Study Of Human Heart And Coronary Arteries Biology Essay

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The morphometic studies in heart in relation to age and sex and other parameters including weight, size, aorta, pulmonary trunk, pericardium, myocardium & endocardium have been done in past but the data in this part of the world is lacking it will give valuable information for the anatomists, physicians and cardiac surgeons

Coronary anomalies although not very common but their incidence with or with out other congenital heart diseases are again very informative. The latest data on the above findings are yet to be scientifically collected in this part of the world.

Coronary artery disease is a major cause of human mortality and morbidity. It is also established that the incidence of coronary artery disease is much higher in men than in women until the fourth fifth decades of life when it increases more steeply in women than in men (Kalin and Zumoff, 1990). The reasons for this difference are, however, not fully understood. It has been speculated that the protective factor may be the female hormone estrogen which favourably affects lipid metabolism slowing down the process of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries (Walsh et al., 1991). It is well known that blood flow through arteries is influenced by various mechanical and hydraulic factors (Braunwald, 1992), but sex differences in morphometric features of coronaries like diameter and wall thickness do not seem to have attracted much attention as evidenced by paucity of publications. The present study is, therefore aimed to analyse histomorphometric features of coronary arteries which may add to the understanding of sexual differences in coronary artery disease.

In the past studies of lipid in tunica intima of arteries have been done by Gross et al (1934),Harvey et al (1963), Spiro and Wiener (1963).Clarification of relationship of systemic blood pressure with atherosclerosis has also been tried by Anitschkow (1913), Turnbull (1915), Davis and Klainer (1940), Bronte and Heptinstall (1954),Morgan (1956), Heptinstall et al (1958), Wilkins et al. (1959) Paterson et al, (1960) and Sacks (1960).

Kumar (1996) reported the increasing pulse pressure of blood as a cause of arterial atherosclerosis. Kumar (2003) calculated pulse

pressures of blood in left and right human coronary arteries. But exact anatomy of human coronary arterial lipid accumulation was uncertain to smoking, alcoholism, anxiety and hypertension.

Because arterial atherosclerosis begins with the increasing density of lipid in tunica intima, therefore, the present study is conducted to compare densities of tunica intimal lipid interrelating with pulse pressures of blood in these arteries.

HYPOTHESIS

For the present study we proposed the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the morphology of heart and pattern of distribution of coronary vessels and atherosclerosis in different sexes in our population in comparison to western population

STUDY OBJECTIVES

To establish comprehensive morphological parameters of heart and to determine correlation of distribution of coronary vessels in both sexes with emphasis atherosclerosis in our population.

STUDY BENEFITS

By the analysis of anatomical variation in heart and pattern of coronaries we can exactly outline the predictive morphology and pattern of vasculature of human heart in our population .This would be of utmost importance and add to the existing groups in scientific information's from this part of the world.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Samples of hearts will be obtained from the pathology department of D.U.H.S and mortuaries of DOW Medical Collage & Sindh Medical Collage. We will analyze the cardiac size, weight, myocardial thickness, inflow and outflow channels related to valves, ascending aorta and coronary vessels (there anomalies & atherosclerotic status).

SAMPLES SIZE

The study will include 200 heart samples.

STUDY DESIGN

This will be descriptive comparative study

INCLUSION CRITERIA

All those autopsies performed to ascertain cause of death in medicoleagal cases would be included as unselected series.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Statistical analysis using SPSS version 10.0 (statistical package for the social sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA)will be done to find out standard deviation (S.D)student 't' test and Chi-square test will be used to find the value of 'P. P 0.05 will be consider significant.

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