Stem Therapy Stem Cells Biology Essay

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Those cells having the ability to regenerate and transplant one cell within the life of organism are termed as stem cells. e.g., the defining test of bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell is the ability to transplant one cell and save an individual without hematopoietic stem cells. It is necessary that the stem cells must be isolated from the already transplanted individual and that cell must be transplanted in to another related individual in the absence of HSCs, explaining stem cells ability of self renewal.

TYPES OF STEM CELLS

Totipotent:

In this type of stem cells every cell is modified into in to a complete individual. Totipotent cells are formed from the mating of egg and sperm. These cells are present in the embryos of 1-3 days.

Pluripotent stem cells:

These are the ancestors of totipotent cells.

Multipotent:

These can be differentiated into many cells.

Oligopotent:

Can be differentiated into few cells like lymphoid cells.

Unipotent:

These can produce cells, their own like stem cells.

PROPERTIES

Divide by the process of mitosis.

Have the ability to produce many cells

Can be grown by artificial process

SOURCES

Embryonic stem cells

Fetal stem cells

Umbilical card stem cells

Placenta derived stem

USES

1: Stem cell therapy to cure leukemia: - Leukemia is the cancer of leukocytes which occur when the white blood cells are dropped in to the blood stream. In blood it works against the diseases.

2: Peripheral blood stem cells: - It is present in bone marrow and a little amount is also present in the blood. These cells are used to cure leukemia, cancer and many other diseases.

3: Replace damaged tissues: - Stem cells have the ability to cure many diseases like heart failure, diabetes and Parkinson's disease.

4: Study human development: - Is use is also present in the studying of human development and its function.

Stem therapy in humans

The stem cell therapy is a natural healing process. The stem cells of bone marrow appeared due to some harmones or chemicals and act as a Angiogenic cell precursors (ACPs). These ACPs move towards damaged area which is called ischemic area. Due to these cells the new blood vessels are formed and repair the damaged cells.

In case of heart disease, the ACPs can be increased in the laboratory and then inserted into the patient body for repairing. For the insertion of cells, insert the coronary vessel until it reaches the blocked area and use the syringe. The doctor inflated the balloon. ACPs has the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, replicate itself, making new vessels and recover the damaged tissue. This is safe technology which improve the life of humans.

Adi-stem cell procedure

With the help of syringe, take fats from the abdomen of patient.

Fats also contain stem cells and many other cells.

Place these fats into test tube.

Add adi- stem solution for extraction of stem sells.

Place this test tube into centrifuge machine.

The stem cells will be goes down at the bottom the tube.

Isolate the stem cells and place into another test tube.

Take some blood from the patient arm with PRP.

Place blood into test tube.

For the extraction of PRP, place test tube into centrifuge machine.

The PRP will be goes at the top the test tube.

Isolate PRP with syringe and add into stem cells test tube.

Now the process of photo activation occur which will take atleast 15 minutes.

Activated stem cells are ready to go into the patient body.

Fill the saline drip bags with stem cells with the help of syringe.

The stem cells circulating in the body and move towards the damaged tissue.

Damaged cells secrete chemokine. Due to this chemical the stem cells attracted towards the damaged part.

The stem cells repair the damaged cells.

This procedure takes time 5 hours.

Skin replacement

Skin stem cells reside in the hair follicle. When hair plucked the stem cells isolated and treated in the laboratory. This is used for burn victims and for the creation of new skin.

Brain cell transplantation

The neural stem cells are isolated and treated for the spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative disease e.g. Parkinson disease.

Treatment of Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease in which insulin can't prepare properly. Insulin is produced in the islets of langerhans of pancreas. It is investigated that, mouse containing stem cells that can produce insulin. These stem cells form a structure which is closely like the islets of pancreas. Such cells can be inserted in the human body and treated the disease of diabetes.

Stem therapy in plants

Stem cell:

Stem cells are mostly known as meristem cells. They have the ability to divide frequently.

They obtain from apples, roses, and melons. The stem cell came from the young shoot, root, flowers, also from the reproductive part as well.

The stem cells have the ability to grow into the organs or the whole organism like leaves, flowers, or the whole plant.

Gemmotherapy:

Gemmotherapy is also known as stem therapy in plants it came from latein word "gemma" means buds. So gemmotherapy also means bud therapy.

Introduction:

It is a specialized form of herbal medicine. In gemmotherpy raw material is taken from the trees in the spring season to capture vitamins, harmones, nutrients, and enzymes which are present only at the peak of the annual germination period. In some cases these are present only in this season.

Development of gemmotherapy:

Gemmotherapy was first investigated by a Belgian doctor, Dr. Pol Henry (1918-88).

Human stem cells provide a lot of benefits to the scientists in providing relief to the humans and plants and also animals in the treatment of tissues and organs.

While there is a drawback of human stem cell that many viruses and many linked diseases are transmitted that cannot be cured by changing genetic code.

However plant stem cell does not have such harmfulness. These are free from any kind of viruses and other diseases. Because xylem and phloem are not developed in the stem cell so no disease pass on. Many medicinal plants provide comfort to the humans from thousands of the year.

Use of gemmotherapy:

Gemmotherpay is used in a number of ways:

It is used for the treatment of many diseases like detoxification of tissues that is the accumulation of harmful waste material in the tissues, sleeplessness, high blood pressure, currement of harpies' infection, removal of wrinkles from the skin and cancer treatment.

Production of stem cell of plants:

Take fresh material from the plant which may be root shoot bud or flower.

Now clean and weigh it.

Without delay of few hours take this material and divide it into two equal parts now take one part and heat it at 105â-¦c in an oven until there is no more loss in weight. Then measure this material.

The remaining material is macerated in equal amount of vegetable glycerin and alcohol which is twenty times to the weight of the dry material.

The material is left aside for one month in cool and shaded environment and stirs it continuously. After that filter it at constant pressure. Again take it for forty eight hours again and then filter it again. Now the resulting material is called souche or stalk. It have equal amount of alcohol and glycerin and 10-25% plant material.

Now prepare the remedies in their final bottle form by mixing one part of stalk and 9 part of mixture of 50% glycerin, 30%alcohol, and 20% water. And it is lightly shaken.

Then it is stored in cool dry environment. According to the scientist it should be used within 5 years.

APPLICATIONS

Leukemia is a cancer of white blood cells, or leukocytes. Like other blood cells, leukocytes develop from somatic stem cells. Mature leukocytes are released into the bloodstream, where they work to fight off infections in our bodies.

Leukemia results when leukocytes begin to grow and function abnormally, becoming cancerous. These abnormal cells cannot fight off infection, and they interfere with the functions of other organs.

Successful treatment for leukemia depends on getting rid of all the abnormal leukocytes in the patient, allowing healthy ones to grow in their place. One way to do this is through chemotherapy, which uses potent drugs to target and kill the abnormal cells. When chemotherapy alone can't eliminate them all, physicians sometimes turn to bone marrow transplants.

In a bone marrow transplant, the patient's bone marrow stem cells are replaced with those from a healthy, matching donor. To do this, all of the patient's existing bone marrow and abnormal leukocytes are first killed using a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. Next, a sample of donor bone marrow containing healthy stem cells is introduced into the patient's bloodstream.

If the transplant is successful, the stem cells will migrate into the patient's bone marrow and begin producing new, healthy leukocytes to replace the abnormal cells.

New evidence suggests that bone marrow stem cells may be able to differentiate into cell types that make up tissues outside of the blood, such as liver and muscle. Scientists are exploring new uses for these stem cells that go beyond diseases of the blood.

ADVANTAGES:

1.It provides medical benefits in the field of therapeutic cloning and regenerative medicines.

2. It provides great potential for discovering treatments and cures for diseases like Alzheimer disease.

3. Organs could be grown in lab from stem cells and then used in transplant to treat illness.

4. It will help scientist to learn about human growth and cell development.

5. It will help to check the effect of drug on specific population of cells whether it useful or harmful.

DISADVANTAGES:

They are specialized e.g blood stem cells makes only blood and brain stem cells make only brain.

These are derived from embryos that are not patients own and the patients body may reject them.

Stem cell therapy used on heart patients can make their coronary arteries narrower but scientists discovered although participants heart function improved but there was unexpectedly high rate of coronary arteries narrowing.

LIMITATIONS:

Simply knowing the fundamental limitations of stem cell therapy can help patients make the right choices.

1. There are many types of adult stem cells, and each type of adult stem cell has its own purpose

In the embryo, stem cells can become almost any kind of cell in the body. In adults, stem cells can form a limited number of different kinds of tissue. Heart stem cells become heart tissue, blood stem cells become blood, and so on. 

As mentioned earlier, some common medications have the unintended side effect of changing the programming of stem cells, causing baby bone cells to become baby fat cells, for example, but it is very difficult to change the programming of stem cells intentionally. Beware any claims that just scraping the inside of your mouth or taking a blood sample will provide unlimited stem cells for repairing body tissues.thumb_stem_cell.jpg

2. One kind of stem cell treatment typically treats one kind of tissue damage

It is highly unlikely that any one stem cell clinic can treat multiple health conditions.

The back surgeon who treated Texas Governor Rick Perry does not offer stem cell treatment for heart disease. The heart repair clinic in Thailand does not treat sickle cell anemia patients, and so on. 

3. Very few kinds of stem cell treatments are widely accepted

Bone marrow transplants have become standard, if risky, medical care. Injuries to bones, skin, and the corneas of the eyes can be treated with certain stem cell procedures. There is not, however, wide agreement on stem cell treatment for the heart and central nervous system.

4. Just because someone says a stem cell treatment helped them does not mean it did

Many people contemplating a $50,000-per-shot treatment make rational and positive changes to lifestyle to support good health. Many people who have spent their life savings on an unproven procedure have an enormous emotional investment in its success. Just because someone tells you that a stem cell treatment was a miraculous cure does not mean their cure was miraculous. It may even be due to their own hard work.

5. Science is a long, tedious, hard process, and stem cell science will take time to work out

It takes years or decades of painstaking research to know with scientific certainty what causes an illness or how to repair an injury. It takes years of careful clinical testing to know with scientific certainty that a procedure or medication will reliably produce beneficial results with a minimum of side effects, or at least with a limited range of side effects that can be explained so patients can make informed choices for their health. A treatment that looks promising in the laboratory or with animals may not work when it is tested with people, and a treatment that is a "miracle" for some people may be a catastrophe for others.

The process of peer review and publication in medical journals is not just a method for professors of medicine to justify their tenure and salary increases. Making scientific data public for the whole world to inspect is an essential step in making sure that treatments are truly helpful. Beware any clinic that uses procedures that have been found to be harmful in peer-reviewed research, and beware any doctor who claims to be smarter than "the system".

STEM CELL THERAPIES IN THE FUTURE

we saw how stem cells are being used to treat diseases such as leukemia. Stem cell transplant procedures also show promise for treating neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

What does the future hold for stem cell therapies?

Researchers and physicians are working to design stem cell therapies that

Are more effective, and

Reduce the invasiveness and the risk to patients

Today's stem cell therapies usually rely on cells that are donated by another person. This raises the possibility of donor cell rejection by the patient's immune system. In the future, it may be possible for a person to use a sample of his or her own stem cells to regenerate tissue, which would reduce or even eliminate the danger of rejection. How might this be done? Some possibilities include:

Collecting healthy adult stem cells from a patient and manipulating them in the laboratory to create new tissue. The tissue would be re-transplanted back into the patient's body, where it would work to restore a lost function.

Therapeutic cloning might enable the creation of embryonic stem cells that are genetically identical to the patient.

One less invasive way to achieve this goal would be to manipulate existing stem cells within the body to perform therapeutic tasks. For example, scientists might design a drug that would direct a certain type of stem cell to restore a lost function inside the patient's body. This approach would eliminate the need for invasive surgical procedures to harvest and transplant stem cells.

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