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Diallel analysis of four genotypes namely NIAB-Karishma, CIM-496, MS-84 and FH-901 will be performed to study the inheritance pattern of different plant traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The experiment will be conducted in the research area of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The above genotypes will be sown in pots and placed in glasshouse for selfing and crossing. The seed of the selfs and the hybrids so developed will be sown in the field in a triplicate randomized complete block design. The data will be recorded for various plant traits such as plant height, number of monopodial branches, number of sympodial branches, number of bolls per plant, seed cotton yield, boll weight, GOT, fiber length, fiber strength and fiber fineness. The data will be analyzed statistically to study the inheritance pattern of these plant traits.
IV) NEED FOR THE PROJECT
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major cash crop of Pakistan as well as in the world. It contributes 7.3% to value added in agriculture and about 1.6% in GDP of the country. The area under this crop was 2.81 million hectares and the production was 11.8 million bales for 2008-09. Cotton provides raw material for the textile industry and is a major source of foreign exchange earnings of the country. Oil extracted from cotton seed is edible and its seed cake is also a rich feed supplement for milch animals. Multiuse of this crop has made it important for agricultural industry (Anonymous, 2009).
The production of cotton crop is decreasing more compared to its area (Anonymous, 2009). There are different factors responsible for its low production. Relatively less favorable combination of genes in cotton varieties is an important reason among those factors. This can be overcome by broadening the genetic base through crossing of diverse genotypes and study of inheritance of different yield contributing traits.
For this purpose inheritance study of different plant traits like number of monopodial branches, number of sympodial branches, number of bolls per plant, seed cotton yield, boll weight, ginning outturn, fiber length, fiber strength and fiber fineness is being planned to understand the genetic behavior of these traits in upland cotton. Present work will help cotton breeders to choose suitable parents for hybridization in their future programs.
V) REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A number of scientists have studied inheritance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to understand the genetic behavior of different plant traits. A part of previous work done has been reviewed as under:
Khan et al. (1992) studied a complete diallel set of crosses among six cultivars of upland cotton. They found that there was an additive type of gene action involved in inheritance of the trait number of bolls per plant while over-dominance type for boll weight and yield of seed cotton. There were not any epistatic effects observed for all these traits.
Mukhtar et al. (2000) studied inheritance pattern of four fiber traits namely lint index, seed index, lint percentage and staple length in upland cotton. They found that there is over-dominance type of gene action involved in inheritance of the above mentioned traits. There was not any non-allelic interaction present. Murtaza et al. (2002) found that both additive and dominance components are involved in inheritance of yield of seed cotton and lint percentage and there is asymmetrical distribution of dominant and recessive genes in the parents. They also observed low to moderate estimates of narrow sense heritability.
Murtaza et al. (2004) disclosed that fiber strength was determined by additive dominance while staple length had epistatic effects. There was asymmetrical distribution between dominant and recessive genes in the parents. There were not reciprocal differences noted for both the characters. Rauf et al. (2006) found that there were both additive and non-additive gene actions in inheritance of most of the traits in upland cotton. They claimed that parents CIM-473, NIAB-999 and ACALA-1517/C while cross CIM-473 Ã- NIAB-999 proved best for further selection of high yield due to high GCA of the parents and SCA of the cross.
Aguiar et al. (2007) studied 8 Ã- 8 diallel mating design for various plant traits like seed cotton yield, lint yield, seed index, picked lint percent, index of production and earliness, micronaire index fiber strength, fiber length, uniformity index, short fiber index, fiber elongation, CSP index, reflectance and yellowness in upland cotton. They used analysis of variance as proposed by Griffing (1956), method 4 and found that there were significant differences detected among treatments and the estimates of combining abilities. They observed additive gene action controlling the most of the traits studied and positive and negative heterotic values were also detected.
Khan et al. (2007) used 6 Ã- 6 diallel mating design to study gene action for various traits in upland cotton. They observed an additive type of gene action involved in inheritance of almost all the traits in F1 and F2 generations as indicated by the mean degree of dominance and components of variance. They observed low to moderate narrow sense heritability for seed per boll and cotton seed oil content and high for seed index but high broad sense heritability for all the three characters.
Ali et al. (2008) studied genetics of five fiber quality traits viz fiber length, fiber strength (FS), fiber fineness (FF), fiber uniformity (FU) and fiber elongation (FE). They found that additive component was significant for all the five traits and was lower in magnitude than the dominant components (H1 and H2) of variation for FS and FU which was firmly supported by the value of H1/D0,5. Dominant genes were in excess for all traits except FF. Their graphical representation demonstrated additive gene action for FL, FF and FE while over dominance for FS and FU.
Kumboh et al. (2008) studied 4 Ã- 4 half diallel mating design and observed that the mean squares due to GCA and SCA were significant for seven out of nine traits studied. They observed both additive and non-additive type of gene action involved in controlling the traits while non-additive genes were more important because of the higher SCA variances than GCA ones. The parent FH-901 showed maximum effects for plant height, number of bolls, boll weight, seed cotton yield and GOT% as indicated by the GCA estimates.
Abbass et al. (2008) conducted an experiment on 5 Ã- 5 full diallel cross experiment. They studied the characters like number of monopodial branches, number of sympodial branches, boll weight, yield of seed cotton, lint percentage, staple length, fiber fineness and fiber strength. Additive type of gene action with partial dominance was involved in inheritance of all these traits. All the traits except lint percentage and staple length exhibited higher narrow sense heritability estimates.
Ali et al. (2009) found that additive component of genotypic variation (D) was significant and predominant for plant height, number of sympodial branches per plant, staple length and fiber strength while number of monopodial branches per plant number of bolls, lint percentage and seed cotton yield are controlled by dominance effects (H1and H2). Plant height, number of sympodial branches per plant, staple length and fiber strength showed high narrow sense heritability (h2 n.s.) due to additive gene action while number of monopodial branches per plant, number of bolls, lint percentage and seed cotton yield possessed low heritability.
Khan et al. (2009a) studied combing ability and heterosis using 6 Ã- 6 diallel mating design to observe the nature of gene action involved. Non-additive gene action was involved in inheritance of traits like boll weight, boll number and seed cotton yield per plant where as additive type of gene action in case of lint% in both F1 and F2 generations while boll weight in F2s only.
Khan et al. (2009b) crossed six upland cotton cultivars in diallel mating design. They found that data of the traits like fiber length, fiber fineness and fiber uniformity were adequate for additive-dominance model while partially adequate in case of fiber strength. The additive component was significant for all the traits in F1 and F2 generations where as dominance components were also significant in F1 generation except fiber fineness, while insignificant for all the traits in case of F2s.
Khan et al. (2009c) found that additive component was significant for boll weight and staple length in both F1 and F2 generations while for number of bolls per plant in F1s only. Dominance components were significant for all the traits studied in F1s where as non significant in F2s. Additive type of gene action was partially controlling the traits in F1 generation but most of the traits were being controlled by additive type of gene action.
VI) MATERIALS AND METHODS
Four genotypes namely NIAB-Karishma, CIM-496, MS-84 and FH-901 will be sown in pots and placed in glasshouse of the Deptt. of Plant Breeding and Genetics under controlled conditions in Oct, 2009. These four genotypes will be crossed in all possible combinations at the stage of flowering, in January onward, to obtain 6 direct crosses, 6 resiprocals and 4 selfs. All possible measures will be followed to avoid any undesired pollen contamination during the crossing period. The 16 combinations will be:
NIAB-Karishma Ã- NIAB-Karishma
CIM-496 Ã- CIM-496
MS-84 Ã- MS-84
FH-901 Ã- FH-901
NIAB-Karishma Ã- CIM-496
NIAB-Karishma Ã- MS-84
NIAB-Karishma Ã- FH-901
CIM-496 Ã- MS-84
CIM-496 Ã- FH-901
MS-84 Ã- FH-901
CIM-496 Ã- NIAB-Karishma
FH-901 Ã- NIAB-Karishma
FH-901 Ã- NIAB-Karishma
MS-84 Ã- CIM-496
FH-901 Ã- CIM-496
MS-84 Ã- FH-901
Seed of all these crosses and selfs F1s will be sown in the field in triplicate randomized complete block design in June 2010. There will be 10 plants in a row of each genotype at 30 and 75 cm plant to plant and inter-row distance, respectively. At maturity the data will be recorded from 5 guarded plants for following traits:
Number of monopodial branches
Number of sympodial branches
Number of bolls per plant
Seed cotton yield
Ginning outturn percentage
The data obtained for above traits will be analyzed for its variance and then for study of gene action following Hayman (1954).
Abbass, A., M.A. Ali and T.M. Khan. 2008. Studies on gene effects of seed cotton yield and its attributes in five American cotton cultivars. Journal of Agricultural & Social Studies. 04(4):147-152.
Aguiar, P.A.de, J.C.V. Penna, E.C. Freire and L.C. Melo. 2007. Diallel analysis of upland cotton cultivars. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology. 7:353-359.
Ali, M.A., A. Abbas, M. Younas, T.M. Khan and H.M. Hassan. 2009. Genetic basis of some quantitative traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Plant Omics Journal. 2(2):91-97.
Ali, M.A., I.A. Khan, S. Ali, and S. Niaz. 2008. Genetics of fiber quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Austeralian Journal of Crop Science. 2(1):10-17.
Anonymous, 2009. Economic survey of Pakistan. Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Govt. of Pakistan.
Hayman, B I. 1954. The Theory and analysis of diallel crosses. Genetics. 39:789-809.
Khan N.U., G. Hassan, M.B. Kumbhar, K.B. Marwat, M.A. Khan, A. Parveen, U. Aiman and M. Saeed. 2009a. Combining ability analysis to identify suitable parents for heterosis in seed cotton yield, its components and lint % in upland cotton. Industerial Crops and Products. 29:108-115.
Khan N.U., K.B. Marwat, G. Hassan, M.B. Kumbhar, Farhatullah, Z.A. Soomro, N.Khan, A. Parveen and U. Aiman. 2009b. Study of fiber quality traits in upland cotton using additive-dominance model. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 41(3):1271-1283.
Khan N.U., G. Hassan, K.B. Marwat, Farhatullah, M.B. Kumbhar, N. Khan, A. Parveen, U. Aiman, M.Z. Khan and Z.A. Soomro. 2009c. Diallel analysis of some quantitative traits in Gossypium hirsutum L. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 41(6):3009-3022.
Khan, N.U., G. Hassan, M.B. Kumbhar, A. Parveed, U. Aiman, W. Ahmad, S.A. Shah and S. Ahmad. 2007. Gene action of seed traits and oil content in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). SABRAO Journal of Breeding and Genetics. 39(1):17-29.
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Kumboh, N., M.J. Baloch, M.B. Kumbhar, S. Khanzada and W.A. Jatoi. 2008. Diallel analysis for estimating combining ability in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Sciences. 24(1):27-33.
Mukhtar, M.S., T.M. Khan, M.A. Khan and M.K.R. Khan. 2000. Diallel analysis of some important fiber characteristics of Gossypium hirsutum L. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 02-3-261-263.
Murtaza, N., A. Qayyum and M.A. Khan. 2004. Estimation of genetic effects in upland cotton for fiber strength and staple length. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 06-1-61-64.