Super Cell Structures And Doping Biology Essay

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In an effort to handle the Ultraviolet constraint for photovoltaic cells, a substantial amount of experimental effort is aimed at doping TiO2 with the help of either transition metal or non-metal dopants [70-73]. Theoretical research are also performed to analyze the very energy band structures concerning TiO2 pleomorphs most notably anatase [74-78] along with rutile [78-86]. The particular rutile state, which happens to be the most long-standing shape of TiO2, displays a direct band structure, whereas the band structure belonging to the metastable anatase state tends to be indirect naturally. The experimentally calculated energy gap connected with rutile is actually somewhat narrower in contrast to anatase. As they are certainly recognised, direct-gap substances as a rule have a couple of orders increased optical absorption coefficient along with enhanced optoelectronic coupling when compared with their indirect-gap cousins. This specifically endorses that rutile could possibly be ensuring with regard to significant section of photonic applications including low-cost as well as long-life solid-state solar cells.

Through this segment we provide the results computed within the platform associated with the density functional theory (DFT), which in turn expresses that "all ground state properties are functionals of the charge density ρ" [24]. The sole erroneous phase inside the DFT techniques sits on the formalism belonging to the exchange-correlation energy, which in turn demands certain approximation to make the approach to turn into computationally tractable. The actual computations throughout this work happens to be accomplished utilizing the adequately certified CASTEP code [24], that uses plane-wave basis sets to manage valence electrons as well as pseudopotentials in order to estimate the potential field involving ionic cores together with nuclei as well as closely bond core electrons [87]. The generalised gradient approximation (GGA) functionals are applied spanning the following work, because they constantly produce a more complete explanation regarding the electronic subsystem ın comparison to the local density approximation (LDA) functionals. Also its established fact, DFT will be precise should the exchange-correlation (XC) functional perfectly formulated, considering the exchange feature generally appearing prominent. Within this work, the particular exchange functional known as PBE [47] is employed.

Developing of TiO2 Substitutional Supercell Structures:-

Initially relaxed energy calculations are done using a conventional cell for both Anatase and Rutile forms which consists of 12 atoms and 6 atoms respectively. The cell structure is geometrically optimized, this task enables us to refine the geometrical structure that resembles the real crystal structure, by default CASTEP uses BFGS geometrical optimization method to find the lowest energy structure in less time and this scheme is the only one that supports cell optimization in CASTEP.

Once we obtain a relaxed structure, we build various super cell structures like 1x1x2, 2x2x1, 2x2x2, etc. It is necessary to adopt the supercell approach to successfully model low impurity concentrations. A super cell structure 1x1x2 means that, a normal crystal is expanded one fold in Z-axis keeping the structure the same in both X-axis and Y-axis. In the similar way a 2x2x1 structure means that the cell is expanded one fold in both X-axis & Y-axis keeping the structure unchanged in Z-axis. After building the supercell we geometrically optimize the structure to obtain the lowest energy structure.

Fig 4.1: A Anatase supercell structure of 2x2x1 dimensions.

Fig 4.2. A Rutile Supercell structure of 2x2x1 dimension.

As Anatase primitive cell consists of 4Ti atoms and 8 oxygen atoms comprising a total of 12 atoms for a primitive cell, the super cell structure 1x1x2 consists of 24 atoms and 2x2x1 comprises of 48 atoms making the doping percentage with a single doped atom to be 12.5 % and 6.25 % respectively for a Ti substituted position and 6.25% and 3.15 % respectively for O substituted position.

When it comes to Rutile as the primitive cell is made of 2 To atoms and 4 oxygen atoms coming for a total of 6 atoms so a 1x1x2 super cell has 12 atoms in all and 2x2x1 with 24 atoms and the doping percentile would be 25% and 12.5 % respectively for Ti substitution and 12.5 % and 6.25 % respectively regarding O substitution.

Architectural optimizations are carried out aided by the Brillouin zone sampling appearing restricted to the F point. For any computations regarding electronic structures, the Brillouin zone has been sampled using the Monkhorst-Pack grid [88] along with k point spacing being managed never to cross more than .04 Ao, to be able to attain the reliable density of the electronic states. This fits a 3x3X8 grids pertaining to the 2x2x1 supercell for rutile and 3x3x3 grids pertaining to Anatase. Trial computations indicate that applying additional k points would not cause towards apparent alterations in the energetic convergence, electronic band structures as well as density maps with regard to the actual electronic states [86]. A particular cutoff energy of 340 eV has been applied for all the geometrical relaxation with the structures and their respective energy calculations. A energetic convergence tolerance regarding the self-consistent field (SCF) is 2xlO~6 eV/atom, in addition to that atomic optimization is executed until all attributes associated with the residual forces happen to be below 0.01 eV/A.

Adopting the adequately approved tradition involving alloy thermodynamics, the energy of formation (Ef) associated with compound structures tend to be described by their natural elements, i.e. the A3 structure of Ti, the doped element (Alpha) plus the oxygen molecule, in order to illustrate" whether and how much a compound structure is favoured over its constituent elements" [86,89]. Ef with below presented form happens to be extensively recognized to help come up with common reference regarding phase diagram computations and handbook data on alloying thermodynamics [90]. Because of the intermittent boundary circumstance necessitated by CASTEP computations, a pair of oxygen atoms is positioned in a cubic lattice which has a lattice parameter of 20 Ao plus the length relating to the two oxygen atoms being the molecular bond length. Geometrical relaxation was performed to relax the much needed benchmark structures. The relaxed oxygen bond length is 1.239 employing the PBE when compared with the experimental value of 1.21 Ao [91]. For any lattice featuring x of titanium atoms, y of arbitrary doped atoms (alpha) and z oxygen atoms, the energy of formation emerges as:

In our work we considered basically 2x2x1 structure for both the structures Anatase and Rutile in regards with the doping using the S and P elements only i.e from Hydrogen to Calcium. Also few transition elements are used but they too are based on 2x2x1 structure apart from Ga doping in which we have used 2x2x1, 1x1x2 and 2x2x2 structures.

4.2. Pure Anatase and Rutile

The standard simple cells for rutile and antase can be displayed as in fig 4.3 and 4.4. In each structure one can find half a dozen atoms for every unit cell additionally all atoms belonging to the similar element happen to be equivalent through symmetry. Anatase serves as a body centred structure and in order to associate this, the standard cell consists of a pair of unit cells therefore it has 12 atoms.

Besides having a pair of conventional parameters plus associated with the tetragonal Bravais lattice, a certain internal parameter u is required to help establish each of the two strctures completely. The particular parameter explains the relative placements belonging to the oxygen as well as titanium atoms: when a titanium atom is positioned about the origin, in that case the pair of apical oxygen atoms associated with it happen to be at (0,0,)and ( ,,0) having apical Ti-O length , as well as pertaining to anatase and rutile, respectively. The particular atoms sites inside the unit cell are listed below



Ti 1



Ti 2



O 1



O 2



O 3



O 4



Table 4.1: Showing Atoms sites inside the unit cell.

The actual titanium atoms, tend to be set up in this manner that every oxygen will be simultaneously an equatorial atom regarding one titanium, and also an apical towards the another titanium atom within the very same unit cell. Nearby octahedra will be using edges along with corners with one another. Two and four edges of every octahedron happen to be shared inside rutile as well as anatase, respectively. Principle octahedra seem to be altered so that every shared edge will be shortened by approximately 5.25 a.u. (the actual value with the standard octahedra) to under 4.8 a.u., the additional edges appearing correspondingly elongated (upto 5.74 a.u.) We are going to consider the shortened oxygen-oxygen bonds as to the bridge O-O bonds with the perception that it's linking the actual interaction among Ti ions (metal-oxygen-metal). This particular presentation with the ionic crystal regarding TiO2, as built up for octahedra, helped Pauling [92] to be able to predict brookite structue in 1929.

Within rutile the particular bridge bond will be joining a pair of equatorial oxygen atoms. Hence the octahedra tend to be forming vertical linear chains. The octahedra owned by nearby chains happen to be attached solely from one corner: an oxygen atom that is certainly, simultaneously, apical as well as equatorial for each of the two touching octahedra. Repetitive chains can be associated through the four-fold symmetry belonging to the space group: 90° turn across the primary tetragonal axis as well as a fractional translation carrying the central titanium atom to its equivalent position.

Within anatase the particular octahedra happen to be set up to be able to contribute a diagonal edge among an apical and an equatorial atom. Therefore Octahedra tend to be developing zig-zag chains orthogonal with the crystallographic axis. There are two sets of chains orthogonal to one another, and are related from a common octahedron.

The unit cell connected with rutile TiO2 is actually tetragonal having a=4.594 and c=2.959 A respectively when it comes to Anatase a=3.798 and c= 9.732 Ao respectively, as they are displayed in Figures 4.3 and 4.4. The particular structure parameter related with rutile, u, is .305.and anatase is given by u= 0.2056. Every Ti atom happens to be bonded with 4 adjacent and a pair of second closest oxygen atoms. The related Ti-O bond lengths considering the nearest as well as second nearest oxygen atoms tend to be a little distinct for both the structures (1.9559 vs 2.0497 Ao for rutile and for Anatase would be 1.947Ao vs 2.005Ao) [93]. Prior to band structure computation, both the structures were completely optimised with the help of PBE functional, and therefore the resulting data are indexed in Table 4.2 in order to make contrast along with on hand experimental as well as theoretical data.

Fig. 4.3. Anatase unit cell.

Fig. 4.4. Rutile super cell.

The computed crystallographic data and also the energy of formation pertaining to rutile and Anatase have been in good concurrence with the experimental figures [90, 93]. The entire attributes belonging to the energy band structure which are computed during this work are in line with earlier research, exhibiting a direct energy gap along the Γ point (G), Figure (4.5,4.6,4.7,4.8) for rutile and antase respectively. The energy density of states (DOS) unveils that the base of the conduction band (CB) happens to be influenced from Ti 3d electron states where as top of the valence band (VB) decided by the oxygen 2p electron states.





Ti-O 1




















Table 4.2. Calculated Structural and Energetic data for TiO2 Pleomorphs

Fig 4.5: Band structure of pure Rutile phase.

Fig. 4.6. Band structure of pure Anatase Phase of TiO2













TiO2_rutile DOS undoped

Energy (ev)







Fig. 4.7. Dos for pure rutile show that the top of the valence band is dominated by the oxygen 2p states and the bottom of the conduction band is dictated by the titanium 3d states.

Fig. 4.8. Dos of undoped Anatase showing the dominion of 3d states on the conduction band and bottom of the valence band by oxygen 2p states.