Taxonomical studyon Scorpions from Markazai province, Iran

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Taxonomical studyon Scorpions from Markazai province, Iran

Abstract

Scorpions are predatoryarthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida. They have eight legs and are easily recognised by the pair of grasping pedipalps and the narrow, segmented tail. Markazi Province, the medieval Iraq-i Ajam, more recently Arak—is one of the 31 provinces of Iran and lies in western of Iran. There are limited studies of information scattered on Scorpions in Iran. In present investigation which has been carried out on scorpions in the Markazi province, different species of scorpions were identified and biological studies were carried out on them. The present research was done in different areas of this province and totally 53 scorpions were collected. According to scientific methods, the scorpions were captured then identified by used of identification key. In the present research, it was found that the species belong to two families, namely, Buthidae and Scorpionidae, sixgenera and six species.

Key words: Taxonomy, Identification, Scorpions, Iran

Introduction:

The subfamily Scorpiopinae can be estimated as complex. Scorpiopinae was first proposed by Kraepelin (1905)as Scorpiopsinae, a subfamily of Vaejovidae. Lourenc¸o(1998)confirmed a previous decision by Stockwell (1989) about raising Scorpiopinae to family level. Subsequently, Soleglad & Sissom [4] downgraded Scorpiopidae to a subfamilyof Euscorpiidae, and grouped the Asian genera into the tribe Scorpiopini, and also included in this subfamily the North American genus Troglocormus (tribe Troglocormini). According to morphological assessments, the subfamilyScorpiopinae currently forms a monophyletic group withinEuscorpiidae, and does not share any synapomorphieswith North American Vaejovidae (2001). The tribe Scorpiopiniincludes six Asian genera, mainly from the Southern andSoutheastern regions of the continent. This composition is

mainly due to Vachon (1980) who revised Scorpiops anddescribed three new subgenera in addition to thenominotypical subgenus Scorpiops; Alloscorpiops, Euscorpiops, and Neoscorpiops. These four subgenera were laterelevated to generic rank by Lourenc¸o (1998), who added themonotypic genera Parascorpiops Banks, 1928, and Dasyscorpiops Vachon, 1974, bringing the total number of generato six. Soleglad & Sissom (2001) then supported the validity ofEuscorpiops based on the position of chela trichobothriumEb3 and the presence of an annular ring on the telson.Recently, Lourenc¸o (2013) divided the genus Alloscorpiops intotwo subgenera with the creation of the subgenusLaoscorpiops. Since most historical aspects around thesedecisions have been consistently synthesized by Lourenc¸o(2013)they will not be further discussed here.

There are limited studies of information scattered on Scorpions in Iran. The first study was done by Oliveir, that discus about black Scorpion of Kashan and named it crassicauda (1807). Thorell, 1876 by surveying Scorpions of natural history museum in Stockholm and Gothenburg named a new species from Iran as Buthusdoriae. Pocock, 1889, introduced Buthus phillipsi as a new Iranian species from natural history Museum British. Birulaya, 1896, described four species from Iran named: Orthochhrusmelanurus, Buthus eupeus, Buthus caucasicus and Prionurus crassicauda. He published his paper for Iranian Scorpions on 1905. Vachon, 1950 has introduced some Genus from Iran as Mesobuthus that is exclusive to Asia. He has reported Liobuthus kessleri first time from Iran and divide Scorpions to Families Buthidae and Scorpionidae in Iran (1966). In 1973, Vachon added a new Genus and Species to Iranian Scorpions name: Habibiella gaillardia.There is big lacuna in studying of Scorpions from different parts of Iran. In the present study the scorpions is described from Markazi Province of Iran.

Methodology

The Markazi province is approximately 29442 kilometer wide (Fig.1).Scorpions were collected (Fig.2) randomly, fromdifferent parts of Markazi province (Arak, Tafresh,Saveh, Ashtiyan,Mahalat, Delijan, Khomein and Shazand) during the years 2007and 2008, and they were fixed separately in 75% Ethanol alcoholand labeled in different bottles (Fig.1). Samples were transferred tolaboratory for feature studies. In the Laboratory, taxonomical study,sexing and biometrical parameters were studied withthe help ofstereomicroscope (Olympus SZX9) and the keys suggested byFarzanpey (1987).

Rsults

In this study, six species of scorpionsbelongingtosixgeneraandtwofamilieswere identified. (Table 1)

Species

Genera

Family

A.crassicauda

Androctonus

Buthidae

B. saulcyi

Buthotus

Buthidae

O.doriae

Odontobuthus

Buthidae

M.eupeus

Mesobutus

Buthidae

H.lepturus

Hemiscorpius

Scorpionidae

S.maurus

Scorpio

Scorpionidae

Table 1. The species of Scorpions

In this study,twofamiliesButhidae, Scorpionidae andsixgeneranamelyAndroctonus, Buthotus,Odontobuthus, Mesobuthus, Hemiscorpius andScorpiowere identified. Biometrical characters have been studied for each six species as tables 2,3,4,5,6 and 7. The figures 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 are related to species.

Species: Androctonus crassicauda

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Arachnida

Order:Scorpiones

Family: Buthidae

Genus: Androctonus

Species:A. crassicauda

Table 2. Biometrical characters of Androctonus crassicada(mm)

WM4Se

WM5Se

WC

LT+ST

LFF

LFT

LC

LMB

LBT

LM1

LM2

LP

Organ

5.71

9.63

7.05

7.54

6.23

3.10

4.94

8.80

79.17

35

23.40

10.19

Size

Species: Buthotus saulcyi

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Arachnida

Order: Scorpiones

Family: Buthidae

Genus: Buthotus

Species:B. saulcyi

Table 3. Biometrical characters of Buthotus saulcyi(mm)

WM4Se

WM5Se

WC

LT+ST

LFF

LFT

LC

LMB

LBT

LM1

LM2

LP

Organ

8.18

7.82

10.58

7.76

4.70

3.50

11.12

83.53

52.17

21.43

9.93

4.19

Size

Species:Odontobuthusdoriae

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Arachnida

Ordir: Scorpiones

Family: Buthidae

Genus: Odontobuthus

Species: O.doriae

Table 4. Biometrical characters of Odontobuthus doriae(mm)

WM4Se

WM5Se

WC

LT+ST

LFF

LFT

LC

LMB

LBT

LM1

LM2

LP

Organ

6.62

5.21

6.95

5.96

2.34

3.42

8.26

58.24

33.65

17.06

7.53

2.93

Size

Species: Mesobuthuseupeus

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Arachnida

Ordir: Scorpiones

Family: Buthidae

Genus: Mesobuthus

Species: M.eupeus

Table 5. Biometrical characters of Mesobuthus eupeus(mm)

WM4Se

WM5Se

WC

LT+ST

LFF

LFT

LC

LMB

LBT

LM1

LM2

LP

Organ

4.93

3.61

4.97

3.91

2.16

2.25

1.12

40.37

23.25

12.06

5.06

2.40

Size

Species: Scorpio maurus

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Arachnida

Ordir: Scorpiones

Family: Scorpionidae

Genus: Scorpio

Species:S.maurus

Table 6. Biometrical characters of Scorpio maurus(mm)

WM4Se

WM5Se

WC

LT+ST

LFF

LFT

LC

LMB

LBT

LM1

LM2

LP

Organ

2.88

9.65

5.68

6.50

4.35

1.96

5

7.33

34.95

21.97

24.16

8.82

Size

Species: Hemiscorpuis lepturus

Class:Arachnida

Ordir: Scorpiones

Family: Scorpionidae

Genus: Hemiscorpius

Species:H.lepturus

Table 7. Biometrical characters of Hemiscorpuis lepturus(mm)

LP

LM

LM

LBT

LFT

LC

LMB

WC

LPe

DBPe

Organ

1.79

16.45

38.49

75

12.9

2.53

1.95

5.91

7.15

6.83

Size

Discussion

The results ofthisstudy showed that thescorpionsthatwere studiedinthe Central province belonging to twofamily Buthidae andScorpionidae.According to world dispersal they have originated from Africa. Some of these genera have been seen in Africa.

References

K. Kraepelin, Die Geographische Verbreitung der Scorpione, Zool. Jahrb.

Abt. Syst. 22 (1905) 321–364.

W.R. Lourenc¸o, Designation of the scorpion subfamily Scorpiopsinae

Kraepelin, 1905 as family Scorpiopsidae Kraepelin, 1905 (stat. nov.); its

generical composition and a description of a new species of Scorpiops

from Pakistan (Scorpiones, Scorpiopsidae), Entomol. Mitt. Zool. Mus.

Hamburg 12 (1998) 245–254.

S.A. Stockwell, Revision of the Phylogeny and Higher Classification of

Scorpions (Chelicerata), [Ph. D. Thesis, unpublished], University of

Berkeley, Berkeley, 1989, 319 p.

M.E. Soleglad, W.D. Sissom, Phylogeny of the family Euscorpiidae

Laurie, 1896 (Scorpiones): a major revision, in: V. Fet, P.A. Selden

)Eds.), Scorpions, British Arachnological Society, Burnham Beeches,

Bucks, Dorchester, UK, 2001, pp. 25–111.

M. Vachon, Essai d’une classification sous-ge´ne´rique des Scorpions du

genra Scorpiops Peters, 1861 (Arachnida, Scorpionida, Vaejovidae), Bull.

Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris 4e se´r.2 (1980) 143–160.

W.R. Lourenc¸o, A new subgenus and species of AlloscorpiopsVachon,

1980from Laos (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae); implications

for the taxonomy of the group, C. R. Biologies 336 (2013) 51–55.

Olivier, G.A. (1807). Voyage dans ľempire Othoman, ľEgypte Perse.

Thorell, T. (1876). Etudes Scorpiologiques. Act. Soc. Ital. sei. Nat., 19.

Vachon, M. (1966). List des scorpion connus en Egypte, Arabia, Israel, Liban, Jordanie, Turquie, Irak, Iran. Toxicon, Vol. 4, 209.

Vachon, M. (1973). Etude des caracteres utilises pour les familles et les genres de scorpions (Arachnides). Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. nat. 3e Ser. no. 140, Zoologie 104, 857.

Fig 1. Androctonus crassicauda

Fig 2. Buthotus saulcyi

Fig 3. Odontobuthus doriae

Fig 4. Mesobuthus eupeus

Picture 049

Fig 5. Scorpio maurus

Picture 047

Fig 6. Hemiscorpius lepturus

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