Stress Hormones in human beings


There are no such differences between article as well research paper as both of it originals paper of their own but the differences are that article which is submitted by scholars and research paper written by students. Articles could be narrative where as research paper with:-

  1. It could be reference from the articles.
  2. It could contains :
  1. Introduction
  2. Experiments
  3. Facts
  4. Results
  5. Conclusion
  6. Data, etc;

Two authors involved in this “story” they are:-

  1. Tori Rodriguez, who published this article, Psychotherapist and Author.
  2. Rachel Yahuda and her team ,Researcher in growing field of Epigenetic at the Icahn School of Medicines ,Mount Sinai and the James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Centre in Bronx,N.Y.
  1. Tori Rodriguez is a journalist and psychotherapist based in Atlanta .her work has appeared in “Scientific American Mind, Women’s Health, and real Simple”.[1]
  2. Rachel Yahuda,” a professor of psychiatry and neuroscience at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, is expert of posttraumatic stress. She becomes one of the pioneers of the emerging field of epigenetic.”[2]
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Ans. 2:

The main thing given in article is “ how cortisol affect during PTSD and is this hormone affects our next generation?”

Holocaust means holo “whole” and kaustos “burnt” or “sacrifice by fire”. During the world war II, more European Jews lived in countries that Nazi Germany would occupy or influence. By 1945, the Germans and their collaborators killed nearly two out of every three European Jews as part of the “Final Solution” the Nazi policy to murder the Jews of European. Although Jews,whom the Nazis deemed a priority danger to Germany , were the primary victims of Nazi racism other victims include 200,000 Roma(Gypsies).At least 200,000 mentally or physically disabled patients mainly Germans,living in institutional settings,were murdere in the so calld Euthansia program.(

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Ans. 3:

The different types pf stress hormones in human beings are:-

  1. Adrenaline
  2. Nor epinephrine
  3. Cortisol
  4. Estrogens
  5. Testosterone, etc;
  1. Adrenaline:- This hormone produced by adrenal glands . This hormone also known as fight hormone. These are hormone which gives immediate response of any reaction.

Suppose we driving a bike and suddenly another vehicle come front of us , this time without thinking anything we suddenly took the break.

This hormone also focuses the attention.

  1. Nor epinephrine:- same as adrenaline. It produced by adrenal gland as well as by brain also.

When we are more in stress, that time we are more focussed like during exams. When we study during fragmentary time we usually distracted by any of the other things so easily but when we having stresses about exam, we only focused on the particular matter what we have to learn.

  1. Cortisol:- it is also called stressed hormones. These hormones control anxiety , blood pressure ,cognitive performance , sugar imbalance , also call chronic diseases

Cortisol is the stress hormones and secreted by adrenal gland.

It perform various functions like:-

  1. Release insulin for maintenance of blood sugar.
  2. Regulate blood pressure
  3. Inflammatory response,etc;

To control cortisol level in the body we can do various things such as:-

  1. Yoga
  2. Exercise
  3. Jogging
  4. Listen music
  5. Tour in eco-friendly places
  6. Etc;

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Ans. 4:



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Ans. 5:

Epigenomic is the study of epigenetic. The is analogous to genomics and proteomic, which are the study of the genome and proteome of a cell(Russell 2010 p.217 & 230). Epigenetic is the modifications on a cell’s DNA or histones that affect gene expression without altering the DNA sequence(Russell 2010 p.475).[3]

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According to Yahuda and her team, theorized that adaptations is happen into the uterus of mother through which enzyme present could be transfer to next generation or offspring . During the pregnancy of placenta contain enzyme to protect offspring.

According to epigenetic, the biological process occurs i.e. if parent had any type of stress then next generation also contains some of the activities from parents.

As we usually see by saying our grand’s “the child contains anger same as his father or grandfather”. It might somewhere truth as generally it happens. So if survivor faced with PTSD then there would be chances that some of the percentage could find the offspring too.

As per Yahuda’s new survey , the figure explains that if mother survived holocaust then there will be higher risk for child to suffer with that’s why during the pregnancy doctors advice to more stress free more the child could be healthy.

The possibilities also says that if parental grandfather suffered before the puberty period then lesser will be the chances of diabetes in grandchild but it opposite in case with parental grandmother , if she having the any diseases then more possibilities in grandchild also as mother’s chromosome transfer to the son instead to daughter.

If we see towards maternal grand then there will be vice –versa, i.e. if grandfather having any disease then there would be more possibilities to having the same disease in grandson.

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As cortisol present in the body is the steroid hormone or stress hormone , which able to reduce the stress. Usually high level cortisol present in our body during morning hours whereas the day over the cortisol hormone also reduced.

Presence of cortisol helpful in forgetting unwanted incident, fear , stress that we faced in earlier or in our past.

In my opinion, holocaust survivor producing less cortisol because during the world war II as in the “story” given survivor may be experienced some torture which psychologically effects over decades & even into survivors’ old age. During war the torture given to the survivor, it could be severe which could be become the symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress disorder .

During stress the hormones present pituitary gland activated which synthesis corticotrophs and release adrenocorticotrophic hormones during blood circulation. This ACTH circulates in the blood to zona fasciculate of the adrenal cortex which promotes cholesterol ester into free cholesterol which release in the form of cortisol fro ACTH within 15-20 minute in normal human being but in stressed survivor it could pulsed duration become 20-40 min.i.e. longer the stressed would be lesser the cortisol response.

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