Solanum Nigrum And Withania Coagulans Biology Essay


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Morphological features can be utilized in distinguishing taxa one from another by differences in habit, habitat, inflorescence and floral morphology. (Willis, 2005). In the present studies it was observed that the leaves of Calendula officinalis were oblong-lanceolate, 5-17 cm long, hairy on both sides, and with margins entire or occasionally waved or weakly toothed. (Table 1).Whereas Foster (2001) studied that leaves were ovate or broadly lanceolate, 2-8 cm long and 3-5 cm wide in Calendula officinalis. In Parthenium integrifolium the flower was star shaped and with a white to creamy-white appearance, and were produced at the tips of the upper branches. Fruit was an achene carrying a pappus. These results are in corporation with Wissemann and Lorenz (1999). The present studies showed that the stem of Silybum eburneum was glabrous or slightly tomentose, corollas was 25-30 mm long, tubes 10-15 mm long, throats campanulate, 2-3 mm long and lobes were 6-8 mm long while Cypselae was brown and black spotted, 6-8 mm long. (Table 1).These findings corroborate with the results of Keil (2006). The variations in morphological characterization of three species of Asteraceae studied showed that morphological features could be utilized not only in understanding of plant structure, in the wide sense, that develops a relationships between plant form and other levels of the structural hierarchy (anatomy, histology, cytology) but also to recognize and distinguish the diversity among different taxa.

The results of the present study indicated that in the morphological examination of Cassia angustifolia and Cassia occidentalis because of the differential sensitivity of genus, it is necessary to assess the botanical and taxonomic characterization of this genus. The variation in height, branching, leaf texture, and fruits (Table 3) of the species studied could be used for taxonomic characterization and are of immense significance. In this study it was observed that the bark of Cassia angustifolia was smooth and pale grey when young and rough and dark brown when old. These results are in accordance with the Nasir and Ali (1982), according to which the bark in young tree was smooth and ash coloured and becoming dark brown in old. The present study revealed that the calyx was green, hairy, ovate and folded backward on the stalk and 9 mm long. The stamens were longer and much curled and bear large oblong anthers. (Table 3). While Wu et al., (2010) reported that sepals were narrowly ovate, 1-1.5 cm and reflexed at anthesis and stamens were reduced with minute anthers. In the Cassia occidentalis the leaflets observed were pale green to bluish green, in 3-8 pairs and ovate or lanceolate where as Nasir and Ali in 1982 stated that the leaflets were in 3-5 pairs and lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate or narrowly to broadly elliptic and apex was acute and rounded at the base. The flowers were yellow, and pods were glabrous, compressed and recurved. (Table 3). These results corroborate with the findings of Ashwani (2009). The stem of Dalbergia obovata was 2-4 m in girth at base. Bark was rough with shallow broad longitudinal fissures, exfoliating in irregular woody strips and scales, light brown in colour. Whereas Altaf and Matin (2007) concluded that Dalbergia obovata is a tree with crooked trunk and its bark was grey and longitudinally to somewhat reticulately furrowed having a girth of 1-2 m. Legume was pale brown and contained 1 or 2(or 3) seeds. Seeds were compressed and reniform. These results are in accordance with the findings of Tewary (1994).

The results of the morphological features of selected species of family Solanaceae studied showed some specific characteristics that can be used for taxonomic decision. The variation in height, branching, leaf texture, apex and fruits of the species studied constitutes an important distinguishing factor that could be used for establishing intraspecific relationship. (Table 2). In the present studies it was observed that, in Datura metel the stem branches are pubescent and leaves are ovate, dentate and cuneate. Calyx is tubular and persistent and corolla is 5-lobed. (Table 2). These results corroborate with the findings of Nasir and Ali (1982) according to which leaves are ovate or broadly so, sinuately dentate, minutely puberulose and cuneate. Calyx is tubular, dentate, puberulous and persistent. Corolla is white or purplish suffused and shallowly 5-lobed. Mazumdar et al., (2008) reported that Datura metel is a woody-stalked, leafy herb and it produces large white or purple trumpet-shaped flowers that face upward. In Solanum nigrum the stem is often hairy and the leaves found to be entire in margin and exstipulate (Table 2). This confirms the works of earlier research findings of Samant et al., 1998; Lana et al., 2002, Mbagwu and Nwachukwu, 2006; Nwachukwu and Okeke, 2002; who used morphological variations in taxonomic characterization of plants. Calyx of Solanum igrum consists of five components, which may be united together. Flower of S. nigrum has regular shaped petals. Superior type of ovary found in it and fruit berry or capsule type which contain disc shaped light brown seeds. (Table 2). Whereas Samant et al., (1998), reported that in the family Solanaceae flowers are radially or rarely bilaterally symmetrical, with hypogenous discs, sepals are usually coalescent for almost their full length, the calyx is persistent often enlarging in fruits, the ovary is usually 2 chambered or sometimes 3-5 through irregularities of the placenta and the fruit is berry. The present studies showed that leaves of Withania coagulans are ovate to broadly ovate, acute, oblique and elliptic. These results corroborate with the findings of Nasir and Ali (1982) according to which the leaves are ovate to broadly ovate, cuneate or oblique and entire to repand. The flowers are greenish yellow and the corolla lobes are triangular. The fruit is berry and red. Whereas Mbagwu and Edeoga, 2006 mentioned that the flowers in the Withania coagulans are small and green, while the ripe fruit is brown and has milk-coagulating properties. The results of the morphology of three species of Solanaceae studied have proved to be of immense assistance in interpreting problems related to plant identification and classification. The results could therefore be utilized with information from other discipline in clarifying taxonomic relationships of these taxa with other genera, species or subspecies.

5.2 Anatomical Variations Among Selected Plant Species

The Foliar epidermis is one of the most noteworthy taxonomic characters from the biosystematic point of view and the taxonomic studies of a number of families are made

on the basis of leaf epidermis (Stace, 1984; Edeoga and Ebuka, 2000, Anderson et al., 2006 ). Although taxonomists lately realized the importance of microscopic features of the epidermis, taxonomic monographs are now considered incomplete without them (Cowan, 1996).

The present study reported that leaf epidermal anatomical features such as stomata, trichomes and other characters are useful anatomical tools and valuable in the identification of the plants. The walls of the epidermal cells of all the three species of Asteraceae were smooth and thick walled. Measurements of leaf epidermal cell length and width were regarded useful aids in distinguishing varieties within the flowering plants. (Nwachukwu, 2006). The average length of epidermal cells observed in Calendula officinalis was 93(90-96) µm whereas the average length of epidermal cells observed in Silybum eburneum was 55(40-70). The epidermal characters, which had been proven to be of systematic value, were cuticular characters, epidermis, stomata, subsidiary cells and trichomes (Ellis, 1976). The present study showed diversity in the type and shape of the stomatal cells. The stomata seen in Calendula officinalis were anisocytic whereas in Parthenium integrifolium were diacytic and no stomata were observed in Silybum eburneum (Plate 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b). In the Parthenium integrifolium and Silybum eburneum micro-hairs were single celled and present on both the abaxial and adaxial surface whereas in Calendula officinalis no micro-hairs were seen. The use of leaf epidermal features in systematic botany is now popular just like the use of other makers like DNA sequence and chemical compositions (Edeoga and Ikem, 2001; Mbagwu and Edeoga, 2007). Edeoga and Osawe, 1996 constantly reaffirmed the point that epidermal and cuticular traits of plants could serve as vital tools exploitable in the systematics of the present day angiosperms. Also, different shapes of epidermal cells, type and arrangement of stomata, size and shape of trichomes and number of vascular bundles are all vital in systematic botany (Nwachukwu and Mbagwu, 2006).

Stomata were absent in abaxial epidermis of Dalbergia obovata and different types of stomata were recognized like diacytic, paracytic, anisocytic and hypostomatal in all the three species of Fabaceae studied. Ahmed et al., (2003) observed seven types of stomata (anisocytic, amphianisocytic, axillocytic, anomotetracytic, actinocytic, diacytic and staurocytic) in the members of family Fabaceae. Santos et al.,(2008) recognized four broad categories of stomata based on the presence and arrangement of accessory cells, as well as their mode of development in dicots. Adedeji et al., (2007) reported that the presence and absence of trichomes and their type is quite valuable in the configuration of characteristic anatomical markers, which have been proven to be of systematic value. In this study, the presence or absence of trichomes, as well as their types can be useful in characterizing the species studied. Multicellular trichomes were observed in Cassia angustifolia on both abaxial and adaxial epidermis, whereas in Cassia occidentalis and Dalbergia obovata only adaxial side possessed trichomes. (Plate7a. 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b). No silica bodies were observed in Cassia occidentalis and Dalbergia obovata where as in Cassia angustifolia both the abaxial and adaxial sides showed the presence of silica bodies. In this respect the presence of silica bodies emerged as useful taxonomic feature to delimit different taxa studied from each other. Fahmy (2007) stated that the silica bodies are of particular interest, as they possess important morphological features, which have encouraged many investigators to identify plants. Webster (1983) and Shouling et al. (1996) discussed that the presence of macro-hairs and their average length is also an important character in identification. In the present investigation macro-hairs were observed in the two species of Fabaceae. i.e., Cassia angustifolia and C. occidentalis. No macro-hairs were found in the Dalbergia obovata.

Sankar et al., Olowokwudejo (2009) compared the morphology of the leaf epidermis in members of family Solanaceae and suggested the utilization of this character in the identification of the species. The walls of the epidermal cells of the two species (Datura metel and Solanum nigrum) are smooth and thick whereas Withania coagulans showed the thick undulate walls. In Datura metel the number of stomata per unit area is 4, in Solanum nigrum 11 and in Withania coagulans 3. Rogers and Ogg, (1981) reported that stomata number is two to three-fold higher on abaxial than on adaxial epidermis of the Solanum species. (S. nigrum, S. sarrachoides, S. americanum and S. ptycanthum). In Datura metel stomata are diacytic, in Solanum nigrum stomata are anisocytic and in Withania coagulans stomata are diacytic and anisocytic. (Plate 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b). Seithe and Anderson (1982) reported that stomata are anomocytic to anisocytic in S. nigrum. Mostly hairs seen are multicellular as in S. nigrum and W. coagulans. Seithe and Anderson et al., (1982) investigated hair morphology of some species from the genus Solanum, but not in S. nigrum.

5.3 Palynological Variations Among Selected Plant Species

Palynological studies not only provide additional information but also provide taxonomic characters, which proved to be helpful to improve the systematic position of taxa within their respective classification. Meo and khan (1988), Nasreen & Khan (1998) and Anozie, (2002) have sporadically reported palynology of different families in Pakistan.

The great variation was observed in pollen morphology of the Asteraceae species studied. It was observed that the pollen grain of Parthenium integrifolium was smaller in size 32(28.5-35.5) µm and pollen grain of Silibum eburneum was larger in size 60(55-65) µm in equatorial diameter (Fig. 1) where as in polar view the size ranged from 39(32-39) µm to 48.5(45-52) µm. Parthenium integrifolium appeared to be the smallest in size whereas Calendula officinalis was the largest. In the present investigation it was observed that Calendula officinalis was endoporus and pollen grains were trizonocolporate and tetrazonocolporate, which were mostly isodiametric and colpi and furrows were boat shaped. In Parthenium integrifolium pollen was tricolporate and echinate. Whereas Nair (1961) reported only 3-zonocolporate pollen in Calendula officinalis. The presence of trizonocolporate and tetrazonocolporate pollen in C. officinalis is an evolutionary trend which would be helpful to establish a phylogenetic relationship of species within the family Asteraceae. Praglowski & Grafstron (1980) felt that a brief palynological investigation of genus Calendula is helpful for taxonomic purposes. Existence of spines is a diagnostic feature of the family Asteraceae. In the present studies simple and some paired spines were found in C. officinalis. Such paired spines might be helpful in the delimitation of species in Asteraceae. Among the other characters intine thickness showed variation in all the three species of Asteraceae studied (Table 3). The intine thickness ranged from 0.75(0.5-1) µm to 1.25(1-1.5) µm. Calendula officinalis showed the highest where as Parthenium integrifolium showed the lowest value. (Fig. 1). C. officinalis. showed the highest colpi length as 78.75(77-82.5) µm where as Parthenium integrifolium showed the lowest value 50.25(45-55.5) µm Spine length ranged from 40(35-45)µm to 80(75-85) µm. Silibum eburneum showed the lowest value and Calendula officinalis showed the highest value. Pollen fertility is useful tool to determine genetical variation. By using this aspect, we recognize the hybrids within the population and the relationship of different species. The three species of family Asteraceae studied, the highest value of pollen fertility was found in P. integrifolium as 85.93% and the lowest value was in C. officinalis as 61.42% (Fig. 2). Reitsman (2007) observed that the pollen fertility is valuable for the taxonomists in attempting to distinguish putative hybrids from the parent plants and is also useful to determine the degree of fertility/stainability in those plants that were grown under unfavorable conditions.

Pollen grains in all species of Fabaceae were tricolporate and trizonoporate. Pollen size was variable among the species. It was observed that the pollen grain of Cassia occidentalis was smaller in size 26.5 (21-32) µm and pollen grain of Dalbergia obovata was larger in size 52.75 (50-55.5) µm in equatorial diameter where as in polar view the size ranged from 28 (23-30) µm to 47.5 (45-50) µm. Cassia occidentalis appeared to be the smallest in size whereas Dalbergia obovata was the largest. (Fig 1). Dahlgren (2004) found great variation in pollen characteristics among 34 species belong to Leguminosae in Taiwan. A striking fact of the evolutionary order of these selected genera was that pollen characters related to Dalbergia species were established as porate, and reticulate; those related to Cassia occidentalis which were psilate, perfolate, oblate-spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal or sub prolate. Pollen shape was generally uniform in the polar view in all the three species. However in equatorial view it varied to spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, oblate-spheroidal, prolate-spheroidal and elleptic to cup-shaped in all the species studied. Rickett (2007) utilized pollen character as additional information for systematic purposes. No great variation was observed in the thickness of exine and intine. In the present investigation variation was seen in the number of colpi. No colpi were found in the Cassia angustifolia, number of colpi in the pollen of Cassia occidentalis may be 2 or 3 whereas in Dalbergia obovata they were always 3. The variation was also observed in the interspecific distance of colpi among the species studied. Dalbergia obovata showed lowest interspecific difference 3.5 (2-5) µm whereas Cassia occidentalis showed highest interspecific difference 5 (3-7) µm. (Table 3). Campos (1997) stated that pollen grains with fewer number of pores/colpi are termed as primitive, while those with a great number of pores/colpi are considered as advanced. The highest value of pollen fertility was found in Cassia occidentalis as 89.43% and the lowest value was in Dalbergia obovata as 81.14% (Fig 2).

Pollen morphology of the family Solanaceae is quite heterogenous. Most striking variation is found in the shape class and apertural types. (Erdtman, 1954). However tricolporate grains are universally present. Exine thickness ranged from 1.4(1.3-1.5) µm -1.8(1.7-1.9) µm. among the species of Solanaceae studied. Withania coagulans showed the highest value whereas Solanum nigrum showed the lowest value. Datura metel showed the highest intine thickness i.e. 1.5(1-2) µm whereas solanum nigrum showed the lowest value i.e. 1(0.5-1.5) µm (Table 3). Exine and intine thickness are prominent features in this study. Nwachukwu and Okeke (2001) reported that pollen grains are very helpful in assigning the status of plant since pollen grain wall has specific characters. It was observed that the pollen grain of Solanum nigrum is smaller in size 43.25(42.5-44) µm and pollen grain of the Withania coagulans is larger in size 46.5(45-48) µm in polar diameter where as in equatorial view the size ranged from 41.5 (40.5-42.5) µm to 45(44-46) µm. Solanum nigrum appeared to be the smallest in size whereas Datura metel is the largest. The colpi length ranged from 21.5(21-22) µm to 23(22-24) µm. Solanum nigrum showed the highest where as Withania coagulans showed the lowest value. (Fig. 1).The pollen grains of the species of Solanaceae studied showed similarities in their pollen attributes of wall sculpture, aperture, and symmetry. The pollen grain of each species is radially symmetrical, isodiametric and isopolar. These results corroborate with the findings of Nwachukwu and Okeke (2001) according to which the pollen of Solanaceae is grain polar & radially symmetrical. P/E ratio ranged from 1 to 1.4 among the species. The pollen grains are monoporate and psilate (smooth). The pore position is endoporus in Solanum nigrum and Withania coagulans where as exoporus in Datura metel.

5.4 UV, IR And Organoleptic Variations Among Selected Plant Species

Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy is very useful for identifying the presence of particular types of organic and inorganic compounds and pigments and plays a vital role in systematics in identification, delimitation and authentication of plant taxa. Generally, both spectroscopy techniques allow identifying simultaneously characteristic key bands of individual plant components (e.g. carotenoids, alkaloids, polyacetylenes, fatty acids, amino acids, terpenoids). (Davihazy, 2004). In the present investigation the UV and IR analysis worked as an aid in the identification of the selected taxa. (Plates 1e, 1f, 2e, 2f, 3e, 3f). Davihazy, 2004 reported the use of infrared light for the blooming of house plants. Many species of family Asteraceae have traditionally been used medicinally as they are so easily obtainable and have been used for a wide array of medicinal purposes. The analysis of market samples of Calendula officinalis revealed the presence of smooth surface having angoori color and taste is salty, austere, rather disagreeable taste and flower having orangish colour and taste is bitter. These organoleptic characters were similar to the finding of Gilman and Howe (1999) who studied general morphological and organoleptic characters of C. officinalis. In case of Parthenium integrifolium market sample collaborated with actual sample collected from different localities of Lahore. The outer surface of fruit was semicircular and rough in appearance. In case of Silybum eburneum leaves and seeds both were used. Market samples of leaves were dried therefore they showed rough appearance and yellowish in colour whereas the fresh leaves were greenish having white veins and were shiny. These results are in accordance with the findings of Kemper, 1999.

The ultraviolet and infra-red analysis of plants is of most interest as taxonomic markers at the species, generic and subfamilial levels. (Mattivi and Reneiro 1996). The market samples of Cassia angustifolia collaborated with actual sample collected from different localities of Lahore. Fruit was straight or slightly curved, smooth having greenish-brown to almost brown colour. These organoleptic characters were similar to the finding of Barthakur et al., (1995). The analysis of market samples of Dalbergia obovata revealed the presence of rough surface of leaves having spicy taste. (Plate 3j) The market samples were similar to those of fresh samples. In case of Cassia occidentalis market sample collaborated with actual samples. Leaves were dark green and lanceolate or elliptic. These results corroborate with the findings of Nina et al. (1990).

The Solanaceae family is characteristically ethno-botanical that is, extensively utilized by humans. It is an important source of food, spice and medicine. Organoleptic evaluation with the advanced microscopic equipments provides more accuracy for botanical authentication. (Jackson and Snowdown, 1990). The analysis of market samples of Datura metel collaborates with the samples collected from different localities of Lahore. Seeds are semi circular and smooth surfaced. But the colour of seeds of market samples (marvel brown colour) differed with the fresh having dark brown to black colour. These results are similar to the findings of Davihazy, 2004. In case of solanum nigrum the market samples revealed the presence of non smooth surface and semi circular fruit. Market fruit is dried therefore its shape becomes semicircular while the fresh fruit is circular shiny and have smooth surface. In case of Withania coagulans market sample collaborates with actual sample. The outer surface of roots is bugg to grey yellow with longitudinal wrinkles and in the center soft, solid mass with scattered pores whereas fresh roots are brownish grey with long fleshy tubers. These results are in accordance with the Seithe and Anderson (1982).

5.5 Fluorescence and Chemical Variations Among Selected Plant Species

The present research work was confined to the chemotaxonomic markers including the macro, microscopic features of the powdered drug and their solubility and fluorescence analysis which were used as an aid in the identification. Because of problems like adulteration, nomenclatural confusion, morphological similarities and lack of knowledge about genuine source, these chemotaxonomic techniques are of utmost importance for wider acceptance according to World Health Organization (WHO).

The powdered drug of all the three species of Asteraceae were soluble in all the solvents by cold and hot tests except Silybum eburneum which was soluble in all the solvents except nitric acid and it did not retain its original mustard colour on dry filter paper in different types of solvents by applying both hot and cold tests. (Table 4). Similar results also documented by Dastagir and Haq (1995) while working on Silybum eburneum solubility in different solvents. The chemical nature of plants is used in solving taxonomic problems and gives the close relationship between chemical constituents of plants and their taxonomic status. Depending upon chemical evidence plants are classified accurately as alkaloids, flavonoids, carotinoids, polysaccharides, terpenoids and fatty acids. (Dweck, 1997). In the present studies active chemical constituents; alkaloids, tannins, starch grains, anthraquinone and saponins were observed in all plant species of Asteraceae whereas glycosides, volatile and fixed oils and ferric chlorides were absent in the Calendula officinalis (Table 7) and these results are in agreement with Kemper 1999. In the Parthenium integrifolium alkaloids, glycosides, starch grains, volatile and fixed oils and ferric chlorides were present whereas tannins, anthraquinone and saponins were absent. (Table 7). These findings were different from the Dweck, 1997 who reported the presence of tannins and saponins in the Parthenium integrifolium. Alkaloids, tannins, starch grains, saponins and volatile and fixed oils were observed in the Silybum eburneum whereas glycosides, anthraquinone and ferric chlorides were absent. (Table 7). These results corroborate with the findings of Einhellig, 2002.

Fabaceae is well suited with respect to chemical components. Lipids from some more common Fabaceae have been investigated to some extent, and some species of the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae) are also sources of cheap protein for both humans and animals (Tewatia and Wirk, 1996). The results in the present investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, starch grains, tannins, anthraquinone, saponins and ferric chlorides whereas fixed and volatile oils were absent in all the three selected plant species of Fabaceae. (Table 7). The results corroborate with the findings of Sotheeswaran and Pasupathy, 2003 according to which members of Fabaceae produce variety of compounds such as alkaloids, glycosides, starch grains, tannins, anthraquinone, triterpenoid, flavonoid and arylpropanoid.

The powdered drug of all the three species of Solanaceae were soluble in all the solvents by cold and hot tests except Datura metel which was soluble in all the solvents except nitric acid and on dry filter paper it did not retain its primary pale yellow colour (Table 6). Analogous findings were also recorded by Dastagir and Haq (1995) during solubility tests of Datura metel in different solvents. In all the three selected plant species of Solanaceae alkaloids, glycosides, starch grains, tannins, anthraquinone, saponins and ferric chlorides were present whereas fixed and volatile oils were absent. (Table 7). These findings were in agreement with the Dweck, 1997. The powdered drug of all the three species of Slanaceae were soluble in all the solvents except nitric acid by cold test but became soluble by hot test. (Table 6). The results of hot and cold tests on C. occidentalis revealed that it not retain its original dark grayish green colour on dry filter paper and became pink on filter paper in various solvents. (Table 5). Zaman, and Khan. (1997) also reported similar results of C. occidentalis on solubility in various solvents.

5.6 Conclusion

The present research project included some selected members of family Asteraceae, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, comprising the species Calendula officinalis, Parthenium integrifolium, Silybum eburneum, Datura metel, Solanum nigrum, Withania coagulans, Cassia angustifolia, Cassia occidentalis and Dalbergia obovata.

Morphology of the selected members of all the three families showed great variation within the taxa. An immense variation had been observed within the species while studying the morphological features. Many characters like leaves shape and size, inflorescence type, flower shape, calyx and corolla shape and size, anthers length and width and seed and fruit type and colour showed a great variation in all the selected species. Anatomical studies carried out had also been successful to identify the species from the taxonomic point of view. While studying leaf epidermal characters, a variety of characters like macro-hairs, micro-hairs, shapes of epidermal cells, length and width of epidermal and subsidiary cells, stomata type, length and width etc. can be used as a tool for the taxonomic grouping of different species. The present studies indicated that palynology is taxonomically useful. On the basis of the palyno-morph features, we can distinguish among different species. UV, infra-red analysis, organoleptography, fluorescence, solubility and chemical analysis were used as a tool in taxonomic characterization. All the multiple parameters studied were constructed for the taxonomical description to classification of the selected genera. The present study was a step towards preparing a systematic inventory of selected medicinal plants.

5.7 Addition to Flora of Pakistan

The present study included some addition in flora of Pakistan also, although all the selected species, Calendula officinalis, Parthenium integrifolium, Silybum eburneum, Datura metel, Solanum nigrum, Withania coagulans, cassia angustifolia, Cassia occidentalis and Dalbergia obovata are common plants in Pakistan and a lot of work has been done on them with many aspects but still in the flora of Pakistan, 1990, all the three taxa of Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis, Parthenium integrifolium and Silybum eburneum) and Dalbergia obovata (Fabaceae) are not mentioned and no description of Datura metel (Solanaceae) and Cassia angustifolia (Fabaceae) was given, and the present study gives a comprehensive account on these taxa with multiple parameters.

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