Study Of Human Heart And Coronary Arteries Biology Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The morphometic studies in heart in relation to age and sex and other parameters including weight, size, aorta, pulmonary trunk, pericardium, myocardium & endocardium have been done in past but the data in this part of the world is lacking it will give valuable information for the anatomists, physicians and cardiac surgeons

Coronary anomalies although not very common but their incidence with or with out other congenital heart diseases are again very informative. The latest data on the above findings are yet to be scientifically collected in this part of the world.

Coronary artery disease is a major cause of human mortality and morbidity. It is also established that the incidence of coronary artery disease is much higher in men than in women until the fourth fifth decades of life when it increases more steeply in women than in men (Kalin and Zumoff, 1990). The reasons for this difference are, however, not fully understood. It has been speculated that the protective factor may be the female hormone estrogen which favourably affects lipid metabolism slowing down the process of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries (Walsh et al., 1991). It is well known that blood flow through arteries is influenced by various mechanical and hydraulic factors (Braunwald, 1992), but sex differences in morphometric features of coronaries like diameter and wall thickness do not seem to have attracted much attention as evidenced by paucity of publications. The present study is, therefore aimed to analyse histomorphometric features of coronary arteries which may add to the understanding of sexual differences in coronary artery disease.

In the past studies of lipid in tunica intima of arteries have been done by Gross et al (1934),Harvey et al (1963), Spiro and Wiener (1963).Clarification of relationship of systemic blood pressure with atherosclerosis has also been tried by Anitschkow (1913), Turnbull (1915), Davis and Klainer (1940), Bronte and Heptinstall (1954),Morgan (1956), Heptinstall et al (1958), Wilkins et al. (1959) Paterson et al, (1960) and Sacks (1960).

Kumar (1996) reported the increasing pulse pressure of blood as a cause of arterial atherosclerosis. Kumar (2003) calculated pulse

pressures of blood in left and right human coronary arteries. But exact anatomy of human coronary arterial lipid accumulation was uncertain to smoking, alcoholism, anxiety and hypertension.

Because arterial atherosclerosis begins with the increasing density of lipid in tunica intima, therefore, the present study is conducted to compare densities of tunica intimal lipid interrelating with pulse pressures of blood in these arteries.


For the present study we proposed the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the morphology of heart and pattern of distribution of coronary vessels and atherosclerosis in different sexes in our population in comparison to western population


To establish comprehensive morphological parameters of heart and to determine correlation of distribution of coronary vessels in both sexes with emphasis atherosclerosis in our population.


By the analysis of anatomical variation in heart and pattern of coronaries we can exactly outline the predictive morphology and pattern of vasculature of human heart in our population .This would be of utmost importance and add to the existing groups in scientific information's from this part of the world.


Samples of hearts will be obtained from the pathology department of D.U.H.S and mortuaries of DOW Medical Collage & Sindh Medical Collage. We will analyze the cardiac size, weight, myocardial thickness, inflow and outflow channels related to valves, ascending aorta and coronary vessels (there anomalies & atherosclerotic status).


The study will include 200 heart samples.


This will be descriptive comparative study


All those autopsies performed to ascertain cause of death in medicoleagal cases would be included as unselected series.


Statistical analysis using SPSS version 10.0 (statistical package for the social sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA)will be done to find out standard deviation (S.D)student 't' test and Chi-square test will be used to find the value of 'P. P 0.05 will be consider significant.


1. Aherne, W.A. and Dunnill, M.S : Morphometry. London :

Edward Arnold, pp. 155-157. (1982)

2. Braunwald, E. Heart disease. A text book of cardiovascular

medicine. 4th ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp.

1161-1199. (1992)

3. Dock, W. (1945) : The predilection of atherosclerosis for the

coronary arteries. Journal of American Medical Association

131 : 39-50.

4. Dodge, J.T., Brown B.G., Bolson E.L. and Dodge H.T.

(1992): Lumen diameter of normal Human coronary arteries :

Influence of age, sex, anatomic variation and left ventricular

hypertrophy or dilation. Circulation 86 : 232-246.

5. Douglas, P.S. : Heart disease in women. F.A. Davis

Company, Philadelphia, p. 144 (1969)

6. Helander , S and Levander, M. (1959) : The primary mortality

and the 5 years prognosis of cardiac infarction Acta Medical

Scandinavia 163 : 289-296.

7. Kalin. M.F. and Zumoff B., (1990) : Sex hormones and

coronary disease : A review of the clinical studies. Steroids

55 : 330-352.

8. Macalpin, R.N., Abbasi,A.S. Grollman, J.H and Eber, L.

(1973): Human coronary artery size during life: A

cinearteriographic study. Radiology 108 : 567-576.

9. Moon, H.D. (1957) : Coronary arteries in fetuses, infants and

juveniles. Circulation 16 : 263-269.

10. Peel, A.A.F. (1955) : Age and sex factors in coronary artery

disease. British Heart Journal 17 : 319-326.

11. Roberts, C.S. and Robert W.C (1980) : Cross sectional area

of the proximal portions of the three major epicardial coronary arteries in 98 necropsy patients with different coronary effects.Relationship to heart weight, age and sex. Circulation 62 : 953-959.

12. Velican, D. and Velican C. (1981) : Comparative study of age

related changes and atherosclerotic involvement of the

coronary arteries of male and female subjects upto 40 years

of age. Atherosclerosis 38 : 39-50.

13 . Vlodaver, Z. Khan H.A. and Neufeld H. (1969) : The

coronary arteries in early life in three different ethnic groups. Circulation 39 : 541-550.

14. Walsh, B.W., Schiff I., Rosner B., Green Berg, L. Ravinkar

V., and Sacks F.M. (1991) : Effects of postmenopausal

estrogen replacement on the concentration and metabolism

of plasma lipo-proteins. New England Journal of Medicine

325 : 1196-1204.

15. Antitschkow, N. (1913) : uber die veranderungen der Kaniuchenaorta bei experimentelle Cholesterinsteatose Beitr.

path. Anat 56: 379.

16. Bronte-stewart, B. & Heptinstall, R.H. (1954): The

relationship between experimental hypertension and

cholesterol induced atheroma in rabbits. Journal of Pathology

and Bacteriology 68: 407.

17. Davis, D. & Klainer, M.J. (1940): Studies in hypertensive

heart disease. I The incidence of coronary atherosclerosis in

case of essential hypertension. American Heart Journal 19:


18. Gross, L. Epstein, E.Z. and Kugel, M.A. (1934): Histology of

coronary arteries and their branches in the human heart.

American Journal of Pathology 253-274.

19. Harvey, F. Watts, M.D. (1963): The mechanism of arterial

lipid accumulation in human coronary artery atherosclerosis.

Coronary Heart Disease, P-98.

20. Heptinstall, R.H., Barkley, H. & Porter, K.A. (1958): Relative

roles of blood cholesterol level and blood pressure level in the

production of experimental aortic atheroma in rabbits,

Angiology. 9: 84.

21. Kumar, Keshaw (1996): Increasing pulse pressure of blood -

A cause of atherosclerosis in arteries Journal of Anatomical

Sciences. Vol. 15(1): 15-19.

22. Kumar, Keshaw (2003) : Anatomy of human coronary arterial

pulsation. Journal of Anatomical Society of India. Vol. 52(1) :


23. Morgan, A.D. : The pathogenesis of coronary occlusion

Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. (1956).

24. Paterson, J.C., Mill, J. & Lockwood, C.H. (1960): The role of

hypertension in the progression of atherosclerosis, Canadian

Medical Association 82: 65.

25. Sacks, M.I. (1960) : Aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in

the three racial groups in Cape Town. Circulation 9: 533.

26. Spiro, D. and Joseph, Wiener, M.D. (1963) : Fine structure of

coronary artery. Coronary Heart Disease p-11.

27. Turnbull, H.M. (1915): Alterations in arterial structure and

their relation to syphilis. Quarterly. Journal of Medicine 8:


29. Wehn, P.S. (1957): Pulsatory activity of peripheral arteries.

Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation

9:Suppl. 30 :1.

30. Wilkins, R.H. Roberts, J.C. & Moses, C. (1959): Autopsy

studies in atherosclerosis Part III. Circulation 20: 527.