Statistical Analysis Of Physico Chemical Parameters Biology Essay

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The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the river water quality with respect to chromium metals contamination. water samples were collected from six different Ghat along the course of the river on summer and the winter seasonsIn the present work various physico chemical parameters i.e. temperature, pH, Chlorides, Total Dissolved Solids , Nitrate, , Chromium, total alkalinity are analyzed for various seasons; Summer, rainy, Winter, in the surface water, of Ganga at Kanpur city. Significant variation of physico - chemical parameters of surface water were observed; The physico-chemical analysis of the water samples collected from upper, middle, and down streams of river Ganga from tannery area to Jajmau revealed that almost all the major characteristics were little beyond permissible limits. The water as such could not be used both for drinking and bathing purposes. It could only be used for irrigation in fields but after treatment. The low values of dissolved oxygen affected potability of water and caused mortality of fish and other aquatic animals in different ghat. The high percentage of chromium also caused mortality and low longevity of the aquatic organisms particularly fishes. and BOD values also indicated the organic pollution in the Bithoor toJajmau region. it could not be recommended for animals and human beings before treatment. The water in the Bithoor region could be used for bathing and agriculture as such but could also be used for drinking purpose after treatment. The various physico-chemical parameters for the water samples were within highest desirable limit (HDL) prescribed by WHO for drinking purposes for all seasons except for pH in summer, The observation imply that Ganga water in rainy is better than winter seasons. It is found that significant positive correlation holds for TA with Cl-, TDS, . A significant negative correlation was found between with chloride, All the physico - chemical parameters for pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons are within the highest desirable or maximum permissible limit set by WHO except turbidity which was high while NO3- , Cl-1 and F- are less than the values prescribed by WHO.

1. Introduction

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Water is the principal need of life on earth, and is an essential component for all forms of lives,

from micro-organism to man. The unplanned urbanization and industrialization (Singh et al.,

2002)1 has resulted in over use of environment(Petak, 1980)2 in particular of water resource. A kind of crises situation has made getting clean water a serious problem. It is a known fact that when pure water is polluted its normal functioning and properties are affected. Ganges is a sacred river of India. The increased anthropogenic activities due to industrialization have contributed to decline in water quality of Ganges. Several works have been reported on water quality of river Ganges at Kanpur (Sinha et al., 20003a; Pandey and Pandey, 19803b and Tare etal., 20033c) and other parts of country (Pahwa, and Mehrotra, 1966 Several works have been reported on water quality of river Ganges at Kanpur (Sinha et al., 20003a; Pandey and Pandey, 19803b and Tare etal., 20033c) and other parts of country (Pahwa, and Mehrotra, 1966). The authors studied river

STUDY AREA

kanpur is the most populous city and known as Manchester of the East, the largest industrial hub of Uttar Pradesh State. It is bounded by 26°28′ N latitude and 80°21′ E longitude. Kanpur is situated on the western bank of the river Ganga. On the west of Ganga River lies the industrial zone and administrative zone on the east. In Kanpur ,River Ganga takes entry at Bithoor and passing along several Ghats ,takes exit at Jajmau, covering a distance of 24 kms and therefore the study purpose a stretch of 24 kms of river Ganga is selected from the upper stream near Bithoor to the downstream at Kanpur near Siddhnath Ghat in Jajmau

3. Sampling

In the present work we report quality of water taken from river Ganga . The sites are GH1, GH2,GH3,GH4,GH5, GH6 and Surface water sampling site is named as Bithoor, Rani, Permat , Sarsaiya ,Nanaroa, Siddinath. These samples are collected from six different Ghats of Kanpur during Rainy, Winter, and Summer seasons for the period the years April,20I0 - March, 2011

4. Methods and Materials

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The laboratory analysis of samples was done using standard methods (APHA, 1998). Analytical method used for determination of different physicochemical parameters for surface waters of Ganga river, The water samples were collected from different Ghats in plastic bottles and transported to the laboratory in an icebox jars to avoid unpredictable changes in different physico- chemical parameters. The selected parameters including Water Temperature (WT), pH, , Total alkalinity (TA), Total dissolved solids (TDS), , Cl-,NO3-, , Cr, were analyzed at regular intervals

5Experimental

During sampling pH,temperature were determined using digital pH meter and thermometer respectively.cl and nitrate was estimated using colorimetric method. The laboratory analysis of samples was done using standard methods (APHA,1998), titrimetric method was used for the determination of total alkalinity and gravimetric method for total dissolved solid and total suspended solids Mohr's argentometric titration method was used for chloride (Vogel, 1978).

Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for determination of cr contents. All the chemical used were of AR grade .In order to calculate correlation coefficients, correlation matrix was constructed by calculating the coefficients of different pairs of parameters and correlation for significance was further tested by applying p valve

Statistical Analysis

The values were computed, analysed and presented as mean ± standard deviation.

Regression analysis was conducted to determine spatial and temporal correlations between

locations and seasons respectively. Levels of significance of differences in the values of the

parameters determined during dry and rainy seasons were assessed using student's t-test.

Upstream and downstream samples within and between seasons were also subjected to ttest.

Differences were regarded to be significant at 95% confidence limit (p ≤ 0.05).

Water temperature

The water temperature increased from July to August then decreased from September to

January. Again it increased from February to May and a slight decrease was recorded in June

during the first year (Table 1.] The maximum water temperature was recorded in May and minimum in January during the whole study period. The water temperature showed positive and significant correlation with free carbon dioxide (r =0.7319, P<0.01) and biological oxygen demand ( r = 0.6960 P<0.01) but it showed inverse and significant correlation with transparency (r = -3893, P<0.10), PH (r = - 0.917, P <0.01), dissolved oxygen ( r = -0.9229, P<0.01), total alkalinity (r = -0.5613, P<0.01), total hardness ( r = - 0.5167,P<0.01) and chloride (r = -0.6645, P<0.01) (Table 3).Seasonally, the maximum water temperature was in summer followed by rainy and winter seasons during the first and the second year study periods (Table 4).

3.4 pH

The pH increased from July to December then decreased from January to May. Again it

increased a little in June during the first year study period (Table 1). The maximum pH was

8.3±0.221 in December and minimum 7.2 ± 0.211 in May during the first year study period.

During the second year study period, pH increased from July to January then decreased from

February to April. Again a slight increase was recorded in May then decreased a little in June

(Table 2). The maximum pH was 8.3 ± 0.205 in January and minimum 7.1mg/l ±0.163 and 7.1 ±

0.240 in April and June, respectively. pH showed positive and significant correlation with

dissolved oxygen (r = 0.887, P<0.01), total alkalinity (r = 0.5583, P<0.01) total hardness (r =

0.6099, P<0.01) and chloride (r = 0. 6314, P<0.01) but inverse and significant correlation with

free carbon dioxide (r = -0.712, P< 0.01) and biological oxygen demand (r = -0. 67, P<0.01)

(Table 3).The maximum pH was in winter and minimum in summer season during the first and the second year study period (Table 4).

3.5 Dissolved oxygen

The dissolved oxygen decreased from July to September then increased from October to

January. Again it decreased from February to May and a slight increase was recorded in June

during the first year study period (Table 1). The maximum dissolved oxygen was 6.96 ± 0.268

mg/l in January and minimum 5.73 ± 0.287 mg/l in May during the first year study period. During the second year study period, the dissolved oxygen decreased from July to August then

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increased from September to January. Again it decreased from February to May and a slight

increase was recorded in June (Table 2). The maximum dissolved oxygen was 7.3 ± 0.301 mg/l

in January and minimum 5.92 ± 0.219 mg/l in May. The dissolved oxygen showed positive and

significant correlation with total alkalinity (r = 0. 5241, P<0.01), total hardness (r = 0. 4430,

P<0.05) and with chloride (r = 0.6643, P<0.01) but inverse and significant correlation with free

carbon dioxide (r = - 0.7342, P<0.01) and biological oxygen demand (r = -0.7237, P<0.0.01)

(Table 3).The maximum dissolved oxygen was in winter season followed by rainy and summer seasonsduring the first and the second year study periods (Table 4).

3 Total alkalinity

The total Alkalinity decreased from July to September then increased from October to January.

Again it decreased from February to June during the first year (Table 1) and the second year

study periods (Table 2). The maximum total alkalinity was recorded 110.64 ± 1.040 mg/l in Januaryand minimum 60.35 ± 0.683 mg/l in September during the first year study period. During thesecond year study period, the maximum total alkalinity was recorded 111.73 ± 0.953 mg/l in

January and minimum 61.52 ± 0.944 mg/l in September. The total alkalinity showed positive and

significant correlation with total hardness (r = 0.6943, P<0.01) and chloride (r = 0.6284, P< 0.01)

(Table 3).The maximum value of total alkalinity was in winter season followed by summer and rainyseasons during the first and second year study periods (Table 4).

3.9 Chloride

The chloride increased from August to December then decreased from January to April. Again it

increased from May to June then a slight decrease was recorded in July during the first year

(Table 2) and the second year study periods (Table 2). The maximum chloride was 18.73 ±

0.205 mg/l in December and minimum 13.14 ± 0.134 mg/l in April during the first year study

period. During the second year study period, the maximum chloride was 18.63 ± 0.282 mg/l in

December and minimum 14.32 ± 0.257 mg/l in April. Chloride showed inverse and significant

correlation with biological oxygen demand (r = -0.3984, P< 0.10) (Table 3).

The maximum value of chloride was in winter season followed by summer and rainy seasons

during the first and second year study periods (Table 4).

3.10 Biological oxygen demand

The biological oxygen demand decreased from July to January then increased from February to

May. Again it decreased a little in June during the first year (Table 1) and the second year study

periods (Table 2). The maximum biological oxygen demand was 2.11 ±0.055 mg/ l in the

month of May and minimum 0.79 ± 0.052 mg/l in the month of January during the first year study

period. During the second year study period, the maximum biological oxygen demand was 2.14

±0.040 mg/l in the month of May and minimum 0.72 ± 0.040 mg/l in the month of January. Biological

oxygen demand showed positive and significant correlation with air temperature (r = 0.6062

P<0.01), water temperature (r =0. 6960 P< 0.01) and free carbon dioxide (r = 0.6473 P < 0.01)

but it had inverse and significant correlation with PH (r = - 0. 67, P< 0.01), dissolved oxygen (r = -

0.7237, P< 0.01), and chloride (r = - 0.3984 P < 0.10) (Table 3).

Seasonally, biological oxygen demand was maximum in summer season followed by rainy and

winter seasons during the first and the second year study periods (Table 4).

BITHOOR GHAT

RANI GHAT

.

PARMAT GHAT

SARSIYA GHAT

NANARAO GHAT

SIDDINATH GHAT

RAINY SUMMER WINTER