Sodium Chloride On The Germination Of Green Grams Biology Essay

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A study in the plant kingdom was always a challenge I wanted to take up since it plays a very important role in our lives. Not only does plant help in the respiration process, but more importantly it also provides us with the basic nutrients that play a very essential part in our balanced diets. There are many people who tend to ignore the fact that plants are living things and they should be treated and thought of the same way as humans. I was always interested in knowing how healthily various plants would grow under saline conditions, which is why I have chosen this research question. In various parts of the world, soil salinity caused by NaCl has always been a major crisis to the food production industry due to which there has been shortages of the staple crops. For a nourishing growth, a plant must acquire sufficient water and minerals at all times. Water loss should also be prevented to have a net positive gain.

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Plants obtain water from the soil through the roots. The xylem passageway, which carries water, runs from the roots through the stems to each and every minute cell of the plants. [1] Despite not having a muscle to pump the water, plants manage to transport it through the process of osmosis. [2] Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential (down the concentration gradient) through a partially permeable membrane. [3] In biological terms, the net movement of solvent is from hypotonic(less concentrated) to hypertonic (more concentrated) solutions so as to trim down the difference in concentrations of salt on either sides of the membrane.

Any soil would contain some soluble salts which are essential nutrients for plants' growth. These nutrients which are dissolved in water are absorbed by plants only up to a certain extent. Salinity stress, that is the excessive uptake of salts, mitigates the germination and development of any plants. Salinity is the one of the harmful condition to food production since it reduces the crop yield. [4] Depending on the type of plant, the amount of salt that it can absorb varies in various species. It has been noted that NaCl has most commonly found salt in most saline soils around the world, which is quite damaging, if present in excess [5] . The growth in plants in the presence of excessive salt is known as salt tolerance. Some plants will endure high levels of salt while others can tolerate little or no salt in their soil. [6] 

According to previous research on a similar topic, it is said that plants are much more vulnerable to salinity during germination including those with high salt tolerance are also quite at a risk during this phase of plant growth. Once the salt concentration increases in plants, it is very difficult to get rid of the salt from it. Also, when the salinity is increased, there is immediate destruction to plant growth and if this stage is reached then the process cannot be reversed. Furthermore, the increase in salts blocks the path for uptake of water leading to harsh effects on the plant's life. In addition, as the conditions become drier, this effect is intensified and hence it is very important to keep the plant's environment moist with sufficient amount of water at all times. This would aid in diverse plant reactions and reducing the effects of salts upon plants though to a nominal extent. Besides reducing the water uptake, a high amount of salt lead to nutritional imbalance and some elements in the salt including sodium and chlorine prove to be harmful to the system. [7] 

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The injurious effect of excessive salts to plants leads to drought conditions. Drought conditions are indicated by the wilting of the leaves or death of the plants at extreme circumstances. During such adverse conditions, agriculture is affected drastically and most of the plantations fail to grow in an infertile land. However, there are several external factors which affect the tolerance levels of particular plants. Climate, soil conditions and cultural practices are a few of these factors that could influence the outcome. For example, cold and moist climate reduce the effect of excessive salt while hot and dry climate is not advisable for saline conditions when the temperature is controlled. According to other researches, it is believed that salt stress can also result in reduction in the nutritive value of the plant. Carbohydrates and vitamin content may reduce in the plant due to high salinity. [8] 

The salt tolerance of a plant can be determined by:

Its capability to germinate in saline conditions

The percentage yield of the crop when grown in saline conditions

The yield on a saline soil as compared with that on a non-saline soil.6

Green gram, one of the most commonly used crop after rice [9] , constitutes the staple diets of various cultures globally. From the Indian culture to the Chinese and African cuisines, green gram has been principally used since it is one of the most nutritious crops. Due to this reason, I decided to research on the germination of green gram for which there is a high demand. Green gram has a very low capacity of enduring briny environment since it electrical conductivity is very low (about 2 dS/m) [10] {refer to table on appendix}. For further comparison of the salt tolerance ranges of all types of beans, refer to the appendix.

Potassium Nitrate was used since it increases the plant water relationship by alleviating the damaging effects of Sodium Chloride up to a certain extent. [11] This might however not be possible at very high concentrations of NaCl due to extreme stress caused to plants by excess of mineral ions. Potassium plays an important role in balancing membrane potential and turgor, activating enzymes, regulating osmotic pressure, stoma movement and tropisms. A suitable K+/Na+ ratio is important for the adjustment of cell osmoregulation, turgor maintenance, stomatal function, activation of enzymes, protein synthesis, oxidants metabolism and photosynthesis. [12] 

My experiment will mainly focus on the ability of the green gram to germinate in varied saline conditions (mainly NaCl) and also how potassium nitrate would help to reduce the effect of high salt conditions. This will be done by allowing several green grams to germinate in different concentrations of Sodium Chloride Solutions and Sodium Chloride + Potassium Nitrate Solutions. The germination of the seeds in adjacent concentrations of both solutions will be compared to determine its effects.

CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY

Objectives of Study:

To verify if Potassium Nitrate mitigates the effect of excessive NaCl salt on the germination of green grams.

Hypothesis:

I hypothesize that application of KNO3 will mitigate the effect of high levels of NaCl on germination of green gram plant.

Variables:

Dependent Variables: The Number of Green Grams that Germinated

Independent Variables: Concentrations of NaCl and Concentrations of NaCl + KNO3

Control Variables: - Size of Petri Dish

- Amount of Solution added in each petri dish (15mL)

- Climatic conditions (Room Temperature and Oxygen Level)

{an attempt was made to control it by setting up the

experiment in lab conditions}

- Number of Seeds in each petri dish (20 seeds)

- Amount of time before each petri dish is observed (24 hours)

- Volume of Sodium Chloride Solution (15 mL)

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- Volume of NaCl + KNO3 Solution (7.5 mL of each)

Apparatus/Materials:

40 mL Beakers

40 mL Reagent Bottles

50 and 100 mL Measuring Cylinders

Dropper

Petri Dishes

Electronic Weighing Balance

Spatulas

Stirrer

Tissue Paper

Glass Marker

Distilled Water

Sodium Chloride {Salt} (For preparing concentrations of salt solutions)

Solid Potassium Nitrate (for preparing concentrations of KNO3 solutions)

Green Grams

Procedure:

Firstly, collect all the apparatus and clean them properly.

To Prepare Stock Solutions:

Preparation of Sodium Chloride Solutions

0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2%, 1.4%, 1.6%, 1.8%, 2.0% of NaCl Solutions can be prepared by dissolving 0.2g, 0.4g, 0.6g, 0.8g, 1.0g, 1.2g, 1.4g, 1.6g, 1.8g, 2.0g of NaCl salt respectively in 100 mL of distilled water each.

Preparation of Potassium Nitrate Solutions

0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2%, 1.4%, 1.6%, 1.8%, 2.0% of KNO3 Solutions can be prepared by dissolving 0.2g, 0.4g, 0.6g, 0.8g, 1.0g, 1.2g, 1.4g, 1.6g, 1.8g, 2.0g of KNO3 salt respectively in 100 mL of distilled water each.

Weigh the required mass of NaCl and KNO3 on the electronic balance for each concentration. Use a spatula for transferring the salt from the bottle to the balance

Simultaneously, measure the required amount of water (100 mL per concentration) in the measuring cylinder and pour it into large beakers labeled with their respective concentrations. (10 beakers for NaCl solutions and 10 beakers for KNO3 solutions)

Pour the weighed salts into its respective beakers and stir it well using the stirrer until all the salt is dissolved completely.

Store each of the solutions prepared in the reagent bottles after labeling them with their individual concentrations.

To Investigate the Effect of "NaCl" and "NaCl + KNO3"

Prepare the petri dish by adding 15 mL of a particular concentration of NaCl Solution into it.

In another petri dish, a total of 15 mL of NaCl + KNO3 will be required in equal amounts. Therefore, add 7.5 mL of each NaCl and KNO3 solutions into the petri dish so as to observe the effect of potassium nitrate on the specified amount of salt in green gram germination.

As a control, prepare a petri dish with 15 mL of distilled water in it.

Add 20 soaked green grams to each of the petri dish distributed evenly all over it. The seeds would be soaked 2 hours prior to use. Make sure that the seeds are not fully immersed in the solutions so that they can get an easy access to air.

Perform ten trials per concentration of each NaCl and NaCl + KNO3 solutions (i.e. 20 petri dishes per concentration). Also, set up one control petri dish for each trial performed.

Finally place the petri dishes under room temperature conditions so that the results do not vary to a great extent.

Leave the set up for 24 hours for germination to take place.

After 24 hours, count the number of seeds that have germinated per petri dish and record it on the data table for finding the mean result and comparing the effects.

Weaknesses And Improvement:

WEAKNESSES

METHOD FOR IMPROVEMENT

Mass readings of the salts would have possibly been affected by the wind since the electronic balance was an open one. This might affect the germination rate.

1) Preferably use a closed electric balance if available for any measurements of mass of the salts.

Not all green grams would be of the same size and hence the germination can be affected and varied. Different sizes of green grams may cause differences in the rates of reactions.

2) Try to use green grams of the same type with similar sizes and masses so as to get accurate and similar results.

In some seeds the plumule might be very small and not clearly visible after germination which might have affected the readings.

3) Use of magnifying glass to observe the germinated seed would ensure accurate readings.

No effective control of a particular variable such as temperature or oxygen levels. An attempt was made to control this by keeping them in constant environment. Change in temperature might affect enzyme activity and oxygen levels may affect germination rate.

4) Perform all the trials in one day if enough apparatus are available under constant laboratory conditions.

Parallax errors while measuring solutions may affect the calculations and readings.

5) Read the measuring cylinder at eye level to avoid parallax errors.

Interpolation between scale divisions- recording readings of a solution level found between two graduations of a measuring cylinder that may affect the rate of germination.

6) Use instruments with greater precision such as a burette reader to prevent errors.

Statistical Analysis (T-Test):

To assess whether difference between means are likely to be significant, size of standard deviations can be used. The most common method to calculate this difference is the t -test.

A difference is considered statistically significant if the probability of it being due to random variation is 5 % of less.

T test is a statistical value that is calculated from two sets of data. The larger the difference between the means of the two sets, the larger would be the t value and hence there would be a significant difference between the sets of data.

There are two hypotheses used: "Null hypothesis" which could be that "there is no significant difference" and "Alternative Hypothesis" which could be "there is a significant difference", between the two sets of data. T test is calculated using the following formula:

[13] 

CHAPTER 3: DATA COLLECTION & PROCESSING

Investigation of Effect of Various Concentrations of NaCl on the Rate of Germination of Green Grams

Table 1: To show no. of seeds germinated in NaCl Solution (Data Collection):

Number of Seeds Germinated in:

Distilled Water (Control)

0.2% NaCl Soln.

0.4% NaCl Soln.

0.6% NaCl Soln.

0.8% NaCl Soln.

1.0% NaCl Soln.

1.2% NaCl Soln.

1.4% NaCl Soln.

1.6% NaCl Soln.

1.8% NaCl Soln.

2.0% NaCl Soln.

Trial 1

20

20

20

20

18

18

14

15

4

3

3

Trial 2

20

20

20

19

16

18

16

14

3

3

2

Trial 3

20

20

19

20

17

16

15

14

5

4

1

Trial 4

20

20

19

19

17

16

15

15

5

2

3

Trial 5

20

20

20

20

18

16

16

16

5

3

2

Trial 6

20

20

19

20

16

18

15

14

4

4

3

Trial 7

20

20

20

19

17

17

16

16

5

4

1

Trial 8

20

20

20

19

18

17

14

14

5

2

2

Trial 9

20

20

19

20

18

18

16

15

3

3

2

Trial10

20

20

20

20

17

18

15

15

5

2

4

Table 2: To show the mean and standard deviation of no. of seeds germinated in NaCl Solution (Data Processing):

Number of Seeds Germinated in:

Distilled Water (Control)

0.2% NaCl Soln.

0.4% NaCl Soln.

0.6% NaCl Soln.

0.8% NaCl Soln.

1.0% NaCl Soln.

1.2% NaCl Soln.

1.4% NaCl Soln.

1.6% NaCl Soln.

1.8% NaCl Soln.

2.0% NaCl Soln.

Mean

20

20

20

20

17

17

15

15

4

3

2

Standard Deviation

0

0

0

0

0.79

0.92

0.79

0.79

0.84

0.82

0.95

Standard Deviation Squared

0

0

0

0

0.62

0.84

0.62

0.62

0.71

0.67

0.90

Investigation of Effect of Various Concentrations of NaCl + KNO3 on the Rate of Germination of Green Grams

Table 3:To show no. of seeds germinated in NaCl + KNO3 Solution (Data Collection):

Number of Seeds Germinated in:

Distilled Water

0.2% NaCl + KNO3 Soln.

0.4% NaCl + KNO3 Soln.

0.6% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

0.8% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.0% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.2% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.4% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.6% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.8% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

2.0% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

Trial 1

20

20

20

20

20

19

16

16

8

7

5

Trial 2

20

20

20

20

18

18

17

15

7

8

4

Trial 3

20

20

20

20

19

17

17

15

9

9

3

Trial 4

20

20

19

19

19

17

16

16

8

7

4

Trial 5

20

20

20

20

20

18

17

17

10

9

5

Trial 6

20

20

19

20

19

17

17

15

8

9

5

Trial 7

20

20

20

20

20

19

16

17

8

8

2

Trial 8

20

20

20

19

18

18

16

15

9

7

4

Trial 9

20

20

20

20

19

17

17

16

8

8

4

Trial 10

20

20

20

20

20

18

17

16

9

8

5

Table 4: To show mean and standard deviation of no. of seeds germinated in NaCl + KNO3 Solution (Data Processing):

Number of Seeds Germinated in:

Distilled Water (Control)

0.2% NaCl + KNO3 Soln.

0.4% NaCl + KNO3 Soln.

0.6% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

0.8% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.0% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.2% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.4% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.6% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

1.8% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

2.0% NaCl+ KNO3 Soln.

Mean

20

20

20

20

19

18

17

16

8

8

4

Standard Deviation

0

0

0.42

0.42

0.79

0.79

0.52

0.79

0.84

0.82

0.99

Standard Deviation Squared

0

0

0.18

0.18

0.62

0.62

0.27

0.62

0.71

0.67

0.99

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION:

Graphs:

LINE GRAPHS:

Graph 1:

The line graph below represents the mean of the number of seeds that germinated in each experimented concentrations of NaCl Solution.

Graph 2:

The line graph below represents the mean of the number of seeds that germinated in each experimented concentrations of NaCl + KNO3 Solution.

Graph 3:

The line graph below shows the comparison in rate of germination of green grams in NaCl and NaCl + KNO3.

BAR GRAPHS:

Graph 4:

The bar graph below represents the mean of the number of seeds that germinated in each experimented concentrations of NaCl Solution.

Graph 5:

The bar graph below represents the mean of the number of seeds that germinated in each experimented concentrations of NaCl + KNO3 Solution.

Graph 6:

The bar graph below shows the comparison in rate of germination of green grams in NaCl and NaCl + KNO3.

Analysis & Interpretation (T-Test):

T-test between NaCl Solution & Control:

Analysis

Null Hypothesis (H0):

There is no significant difference between germination of green grams in NaCl Concentrations and germination of green grams in Distilled Water (Control)

Alternative Hypothesis(H1):

There is a significant difference between germination of green grams in NaCl Concentrations and germination of green grams in Distilled Water (Control)

T-Value Table:

S. NO

COMPARISON

CALCULATED T-VALUE

TABLE T-VALUE

COMPARISON BETWEEN TABLE T AND CALCULATED T

1

Between control & 0.2% NaCl

0.00

2.10

Calculated T < Table T

2

Between control & 0.4% NaCl

0.00

Calculated T < Table T

3

Between control & 0.6% NaCl

0.00

Calculated T < Table T

4

Between control & 0.8% NaCl

12.05

Calculated T > Table T

5

Between control & 1.0% NaCl

10.35

Calculated T > Table T

6

Between control & 1.2% NaCl

20.08

Calculated T > Table T

7

Between control & 1.4% NaCl

20.08

Calculated T > Table T

8

Between control & 1.6% NaCl

60.04

Calculated T > Table T

9

Between control & 1.8% NaCl

65.68

Calculated T > Table T

10

Between control & 2.0% NaCl

60.00

Calculated T > Table T

Interpretation

Null Hypothesis (H0):

There is no significant difference between germination of green grams in NaCl Concentrations and germination of green grams in Distilled Water (Control)

Alternative Hypothesis(H1):

There is a significant difference between germination of green grams in NaCl Concentrations and germination of green grams in Distilled Water (Control)

Comparing the germination in Control and 0.2% NaCl Solution; 0.4% NaCl Solution; 0.6% NaCl Solution

We can accept H0 and reject H1 and conclude that there is no significant difference between germination in the above conditions. The rate of germination in control is similar to that in 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% NaCl Solution.

Comparing the germination in Control and 0.8% NaCl Solution; 1.0% NaCl Solution; 1.2% NaCl Solution; 1.4% NaCl Solution; 1.6% NaCl Solution; 1.8% NaCl Solution; 2.0% NaCl Solution

We can accept H1 and reject H0 and conclude that there is a significant difference between germination in the above conditions. The rate of germination is significantly higher in 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2%, 1.4%, 1.6%, 1.8% and 2.0% NaCl solutions than the rate of germination in control.

T-test between NaCl + KNO3 Solution & NaCl Solution:

Analysis

Null Hypothesis (H0):

There is no significant difference between germination of green grams in NaCl Concentrations and germination of green grams in NaCl + KNO3 concentrations

Alternative Hypothesis(H1):

There is a significant difference between germination of green grams in NaCl Concentrations and germination of green grams in NaCl + KNO3 concentrations.

T-Value Table:

S. NO

COMPARISON

CALCULATED T-VALUE

TABLE T-VALUE

COMPARISON BETWEEN TABLE T AND CALCULATED T

1

Between 0.2%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 0.2% NaCl soln.

0.00

2.10

Calculated T < Table T

2

Between 0.4%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 0.4% NaCl soln.

0.00

Calculated T < Table T

3

Between 0.6%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 0.6% NaCl soln.

0.00

Calculated T < Table T

4

Between 0.8%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 0.8% NaCl soln.

5.68

Calculated T > Table T

5

Between 1.0%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 1.0% NaCl soln.

2.62

Calculated T > Table T

6

Between 1.2%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 1.2% NaCl soln.

6.70

Calculated T > Table T

7

Between 1.4%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 1.4% NaCl soln.

2.84

Calculated T > Table T

8

Between 1.6%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 1.6% NaCl soln.

10.61

Calculated T > Table T

9

Between 1.8%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 1.8% NaCl soln.

13.66

Calculated T > Table T

10

Between 2.0%NaCL + KNO3 soln. & 2.0% NaCl soln.

4.60

Calculated T > Table T

Interpretation

Null Hypothesis (H0):

There is no significant difference between germination of green grams in NaCl Concentrations and germination of green grams in NaCl + KNO3 concentrations

Alternative Hypothesis(H1):

There is a significant difference between germination of green grams in NaCl Concentrations and germination of green grams in NaCl + KNO3 concentrations.

Comparing the germination in NaCl + KNO3 solution and NaCl Solution at 0.2% concentration; 0.4% concentration; 0.6% concentration each.

We can accept H0 and reject H1and conclude that there is no significant difference between germination in the above conditions. The rate of germination in NaCl + KNO3 solution is similar to the rate of reaction in NaCl solution at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% concentrations of each.

Comparing the germination in NaCl + KNO3 solution and NaCl Solution at 0.8% concentration; 1.0% concentration; 1.2% concentration; 1.4% concentration; 1.6% concentration; 1.8% concentration; 2.0% concentration each.

We can accept H1 and reject H0 and conclude that there is a significant difference between germination in the above conditions. The rate of germination in NaCl + KNO3 solution is significantly higher than the rate of reaction in NaCl solution at 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2%, 1.4%, 1.6%, 1.8%, and 2.0% concentrations of each.

Discussion:

While observing the data tables and graphs of the Germination of green grams in NaCl solutions, several trends can clearly be observed and justified upon. The first four concentrations of NaCl Solutions including control (0.0%, 0.2%, 0.4% & 0.6%) do not show any pattern since most seeds germinated when put in these solutions. This pattern is clearly visible in Graphs 1 and 4 as well as Table 2 where the mean of seeds germinated is the same at all concentrations. Also, when I carried out the T-test between control and above mentioned concentrations, there was no significant difference between the two sets of data. This trend can be justified by the fact that germination requires some amount of salt as part of their nutrients uptake for a healthy growth. Up to 0.6% concentration, salt plays a positive role in the process of germination but a further increase in this would adversely affect the germination activity since various cells are destroyed. Once germination is affected by the excessive salts, it is almost impossible to reverse this process.

After 0.6 %, there is a rapid decline in the graphs which indicates that salt stress has been experienced by the green grams. The reduction in germination occurs with greater effect as the concentration of the solution is increased. There is a drastic fall in the germination of green grams between 1.4% and 1.6% concentration which indicates that the effect of salt stress is intense at this point. After 1.6%, there is still a significant fall in the number of germinated seeds. Salt stress disturbs the osmotic activity and hence inhibits the seed's ability to absorb water for effective germination. These trends are clearly noticed in Graphs 1 and 4 and the table 2 in which the mean of number of seeds germinated is decreasing radically with an increase in the concentration of salt solution. From Graph 1, we can validate the trend between 1.4% and 1.6% since we can observe the steepest fall between these two concentrations.

Graph 2 has a similar trend as Graph 1 for 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% concentrations of solutions. The trends can be observed in their respective graphs 2 & 5. At these concentrations, KNO3 is not required since the green grams have not yet undergone salt stress. From 0.6% onwards, there is a constant decrease in the rate of germination unlike the decrease in NaCl solution which was quite irregular. There is a vast decrease in the number of germinated seeds at 1.6% concentration. After 1.6%, there was a further decrease in the rate but to a lesser extent. In line graph 2, one can note the steepness of the curve between 1.4% and 1.6% concentrations of solutions which indicates the concentration of the most intense salt stress.

When analyzing graphs 3 & 6, it is observed that even though potassium nitrate was added to the solutions, the effect of NaCl was not completely reversed since with an increase in concentration there was still a decrease in the rate of germination. Nevertheless, the overall benefit of KNO3 is visible since the number of seeds germinated in NaCl + KNO3 is significantly higher than those germinated in only NaCl solutions. The increase in the concentration of KNO3 would improve the plant water relationship in green grams since potassium ions tend to balance membrane potential and turgor. Potassium also activates the enzymes and regulates osmotic pressure, stoma movement and tropism [14] . At 1.6% in both solutions, there is a significant maximum decrease in germination rate which indicates that the effect of salt stress is adversely high at this point. After this point, the germination rate would be unreliable since the entire seed would have been disturbed by excessive salt (NaCl) stress.

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION:

From the tables and graphs presented above, my hypothesis is proved which indicates that, "Application of Potassium Nitrate will mitigate the effect of high levels of NaCl on germination of green gram plant."

As it was mentioned before, excessive salinity is a major constraint to crop production in today's world. After carrying out the experiment with sufficient trials, it can be concluded that Potassium Nitrate helps alleviate the harsh effects of salt (NaCl) stress on the plants. The rate of germination of green gram is significantly higher in "NaCl + KNO3" solution than in only NaCl solution, at all concentrations. As a result, high yield and healthy growth of green gram can be achieved by the use of this chemical.

As for future scopes, experiments should be carried out on soil to test the germination and growth rates of plants that are used by many food industries. Moreover, further research can be done by carrying out the experiment in different concentrations of NaCl + KNO3 with the constituents in different ratio i.e. use of more KNO3 for a certain concentration of NaCl solution. Other than that, KNO3 can also be experimented to promote growth in naturally saline environment conditions that contain many other salts. Finally, potassium nitrate could be tested on other low salt-tolerant plants so as to confirm its universal benefit in plant growths.

CHAPTER 6: BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Alan Damon, William Ward, Patricia Tosto & Randy McGonegal. Biology Higher Level. Heinemann Baccalaureate.

Allot, Andrew; Mindrorff, David. Biology Course Companion. Great Britain: Oxford University Press,1997

Clegg, C J. Biology for the IB Diploma. London: Hodder Headline Group, 2007.

Jeannette S. Bayuelo-Jiménez, Richard Craig and Jonathan P. Lynch.Salinity Tolerance of Phaseolus Species during Germination and Early Seedling Growth. Crop Science Society of America, 2002.

Yanhai Zheng, Aijun Jiac, Tangyuan Ningb, Jialin Xud, Zengji, Gaoming Jiang. Potassium nitrate application alleviates sodium chloride stress in winter wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology.

M.E. Kabir, and M.A. Karim, and M.A.K., Azad. Effect of Potassium on Salinity Tolerance of Mungbean (Vigana radiata L. Wilczek). Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004

M.F. El Kramany. Salinity Tolerance of Some Mungbean Varieties. INSInet Publication, 2005

Taylor, D.J; Green, N.P.O; Stout, G.W. Third Edition Biological Science. United Kingdom: University Press, Cambridge, 1998. p 428.

http://sgladstein.webs.com/Plants/TransportNotes%20Ch36.doc

http://www.plantstress.com/articles/salinity_m/salinity_m_files/JIRCAS.pdf

https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/8078/1/GHGS-21.pdf

http://ces.uwyo.edu/PUBS/WY988.PDF

http://eco.ibcas.ac.cn/group/jianggm/研究队伍/博士后/zheng%20articles/JPParticle.pdf

http://www.oisat.org/crops/pulses/mungbean.html

http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/soilfert/sf1087-1.htm

http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3303

http://mips.stanford.edu/public/classes/stats_data_analysis/lesson_4/t_table.gif

CHAPTER 7: APPENDIX:

Below is the calculated t-value table [15] that was referred to while performing the t test on the collected data:

t_table.gif

Below is the table [16] that indicates the salt tolerance of various types of plants: