Structure And Function Of The Nucleus Biology Essay


This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered in 1632 by Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek who was a microscopist. He observed the nucleus in red blood cells of salmon. Furthermore nucleus is the most prominent organelle in the cell as it houses the cell`s chromosomes and is the place where all deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) replication and Ribose nucleic acid (RNA) synthesis occur. According to Solomon et al (2008) the nucleus averages 5 micrometers (µm) in diameter. The nucleus can be classified as the control centre of the cell as it helps in maintaining the integrity of the genes and by controlling the activities of the cell by gene expression.

Moreover the nucleus is spheroid in shape and separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane called nuclear envelope. The nucleus consists of 4 inner parts as shown in the picture below. It consists of the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, nucleoplasm and chromatin.

The nuclear envelope consists of two concentric membranes that separate the nuclear contents from the surrounding cytoplasm. Becker et al. (2005) illustrated that these membranes are separated by about 20 to 40 nanometres (nm).At intervals these membranes come together to form nuclear pores which consist of protein complexes. Nuclear pores control the course of materials between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. According to Lamb et al. (2006) the nuclear pores is approximately 80 nm in diameter. The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is formed by union of the inner and outer nuclear membranes. Therefore it facilitates the movement of certain molecules in both ways between the nucleus and the cytoplasm by the use of a 9 nm channel opening. Solomon et al. (2008) stated that the nuclear pore complex is composed of nearly 100 proteins also it comprises of the cytoplasmic ring nucleoplasmic ring and the middle ring. Palgrave et al. (2007) further noticed that the nucleoplasmic side of the pore contains a nuclear basket whereas the cytoplasmic side has fibres extending into the cytoplasm. As the transporter protein is situated in the inner core it is responsible for transferring proteins into and out of the nucleus via receptor-mediated transport.

The nucleolus is a secondary organelle that can change its size basing in ribosomal requirements. For instance if a cell produces huge amounts of protein t it definitely requires big amounts of ribosomes thus the nucleolus will increase its size to provide accommodation for the production of the proteins. Palgrave et al. (2007) stated that most of the cell`s ribosomal RNA is synthesised in the nucleolus. Moreover the nucleolus is the site mainly responsible for the assembly of ribosomes. The nucleolus consists of four components such as fibrilla centres, Pars fibrosa, Pars granulosa and nuclear matrix. The picture shown below illustrates the purpose of the nucleolus in ribosome and other ribonucleoprotein synthesis. ch6f47[1]

Picture adapted from: last accessed on Wednesday 20.1.10

The fibrilla centres are composed of inactive DNA where minimal synthesis of DNA and RNA takes place. The Pars fibrosa is consisted of 5 nm fibrils surrounding the fibrillar centres which contain transcriptional active DNA and the rRNA precursors are being transcribed. According to Palgrave et al. (2007) the Pars granulosa are is approximately 15 nm in diameter and contains maturing ribosomal precursor particles.Furthermore the nucleolar matrix is a fibre network which participates in the organisation of the nucleolus. In addition to that the nucleoplasm is a highly viscous liquid that surrounds the chromosomes. Many substances such as the nucleotides which are necessary for replication of DNA and enzyme which direct activities that occurs in the nucleus are dissolved in the nucleoplasm. The nucleoplasm contains a nuclear matrix. The matrix acts as a scaffold that helps in organising the nucleoplasm. Lamb et al. (2006) distinguished that it contains other components such as the structural components and functional components.

DNA replication occurs when the genetic code is copied exactly before the cell division. In RNA transcription and splicing, genes are copied and adapted to form complementary strands of messenger mRNA (mRNA) which can then be translated into proteins. Lamb et al. (2006) noted that chromosomes are long strands of DNA that carry the genetic code. In eukaryotes DNA is complexed with histone and non histone proteins to form chromatin.Histones are DNA binding proteins that are important for DNA packaging and other DNA associated proteins function as enzymes for replication and transcription. Lamb et al. (2006) further noted that the nucleoli are dense staining areas within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is made. Clegg et al. (1994) described chromatin as the composite combination of DNA and protein that formulate chromosomes. Chromosomes are separated between heterochromatin (condensed) and euchromatin (extended) forms. The major components of chromatin are DNA and histone proteins. The main functions of the chromatin are to package DNA into a smaller size ratio to fit into the cell to strengthen DNA thus allowing mitosis and meiosis to occur. It also acts as a system to control expression and DNA replication. Smith et al. (1992) noted that alterations in chromatin structure are influenced by chemical alterations of histone proteins such as methylation (DNA and proteins) and acetylation (proteins) and by non-histone DNA- binding proteins.

Finally it can be concluded that the nucleus is one of the most major organelles in the cell because inside of it holds the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) which makes possible to reproduce. In addition to that it also holds chromatin which forms chromosomes which are the ones in charge of the hereditary information. DNA replication processes take place inside the nucleus and it keeps all the information that is to be transferred to the next generation. The information generated by nucleus governs the formation of enzymes and other proteins that carry out all the processes of body. Lamb et al. (2006) elaborated that the nucleus is indeed the most prominent organelle in the cell as it sequesters and replicates DNA, transcribes and splices RNA which allows facilitated selective exchange of molecules such as transfer RNA (tRNA) within the cytoplasm.

Writing Services

Essay Writing

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.