Sweeteners In Carbonated Drinks Biology Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Many carbonated soft drinks are optionally available in versions sweetened with sugars or with non-caloric sweeteners. Various researches suggest that people who drink lot of soft drink risks becoming fat (obese), weak-boned, cavity-prone and caffeine addicted. Other health problems reported are diabetes, osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, heart disease, and many neurological disorders. Many sodas contain caffeine, which is a natural diuretic, and so can actually make thirstier and encourage dehydration. It can also make it harder to get enough sleep or make edgy. Many sodas are high in calories and have a lot of sugar - not good for waistline or teeth. When one consumes carbonated beverages instead of milk, juice and water, body won't get some of the nourishment as per the needs.

The high consumption of soft drinks, i.e., sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages, and other sugary drinks, is one of an array of dietary behaviors which have been identified by a number of policy documents as an important risk factor in leading many health problems. Sugar-sweetened beverages such as cordials and sweetened fruit drinks, which are consumed more regularly by young children, are likely to have a similar impact on increasing energy and reducing nutrient intake. Other sugary beverages, such as functional drinks including energy drinks and sports drinks are emerging and gaining popularity in the market. As they contain large amounts of sugar they have the potential to contribute to an energy imbalance also; however, these products still comprise a modest and particular section of the market, and their contribution to overweight and obesity is unknown. Scientific studies reveal that 1 to 1.5 liters of soft drinks a day can raise risks of numerous health problems.

The soft drink usually contains the following components:

Phosphoric Acid


Sugar or Aspartame or Saccharin

Caramel Coloring,

Carbon Dioxide


Ingesting a soft drink causes the energizing feeling of caffeine, the sweet taste of sugar combined with the sour taste of phosphoric acid, and the playful feeling of the carbon dioxide bubbles. Those ingredients cause imbalances in the body systems that result in debilitating diseases that show up after many years of abuse. Those diseases have now become commonly thought of as normal aging with no directly attributable causes.

Phosphoric Acid

Phosphoric acid creates an acid medium that enhances the absorption of carbon dioxide (which is also forms carbonic acid in water), thus reducing the pressure required and allowing the mixture to be bottled with a metal cap. The carbon dioxide bubbles are released more slowly, particularly if the mixture is chilled. The sour taste of the phosphoric acid is complemented by adding lots of sugar. The phosphorus with zero calcium in a soft drink causes ionized Ca in the blood to decline, along with an excretion of Ca in the urine. This process later result in the weakened bone structure (osteoporosis) associated with old people. Phosphoric acid is physiologically a strong acid that causes the body to reduce secretion of hydrochloric acid (HCI) that is used for digestion of protein and fats and the absorption of minerals. Inadequate digestion results in bloating and flatulence. Poor absorption of dietary iron can result in anemia, and poor calcium absorption, accelerating the trend of osteoporosis. These creatures can break down the protective mucosal lining, penetrate into the bloodstream, lodge in organs and cause the formation of carcinogens that provoke cancer.


This chemical is an addictive drug that has the ability to stimulate mental alertness, overcome fatigue, and enhance endurance. Caffeine acts by blocking adenosine (neurotransmitter) receptor sites in the central nervous system. Adenosine has a generally depressant action in the brain, heart, and kidneys. The resultant stimulation is accompanied by constriction of the cerebral arteries, rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and excessive excretion of urine. Caffeine causes the release of adrenaline and an accompanying upshot in blood sugar to meet the need for emergency energy. The addiction of caffeine and sugar and powerful advertising make the soft drink a superior method for the delivery of ingredients that taste great, but are unsuspectingly destructive to health.


Sugar causes blood sugar levels to soar insulin and this unbalances cycling ensues that eventually wears out the pancreas and makes the cells resistant to insulin resulting in a disease called diabetes. Sugar impairs immune function by competing with Vitamin C for transport into white blood cells. In turn, that reduces the ability of white blood cells to engulf and destroy invading bacteria, which leads to chronic infections. Sugar supports the growth of harmful bacteria and yeast in the GI tract which lead to not only painful and itchy infections, but, also, to infestations in the blood and body organs.

Aspartame, Saccharin, and Caramel Coloring

Aspartame is a sweetener that has found its way into almost everything to replace sugar. When aspartame is digested it breaks down into three chemicals: aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol. Aspartic acid is an excitotoxin that causes serious chronic neurological disorders it can over stimulate neurons to such an extent that sensitive neurons are slowly destroyed before any obvious behavior symptoms are noticed. Saccharin is a sweetener that is also a carcinogen (causes cancer) in animals. In 1978, the National Academy of Sciences concluded that saccharin is a potential cancer causing agent in humans, and that it promotes the carcinogenic effects of other agents. The Food and Drug Administration's position is that saccharin should not be used in food, but it is used as a table sweetener. Caramel coloring is obtained by heating sugar until a brown color and characteristic flavor develops. Caramel coloring has negative genetic effects and is a cancer causing agent.

Carbon Dioxide and Aluminum

Carbon dioxide is probably the least obnoxious thing in a soft drink. It is a waste product of metabolism that is exhaled. However, phosphoric acid still reaches toxic amounts of partake to be labeled as 'weight reduction product'. Now it insists label these products simply as 'Diet Drink' or 'Diet Food '. Research also shows that aspartame causes migraines, dizziness and moreover it reduces your memory.

Effects of Aerated Drinks on Body

Malnutrition: Some people who are addicted to soft drinks deprive themselves from food until they become victims of malnutrition. Since gastrointestinal disturbance of these drinks leads to poor appetite thus surviving on soft drinks and little amount of food will cause malnutrition, retarded growth and other physiological problems. Throughout the digestive system, the linings of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus are highly sensitive to acids. Also there is a very common practice of taking soft drinks when a person suffers from acidity or after having a heavy meal. The phosphoric acid present in soft drink competes with the hydrochloric acid of the stomach and affects its functions. When the stomach becomes ineffective, food remains undigested causing indigestion, gassiness or bloating (swelling of stomach). Thus people who are suffering from acidity should not be drinking soft drinks because actually it increases acidity further.

Effect on Kidneys: Kidneys are less able to excrete phosphoric acid when it is in excess. Thus, there is extra work for the kidneys. Soft drinks remove Calcium from the body, causing an excess amount of Calcium that tend to be deposited in the kidneys, resulting in nephrolithiasis

(Kidney stones).

Effect on Skin: Acidic blood affects the action of glutathione, which is an antioxidant enzyme. In addition, these drinks lack vitamins and minerals. By taking these drinks, people cut their intake of fresh juices, milk and even water and deprive themselves from essential vitamins and minerals that are mandatory for skin. Thus, the skin becomes more prone to wrinkles and aging.

Effect on Bones: Phosphoric acid, present in carbonated drinks is violently poisonous, it de-oxidizes blood, In detergent manufacturing industries, phosphoric acid is used to produce water softener, Water softener removes Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion from hard water, In human body, the function remains the same by removing Ca2+ from bones causing osteoporosis (porous bones).

Effect of Caffeine: In most of carbonated beverages, caffeine is deliberately added to make it addictive. Caffeine in carbonated drink is more readily absorbed than any other drink (like coffee, chocolate etc.). Caffeine disturbs sleep by stimulating nervous system. It also makes premenstrual syndrome worse, causes dehydration and induces stomach to produce acids, aggravating hyperacidity, since caffeine disturbs sleep, the body is more likely to produce C-reactive protein, which plays an important role in heart disease.

Prevention: Use straw to reduce direct contact with teeth. Rinse your mouth with water after drinking aerated drink or simply do not drink soft drinks. The multitude side effects depend on your genetics and an individual's physical strength. Chronic illnesses are not a direct cause but they are triggered or worsened by bad food habits. Soft drinks have subversive and destructive

Physiological consequences which contribute to early aging. In the 1500's, the Spanish colonists noted how the Indians of South America were able to allay fatigue by chewing the leaves of the coca shrub. However, that observation lay dormant for three centuries, as the science of organic chemistry developed. By 1860, in Germany, the first pure crystals of cocaine were extracted from coca. In small quantities, it was then used as a stimulant in beverages. By the 1880's, in Paris, a druggist named Angelo Mariani created an immensely popular cocaine-laced wine (vin Mariani). It contained about 30 mg. of cocaine in five ounces. Pope Leo XIII gave a gold metal to Mariani for being a benefactor of humanity. Thomas Edison praised the beverage. In the late 1880's, in Atlanta, a new non-alcoholic drink was born to quench thirsts and provide pep during steamy summers. Coca Cola contained cocaine from the coca plant and lots of caffeine from the kola bean. Other ingredients were lots of sugar, caramel coloring, lime juice, citric acid, phosphoric acid, nutmeg, coriander, neroli (orange flavoring), and cinnamon. The new beverage was sold as syrup that would be mixed with cold soda water at local drugstores (with a scoop of vanilla ice cream-after refrigerators came on the scene in the 1930's) it became a coke float. In 1906, the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed, and the official in charge of its enforcement set out to prove that the 'Coca Cola habit' was harmful to health. By 1922, that official claimed in Good Housekeeping magazine that a child who drank three or four cokes (6 oz.) a day would probably ruin his health for life. Today, we know why that's true:

1. In many states (in the USA) the highway patrol carries two gallons of Coke in the truck to remove blood from the highway after a car accident.

2. You can put a T-bone steak in a bowl of coke and it will be gone in two days.

3. To clean a toilet: Pour a can of Coca-Cola into the toilet bowl and let the "real thing" sit for one hour, then flush clean. The citric acid in Coke removes stains from vitreous china.

4. To remove rust spots from chrome car bumpers: Rub the bumper with a crumpled-up piece of Reynolds Wrap aluminum foil dipped in Coca-Cola.

5. To clean corrosion from car battery terminals: Pour a can of Coca-Cola over the terminals to bubble away the corrosion.

6. To loosen a rusted bolt: Applying a cloth soaked in Coca-Cola to the rusted bolt for several minutes.

7. To bake a moist ham: Empty a can of Coca-Cola into the baking pan, wrap the ham in aluminum foil, and bake. 30 minutes before the ham is finished, remove the foil, allowing the drippings to mix with the Coke for sumptuous brown gravy.

8. To remove grease from clothes: Empty a can of coke into a load of greasy clothes, add detergent, and run through a regular cycle. The Coca-Cola will help loosen grease stains. It will also clean road haze from your windshield.

9. The active ingredient in Coke is phosphoric acid. Its pH is 2.8. It will dissolve a nail in about 4 days.10. To carry Coca-Cola syrup (the concentrate) the commercial truck must use the Hazardous material place cards reserved for Highly corrosive materials.

11. The distributors of coke have been using it to clean the engines of their trucks for about 20 years!


There is a lack of information about the barriers to limiting or reducing soft drink consumption and about attitudes and beliefs concerning soft drink consumption among younger population. A number of prevention strategies towards target population; implications for qualitative research; public education/social marketing campaign; innovation and applied research for promising approaches; environmental changes; and monitoring, is the need of the hour.