Species Of Ficus Collected From Pakistan Biology Essay

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Shinwari in 2010, conducted research on the history of medicinal plants in Pakistan. He reported that out of about 258,650 species from higher plants of world; about 10% are utilized to cure ailing communities. Many known drugs (e.g. tubocurarine, reserpine, and morphine etc) are discovered on basis of the traditional knowledge. Many people from Pakistan depend upon medicinal plants to for treatment of their minor, and even in major diseases. In Pakistan a local Pansara market system is especially dealing with the business of medicinal plants and many plants are exported, Plants which have active constituents now are utilized to treat many ailments in the human and the animal both. In most of the instances, some plants are considered as specific for some particular illness, but occasionally, they are supposed to be of mixed usage. Women, which are followed by the children, are mainly identified as principal collectors of the medicinal plants. And the local herbal dealers, collectors and others are ones who are threaten to Pakistan flora. For the local communities, the wild medicinal plants are an important income source but if these are not properly managed, this might be lead to destruction of the habitat and in the return the extinction of the species. So, there is need to have ways by which medicinal plants can be harvested sustainably from wild. This article, is therefore an effort to review status of research on the medicinal plants in Pakistan.

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Ahmad et al., 2009 studied the useful medicinal flora enlisted in holy Quran and Ahadith. This work was basically a part to check the list of the medicinal plants and their utilization enlisted in the Islamic literature, Holly Quran and Ahadith. Detailed and comprehensive data was collected systematically from the Islamic history, Holly Quran, books written on the Islamic medicines and Ahadith’s books. The results were confined of thirtytwo medicinal plants which belongs to the thirty genera of the twentythree families of the plant kingdom. Findings were arranged systematically by the alphabetic order of the botanical names which are followed by the English name, family, the habitat and the habit, their distribution, the part used, their medicinal uses and the references which are cited by the Holly Quran and Ahadith. It is suggested that the industries which are plant based should developed in light of the Islamic research and teaching.

Idu et al., 2009 made a comparative morphological and Anatomical Studies on the leaf and stem of the medicinal plants, Jatropha tanjorensis .L and Jatropha curcas L. Anatomical and morphological studies were done on these two species. These investigations were done on the stem and the leaf of these two plants using light microscope fitted with the digital camera. In leaf section of J. tanjorensis trichomes were seen whereas these trichomes were not present in the J. curcas. The palisade parenchyma from the lower side of J. tanjorensis was consisted of the fewer layers but it is thicker than the J. curcas, which is possessed of more thinner layer of palisade.

Hassan et al., 2008 made an etahnobotanical survey of important wild medicinal plants of Hatter district Huripur, in Research Institute of Sugar (Shakarganj), Jhang The Toba Road (Punjab), Pakistan. From the traditional healers information was collected through a survey for the utilization of medicinal plants during the year 2004-06 in the Hattar region. Through interviews and questionnaires data about medicinal plants was collected by the knowledge of the local traditional people. Plants were managed alphabetically with correct nomenclature, by the family name, the vernacular name and the ethnomedicinal uses. The nomenclature and the identification of listed plants were based on the Pakistan flora. Hattar has been surveyed two-times per year in the spring and the autumn season. About 45 plants were identified through taxonomic description and by the folk knowledge of the people present in region locally. Out of forty-five plants , 17 were the perennials/biannual, twenty were found in the spring, while eight species were present in the autumn season. Plant specimens which were identified, collected, then preserved and then mounted were then deposited in Herbarium of Qarshi, Hattar, Haripur for the future references.

Malpani et al., 2008 explained the microscopial, the macroscopical, & the preliminary phytochemical activities of the bark of Cassia fistula L., which was used widely in the traditional medicines for the cure of various diseases in India viz. antioxidant, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic etc. Bark pharmacognostic nature was not reported, but, present study was done to examine the same information as earlier, according to Pharmacopoeial guidelines and the WHO all parameters were examined.

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Zafar et al., 2007 reported that pollen morphology and pollen fertility of 7 species of family Asteraceae from flora of Rawalpindi which are used as aid in the taxonomic description. Complete and the polleniferous material specimens of plants were properly identified, then collected and then utilized. Morphology of the Pollen varied among these species very considerably. Then Palynomorph inventory was developed. It was observed that the pollen characters such as the shape, the P/E ratio, the exine surface and the morphology of pollen was considered as to be the important features used as aid in the taxonomy of such species. The estimation of fertility of pollen was ranged from the 90 -98.11 percent, which shows that the pollen flora of the selected species is being well established.

Milan et al., 2006 worked out comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae Species. The objective of the paper was the description and the comparison of the mature leaves on the basis of anatomy and morphology. All the three species have different types of habits which emphasizes on their secretory structures. The transverse and the longitudinal sections of the mature blades of the leaves were analyzed, at the base, apex, and the third medium part of mid vein and then of margin, glandular trichomes which are uniseriate and the secretory ducts are present in M. glomerata, whereas P. ruderale has secretory cavities and hydathodes and idioblasts and bi and uni seriate trichomes (glandular) were seen in the V. condensate.

Akcin and Ozbucak 2006, discussed the morphological, the anatomical and the ecological features of the medicinal and the edible plant Malva neglecta waller (malvaceae), which is found economically important. It is utilized as the food and the folk medicines, plant parts which are edible were anatomically examined. There were the glandular and the non glandular hairs present on the petiole, the stem, and the leaf. Crystals were found in the leaf and the stem. Stomata type present was anomocytic. Stomata index found was 19.5.

Susana et al., 2005 investigated 180 species which belongs to the 41 families especially of the family of Asteraceae. The main purpose of the study was that to give a tool to differentiate the taxa. An approach in this way is formulated for the identification of the taxa through epidermal leaf features. By having the 7 hairs, the whip hairs, the uniseriate, the stellate and the two-armed hairs were the parameters by which they recognized the family Asteraceae.

Ali et al., 1999 studied the hexane and the methanol extracts of the sixteen plants of the family Fabaceae, collected around Karachi, Pakistan. These plant species were phytochemically screened, and then tested for the antibacterial, and the antimicrobial activity. Against fungi and bacteria as compared to the methanol extracts, the hexane extracts of the plants showed the stronger growth inhibitions, as Cassia species were found and reported to be more active plants biologically.

Jafri et al., 1998 stated that Cassia occidentalis L, which is commonly called the Kasondi, was utilized in the Unani medicine, for the liver ailments, and it was important ingredient of the many polyherbal formulations which were marketed for the liver diseases. The effect of leaves of the kasondi was seen on the rat liver damage hepatoprotective effect produced by the aqueous extract of ethanole which was induced by the ethyl alcohol and paracetamol by observing the serum transaminase, the serum cholesterol, the alkaline posphatase, the histopathological alterations and the serum total lipids. Significant hepatoprotection was produced by extract of the leaves of this plant.