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Vidya Sabale et al., (2009) investigated to extract the mucilage from Fenugreek seeds and evaluated it as a binder for pharmaceutical dosage forms. Mucilage was isolated from Fenugreek seeds by extraction, soaking and boiling with double distilled water and precipitating by addition of acetone and drying at 50-600 C under vacuum. The percentage yield of mucilage was 20-25% w/w. The solubility, swelling index, loss on drying of the mucilage were studied and pH was found to be 7.2 which is near to neutral value. The evaluation of the mucilage for its binding properties in tablets was carried out using Ibuprofen as a model drug. Wet granulation technique was used for preparation of granules using Fenugreek seed mucilage as a binder at a concentration of 8%, 9% and 10% w/v. The prepared granules were evaluated for compressibility index and flow properties which were compared with starch as a standard binder at a concentration of 10% w/v. The tablets were then evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration time and in vitro dissolution profile. The tablets showed excellent physicochemical characteristics and drug release was found to be more than 85% within three hours. The tablets prepared using 8% and 9% mucilage as binder could be considered as model concentration for preparation of tablets than 10% concentration which exhibited more hardness. Hence, Fenugreek seed mucilage (8% and 9%) has the potential for being substituted as a binder for the more expensive starch in tablet formulation.
Pranati Srivastav et al., (2010) aimed to extract pectin from dried orange fruit peels to evaluate its binding property in tablets using paracetamol as model drug. Firstly the orange fruit peel powder was subjected to soxhlet extraction and pectin was isolated using ethyl alcohol as precipitating agent. Four batches were formulated using pectin in different concentration. A reference batch of starch was also prepared to perform the comparative study and to evaluate the binding property of pectin. Precompression and post compression studies were performed for each formulation. In-vitro release data was subjected to various kinetic models. The results obtained for all pre-compression and post compression parameters were found within acceptable range of pharmacopoeias. On the basis of drug release behavior it can be seen that the release of all four batches under study was less than that of reference batch. Orange peel pectin can act as excellent binder in dosage forms. Since the orange peels available at low cost it may prove to be better binder over commercially used synthetic binders.
Majid Saeedi et al., (2010) aimed to extract mucilage from Plantago psyllium seeds and it was evaluated for inertness and safety parameters. Psyllium mucilage as a pharmaceutical binder was evaluated taking Paracetamol as model drug. Physicochemical properties of the granules prepared with various concentrations of psyllium mucilage were compared with PVP and tragacanth. A concentration of 5% (m/m) Psyllium mucilage was compared with 3 % (m/m) of PVP.
N. C. Ngwuluka et al., (2010) evaluated dried and milled date palm fruit as a granulating agent in comparison with acacia and tragacanth. Physicoshemical characterization of the granules in addition to quality control tests which includ uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution were carried out. The granules formulated using the binders had good flow properties and compressibility. With increase in concentration of the binder, the binding ability enhanced producing tablets with good uniformity of weight and hardness. The tablets manufactured with dried date palm were found to be less friable than tablets formulated using acacia and tragacanth. Even though, the tablets did not disintegrate, the drug release from the tablets agreed the USP and BP specification for dissolution of paracetamol. Therefore, dried date palm fruit can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient.
Vijetha Pendyala et al., (2010) aimed to extract gum from Leucaena Leucocephala plants grown all over India. Its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods were investigated. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appear to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28Â°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and virtually insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40Â°C). At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The outcome indicated that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL) bark gum gave an information for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties gave an information for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.
Okoye. E. I et al., (2009) investigated the mechanical properties and release properties of Paracetamol tablets, where Paracetamol was taken as the model drug and cashew gum, povidone and gelatin as binders. The brittle fracture index (BFI), tensile strength (TS), friability (F), disintegration time (DT) and percentage drug released (PDR) were studied. At all concentration of Cashew gum the TS and BFI values of tablets were low. All the formulations showed friability less than 1%. The disintegration time for Gelatin formulated tablets was more and least for povidone formulated ones. The drug release was highest for Cashew gum at a binder concentration of 1 to 3% and the drug release for povidone was highest at binder concentration of 4 to 5% (w/w).The drug release was lowest for Gelatin formulated tablets. Cashew gum better BFI than povidone or Gelatin
S. K. Singh and S. Singh (2009) investigated the seeds of cassia fistula contain gluco-mannose hence an attempt to evaluate the seeds for suitability as tablet binder was considered and the present investigation reports the isolation of mucilage of Cassia fistula seed. The DSC and FTIR thermograms of drug and mucilage indicated no chemical interaction. Phytochemical and Physiochemical characteristics of mucilage were studied which confirmed the mucilage nature. Diltiazem HCl was used as a model drug. The granules prepared by mucilage were compared with xanthan gum, which was used as standard binder. The tablets showed good physiochemical properties and the release rate of the drug was more than 85% within 3hr. It was noted that increasing the concentration of mucilage increases hardness and decreases the disintegration time. All the formulations were prone to stability studies for three months as per ICH guidelines all four formulation showed stability with reverence to release pattern and other parameters which confirm the use of mucilage as excipient.
Oluwatoyin. A. Odeku (2007) evaluated Albizia gum as a granulating agent in tablet formulations which was compared with gelatin BP. Evaluation parameters such as density measurements and compression equations of Heckel and Kawakita were determined, while the evaluation of the tablets was carried out by finding the hardness and friability of the tablets. Disintegration time and dissolution time were assessed to find out the drug release of the tablets. As the concentration of the binder increased the hardness, disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets increased whereas their friability decreased with increase in concentration. The mechanical property of the tablet was improved and the disintegration and dissolution time was enhanced than those containing gelatin BP. This shows that Albizia gum could be used as a granulating agent when high mechanical strength and slower drug release rates are desired.
Emeje Martins et al., (2007) evaluated Grewia gum as a granulating agent in paracetamol tablet formulations. Evaluation parameters such as density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel and Kawakita were determined. Slower onset and less amount of plastic deformation were seen in formulations containing Grewia gum than those containing PVP. As the concentration of Grewia gum increased the Db value also increased. Elevated degree of packing was seen in formulations containing Grewia gum than those containing PVP. The yield values were found to be different in formulation containing Grewia gum as the binder concentration differed. The values increased between 1 and 2% w/w and decreased between 2 and 4% w/w. A linear relationship was observed between N/C and N for preparations containing Grewia gum over all concentrations ranges. This study showed that Grewia gum compiled with the standard binder PVP used hence it can be used as an alternative binder in paracetamol tablet formulations.
G. C. Onunkwo and J. Okoye (1997) investigated a polysaccharide gum obtained from the stem of Anucurdium occiden was studied for use as a binder in lactose-based tablet formulations containing tartrazine dye. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (p.v.p.) and acacia gum were employed as a standards. The tablet physical properties studied were weight uniformity, friability, hardness, disintegration and dissolution times. Amunfium occidenfale gum produced tablets with good hardness and friability profile. However at concentrations of above 2% w/w, it prolonged the disintegration and dissolution times.
Subas Chandra Dinda and Biswajit Mukharjee (2009) investigated the efficacy of cordia obliqua fruit mucilage as pharmaceutical excipient in particular as tablet binder and emulsifier. The drug- excipient interaction was studies using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrum which ensured its safe use as a tablet binder. Tablets were manufactured with various quantities of cordia obliqua fruit mucilage as tablet binding agent and a comparison was made against the tablets prepared with 5% starch paste as binder. Gum cordia at a very low amount (1/25th of the starch paste used) was found to be effective as tablet binder. For emulsifying activity study, castor oil was used as a model drug and emulsified with cordia obliqua fruit mucilage. The relative stability studies were done with that of the emulsion prepared by gum acacia as standard emulsifying agent and it was found that the emulsion prepared with 1.5%w/v of gum cordia is more effective in comparison to that of the emulsion prepared by using 10%w/v of gum acacia. Thus this gum will be a non-toxic, bio-degradable, cheap, economic and easily available as tablet binder and emulsifier in the list of pharmaceutical excipients.
Biswajit Mukherjee et al., (2006) investigated the efficacy of gum odina as tablet excipient, in particular as a tablet binder. The drug- excipient interaction was studies using FTIR spectrum ensured its safe use as a tablet binder. Tablets were manufactured with various quantity of gum odina as a tablet binding agent and comparision was made against the tablets prepared with 5% starch paste as a binder. Gum odina at a very low amount (1/20th of starch paste used) was found to be effective as tablet binder. This gum is a cheap, economic and easily available as a tablet binder in pharmaceutical excipients.
A. Oluwatoyin et al., (2003) studied using a 23Â factorial experimental design the interaction property of nature of binder (N), concentration of binder (C) and the relative density (D) on the hardness and release properties of paracetamol tablets. Khaya gum as the "low"level, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the "high"level, was used as binding agent at concentrations of 0.5% and 4%w/w taking Paracetamol as a model drug. The bond strength was dertermined by measuring the crushing strength of the tablet and the release properties of the tablets were measured by the disintegration and the dissolution times. As the concentration of the binder and the relative density changed from "low"to "high" the hardness, disintegration time and dissolution times of the tablets were increased. The result tells us that khaya gum could be useful as a granulating agent to produce tablets with good tensile strength and drug release profiles.
Anoop Kumar Singh et al., (2010) evaluated the gum of mangifera indica (mango) as a tablet binder employing paracetamol as a model drug. To our knowledge, no significant work has been reported on mango gum as a tablet binder. Paracetamol tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using mangifera indica gum as a tablet binder. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physico chemical characteristics. The friability of the tablets ranges from 1.12 to 0.26 % and the disintegration time from 3 to 8 min. The binding efficacy of the mangifera indica gum was compared with the standard binder gum acacia at similar concentration (5% w/w). The tablets hardness prepared from mangifera indica gum varies from 6.3 to 6.8 kg/cm2 which are comparable with the standard binder, gum acacia (4.8 kg/cm2). In conclusion, MIG could be used well as a binding agent in the formulation of tablet dosage forms.
Kuldeep Singh et al., (2009) investigated the sustained-release properties ofÂ Mimosa pudicaÂ seed mucilage. Matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium containing different extent of mucilage and dibasic calcium phosphate taken as diluents were formulated by wet granulation method. The tablets had consistent physical appearance, average weight, drug content, and adequate hardness. The results ofÂ in vitroÂ release using USP type II dissolution rate apparatus, in a dissolution media consisting of 900Â mL of 0.1Â N HCl for 2Â h followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for 24Â h at 37Â°C and 50Â rpm, revealed that as the amount of mucilage in the matrix was increased there was a decrease in the release of drug. The matrix tablets were found to release the drug which followed Higuchi square root release kinetics, with the mechanism of release being diffusion for tablets containing high proportion of mucilage and a mixture of matrix erosion and diffusion for tablets containing smaller proportion of mucilage. The swelling and erosion studies discovered that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was an increase in percentage swelling and a decrease in percentage erosion of tablets. On relative evaluation, the dissolution profile for formulation containing mucilage to drug in the ratio of 1:40 was to be the same when compared to commercial sustained-release formulation of diclofenac.
D. Pande et al., (2010) observed that the gum from Moringa oleifera can act as a granulating agent and release retardant in tablet formulations. The outcome of calcium sulphate dihydrate which is water insoluble and lactose that is water soluble diluent on the release of propranolol hydrochloride was carried out. The DSC curve of the drug, gum and its mixture showed no chemical interaction. Formulation of the tablets was carried out using calcium sulphate dihydrate, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug containing 10%, 8%, 6% and 4% w/v of gum solution as binder. The flow rate, Carr compressilbilty index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, hardness, friability and disintegration time were determined. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using propranolol hydrochloride as a model drug at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30% of gum as release retardant, calcium sulphate dihydrate as an excipient, magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Another batch of tablets was prepared by replacing lactose with calcium sulphate dihydrate. As the proportion of excipient increased the drug release increased and as the proportion of the gum decreased the drug release also increased. The release follows Ficks law. The release of the drug was not affected by the dissolution and erosion of the excipients.
R. H. Kale et al., (2009) observed seeds of Delonix regia contain glucomannose hence an effort to evaluate the seeds for suitability as tablet binder was considered. Seeds collected from dried pods of D. regia was used for mucilage preparation. The mucilage obtained was used for preparation of calcium carbonate tablets. The tablets were evaluated for Hardness test, Friability Test and disintegration time and results were compared with standard calcium carbonate tablets (Formulation A) prepared using 5%w/v starch paste as binding agent. Hardness of test formulation was found to be 6.0 kg/cm3, the friability loss was just 0.26% and the disintegration time was 7 min. The properties were compared with standard formulation A. The results indicate that endospermic mucilage obtained from D. regia seeds possesses analogous binding properties.