to assess the Carbon in the propose area.
Tectona Grandis Plantation in Indonesia
Tectona Grandis is a large deciduous tree, a member of the Verbenance family. Well known for its good quality of timber and one of the famous exported products from Asia. Teak plantation is allegedly making the natural resources decline both in quality and quantity especially in India, Myanmar, Thailand and Laos (Hadi and Masami, 2005, Pandey and Brown, 2002).
Teak stand is interesting many people because it's fast growing and high yielding tree. It also has been use in many reforestation and plantation programs all around the world, especially in Central America and Asia (Kraenzel et al., 2003).
Picture 1: Plantation Areas by Genus in Asia (Japan is not included in 1980 and 1990)
Source: (Carle et al., 2002)
In Indonesia teak forest is located in Java Island and small area of Madura Island (Pandey and Brown, 2002). The Dutch started the teak plantation since 1950 with about 30.00 Ha. Since then numbers of teak plantation increase in Asia and some African countries. Currently, Myanmar and Indonesia are the two biggest exporter teak woods.
For the past two hundred years, Teak trees has been dominated the structure of plantation in Java. The production of Teak then used as the source of sawn timber, furniture made from wood and firewood. In order to sustainably harvesting the timber, the process of regeneration had been conducted through agroforestry systems using traditional and modern method of taungya and intensive alley cropping. Despite the massive scale of teak plantation of teak, the exact information on the biomass of teak in Java is not sufficiently available (Bailey and Harjanto, 2005, Grossman, 2007, Pandey and Brown, 2002).
Kaiser (1989) explains that Teak is one of natural vegetations in SouthEast Asia. It can grow naturally in that region with the elevations around 100 to 700 M above sea levels. In Indonesia, most of Teak plants can be found in the area of Java. The favorable height which can need to be achieved by this type of plantation is around 39-45 meter at the age of 60 years (Bailey and Harjanto, 2005, Pandey and Brown, 2002).
Table 1: Perum Perhutani management area
Company Class Type
Jati (Tectona grandis)
Pinus (Pinus merkusii)
Mahoni (Mahagony sp)
Damar (Agathis sp)
Kayu Putih (Cajuput sp)
Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria)
Meranti (Shorea sp)
Akasia (Acacia mangium)
Sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia)
Kesambi/Indian lactree (Schleicera oleosa)
Source: (Perum Perhutani, 2010)
Perum Perhutani, the state-owned enterprise in Indonesia which manages most of Teak production in java, in 1995 described that the Teak production in Java represents around 44% of the total wood production in Java with 38% of that amount exported. Perum Perhutani management area is 2.426.206 Ha, on four province in Java island, Banten, West Java, Central Java and East Java (Perum Perhutani, 2010). The total management area of Perum Perhutani is shown in the table above.
Perum Perhutani and Teak FASP (Forest Area for Special Purposes)
Perum Perhutani and Ministry of Forestry designated some of the state teak plantations which used to be managed by Perum Perhutani become FASP to improve the research and development performance, especially in Teak. FASP Cemoro Modang is one of the FASP that currently managed by the Forestry Research Institute of Solo. It is located in Central Java Province, Cepu Regency.
FASP Cemoro Modang is located between Sub Watershed Cemoro dan and Sub Watershed Modang and has total area of 1.311,6 Ha. Administratively these two watersheds located in the Ngawenan Village, Country of Sambongrejo, Sub-district Sambong, Blora Regency, Central Java Province. Since FASP is part of teak plantation forest managed by Perum Perhutani, it is also under Perum Perhutani Cepu Regency administration, Unit I, Central Java Province. Geographically, FASP Cemoro Modang located in 111° 32' - 111° 33' East Longitude, and 7° 03' - 7° 05' South Latitude.
The climate condition of this teak plantation forest is: air temperature 20.0 °C - 27.5°C; humidity is around 67.0 - 81.0%; Annual rainfall 1.676 mm/year (1985-2008) and the range is between 863 to 3.427 mm/year. The normal rainfall is between 1.000 to 2.250 mm/year. Dry season is between June and November and rainy season is between December and May (Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010b).
The climate in FASP is categorised in the type D whish is a medium type (monsoon). This type has significant differences between dry and rainy season. Teak stand is one of the most adaptive tree for this season because they fallen their leaves easily to adapt to the weather. The FASP Cemoro Modang is located in the lowland ecological forest zone and Randublatung geological zone. It has plain to wavy geomorphologic condition. The area is located between 95 and 310 above sea level. The Cemoro River is flow through the forest and end in the Modang River (Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010b). The picture below shows the map or the FASP Cemoro Modang divided into several plots based on different age class.
Picture 2: Map of FASP Cemoro Modang, Cepu, Central Java, Indonesia
Source: Ministry of Forestry, FORDA, Forestry Research Institute of Solo
FASP Cemoro-Modang was a production forest area managed by Perum Perhutani and the main product was teak. Forest cover is dominated by teak stands in around 1.171.9 Ha area. The graph below shows the distribution of the teak stand in the FASP Cemoro Modang divided into several age classes (Bailey and Harjanto, 2005, Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010b, Perum Perhutani, 2010). There are others land use in the FSAP as well, however, in this essay their contribution in the carbon stock is not included.
Tabel 2 . Land Cover Composition in the FASP Cemoro Modang
Age Class and other land use
Source : Perum Perhutani 2002 (Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010b)
Measuring Carbon and Biomass in Teak Stand Forest Plantation.
The Kyoto Protocol as result of the conference held by United Nation encourages the increasing numbers of new plantations and keeping the existing forest plantations as Carbon pool due to their ability to storage Carbon (Carle et al., 2002). Carbon currently considered as forestry products besides wood. Even though the trading mechanism is not established yet, many countries have taken many strategies to keep and or increase their forest plantation (Peskett et al., 2008).
In forest area, there are segmentation of carbon pools, which consist of: above ground biomass (AGB), litter and coarse woody (Brown, 1997). Among those three segmentations, AGB has the most recorded since it is the easiest way to measure. In addition, following destructive sampling method, can also determine the biomass of the terrestrial vegetation. Carbon in forest usually name Above Ground Biomass (AGB)
Carbon measurement in this essay could be done in two different scales, tree scales and plantation scales. Measurement of tree biomass and Carbon in each tree shows the relationship between DGH and Carbon. Moreover, in the plantation scale, using data on the number of tree in one plot and DBH, the total Carbon in one plot can be estimated. Measuring the diameter in one plot is easy since this forest area has a good monitoring program that measure every tree diameter and this monitoring also let us know how many tree are in each plot (Kraenzel et al., 2003, Muukkonen and Heiskanen, 2007).
In order to obtain data on biomass and Carbon in tree tissue, we will need to cut down some tree as sample that can represent the other trees in the plot as a total population. Approximately 10% sample from the total population is the minimum appropriate sample since the forest is monoculture and has the same age and almost the same diameter (Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010a, Pearson et al., 2007, Kraenzel et al., 2003).
The measurement was started by digging the roots and weights them to then use the wet mass and dry mass to estimate the carbon content. This also applied to the other part of the tree. The wet mass of all the materials from the sample trees need to be measured and as well as the dry mass. The dry mass is needed to estimate the tissue carbon storage by multiplying the mass by numbers of tree and carbon concentration (Kraenzel et al., 2003, Hadi and Masami, 2005).
It is not difficult to obtain data on below ground biomass for monoculture plantation forest, and the formula of "root-to-shoot ratio" for tropical deciduous plants from Jackson et al can be used to help in estimating the total below ground biomass (Kraenzel et al., 2003). Moreover, carbon in soil is also important in Carbon stock measurement. Approximately 10 cm from two to three 2 m depth soil was taken as samples to measure bulk density, pH, soil texture and organic matter content.
Measuring Carbon in one area started with the calculation of tree total biomass. According to IPCC, the conversion of biomass to carbon is:
Carbon = biomass x 0.5 (1) (Hadi and Masami, 2005)
For this method, the samples are weighted after its being harvested and dried. The purpose is to examine the dry biomass weight of the sample. In order to achieve the exact data, a proper sampling design will help in answering the question with more certainty level (IPCC, 2001, Brown et al., Brown, 1997). The method of allometric regression can be widely use in measuring biomass and carbon for many trees and species for various types of forest with a high certainty level.
In this essay the total area for each age class and numbers of tree in each age class is already measured. It makes the Carbon estimation easier. To make it easier, each age group is consider as one plot. From the data collected recently, the results are as seen in the table below. Due to time limitation, data collected from every plot that represent each age class except for age class I (three plots) and age class V (two plots).
Table 3. Data from Plots
Numbers of Tree
in one plot
Source: (Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010a)
The process of measuring and studying size or growth rate of teak trees, especially related to the entire organism of the tree itself, is subject to the process of allometry (Brown, 1997). Allometry can characterize the harmonious growth of the trees, in accordance with changing proportion based on exponential or logarithmic relationship. The process of collecting data conducted by setting samples of trees and cut down before being intensively measured. In the process of analysis, the dependent variables which consist of biomass production and other dimensions of the trees can be related to the independent variables, such as diameter of the trees in a logarithmic regression model (Pearson et al., 2007, Luyssaert et al., 2008, Hadi and Masami, 2005).
Following appropriate equations for each proportional relationship or each component of the trees with previously determined or developed biomass can be non-destructively estimated the amount of dry weight for above the ground components of the standing trees (Laurance and Venter, 2010). Pearson et al, suggest that the best way to measure Carbon from tree is to measure it directly (Pearson et al., 2007). Tree biomass is calculated from the allometric equation relate to diameter of the tree (Kraenzel et al., 2003).
Picture 3: The FASP Cemoro Modang and its age classes
Source: Forestry Research Institute of Solo
In the data collection process, measuring the samples by narrowing the source from the diameter of 130 cm above the ground, they can simplify the process of of the estimation (Grossman, 2007). In most tropical forest, carbon is majorly sequestered in aboveground live tissues (like in trees), while some others are located in soils and woody debris (Grossman, 2007, Muukkonen and Heiskanen, 2007).
The picture below shows the result in making relationship between DBH and biomass. This kind of result is also expected from the measurement in the FASP teak plantation.
Picture 4: Linear regressions of DBH versus total tree dry biomass
Source: (Kraenzel et al., 2003)
Since the numbers of teak stand is knows in this plantation, the measurement of the total Carbon stock in the FSAP is simply by multiplying the total amount of Carbon in one tree by the number of tress in each plot. One plot in one age class is representative of the other plots that has same age. Hence, the total Carbon in this area could be obtain by calculating each plot Carbon stock and sum all the Carbon stock in every plot in the FSAP.
The remote sensing will be useful to measure Carbon is the larger area and the area that has no monitoring data on number of trees, species and land use (Muukkonen and Heiskanen, 2007). In this case, we don't need the remote sensing, however in the future; remote sensing is also a valuable tool for forest monitoring and any kind of measurement in the forest area. The Forestry Research Institute of Solo has data on numbers of trees in the FASP Cemoro Modang and the allometric equation on teak and remote sensing can be used to estimate the total Carbon and biomass in the whole teak in the larger area. The IPCC says that remote sensing is the best way to estimate total Carbon in one area (Muukkonen and Heiskanen, 2007).
In measuring the amount of carbon in the forest or contrasting the fact to a carbon loss, the calculation of biomass is practically important for tropical climate. Information regarding biomass content enables prediction on current and future carbon stock. The FSAP is a well managed teal plantation and measuring the Carbon from this kind of forest is important.
Finally, this essay argues that direct measurement to the forest area is needed to well estimate the total Carbon in this area. The data from monitoring database is useful to make the calculation easier since they provide the data on age class, plots based on age class and the average diameter on each plots or age class.