Several Approaches To Producing Transgenic Species Biology Essay

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There are several approaches to producing transgenic species. This method is called DNA Microinjection. This works by introducing a new gene which has been previously been manipulated in vitro to contain the "ideal" characterizes. The modified genetic material is micro-injected into fertilized chicken eggs, and the eggs are then hatched. DNA is the "recipe" for how to build molecules, and RNA is a type of building block used in the body. Adding a stretch of DNA, the chicken will then start to produce lots of specific types of RNA molecules. The RNA molecules are designed to act as a decoy to interfere with the influenza virus polymerase, an enzyme which helps virus reproduce. So instead of polymerase attaching to the virus, it attaches to the RNA molecule, which essentially takes it out of action, and prevents the virus from successfully carrying out to the next generation.

2. Improving resistance to disease, To save endangered species, Breeding to remove characteristics that cause harm, transgenic species provide a new tool that can be employed in studies aimed at understanding birth defects , breeding (Traditional breeding is a time-consuming, difficult task. It is possible to develop traits in animals in a shorter time and with more precision. In addition, it offers the farmer an easy way to increase yields.), Industrial Applications such as chemical safety testing before a product is used on a human. Furthermore To create animals that could be possibly used in the future for Xenotransplantation. That is, for providing replacement organs and tissues to human patients. lower costs for manufacturers, lower prices for consumers, and higher output on the part of the animals.

3. The advantage I have chosen, is that the use of transgenic species prevents bird flue epidemics. These bird flue viruses can modify forms leading to virus in the human population. If there is no bird flue epidemic this will have a huge advantage of human lifestyle. Individuals do not have to worry about the concern of following strict regulations, Such as Using netting or fencing to keep out wild birds and regularly cleaning bird equipment. Individuals can be more carefree if they are assured that transgenic chickens will not spread avian influenza. The health of individuals is also not at risk and they do not have to worry about the financial burden which will be put on them by tax. (Approximately $252 million Australian dollars to stop epidemic). They do not have to be hesitant on the locations they go such as Australians traveling overseas encouraged to avoid contact with live domestic birds on farms and in market places and avoid contact with sick or dead birds.

4.- Chickens do no spread or transmit bird flu even if they are infected by the epidemic or put in the same pen with non-transgenic chickens. This study shows us that the medical breakthrough is legit. -Potential to stop bird flu outbreaks spreading within poultry flocks. -Protects the health of domestic poultry as well as bird flue epidemics leading to virus in the human population. -Preventing virus transmission in chickens reduces the economic impact of the disease. -It is a good foundation in developing chickens that are completely resistant to avian flu. -Improves animal welfare in the poultry. -Reduce threat to global food markets.

5. There are numerous environmental issues. If genetically superior animals are released into the environment they will destroy native populations. Introducing organisms with different genes will mean that they can establish themselves in the environment with potentially dangerous consequences. Releasing transgenic animals in the environment as there will be a loss in genetic diversity, contamination of wild gene pools, and potential mutations as the gene could find its way into another species and there mutate, forming a new and novel disease against which humanity has no defense. Society, New advances may be skewed to interests of rich countries causing social exclusion to poorer, more rural countries. Additional ethics which individuals hold such as Scientists are "playing God" and everything can not be perfect. Society views are being challenged. Furthermore, society in itself may be effected Such as Allergies, and unknown effects on human health from foreign genes.

6. Economic impact (2).

- Given the costs of bringing in a genetically modified (GM) food to the market, any biotechnology company will logically want to make a good profit on their time, efforts and money. However, farmers also want a profitable return and consumers want to purchase foods at a reasonable cost. No matter what level of production, the economical impact of GM foods plays a role in all aspects of bringing a food to the market.

- Even if transgenic species were to get food safety approval, consumers may not be enthusiastic about eating meat from transgenic animals. Considering all the unanswered and unasked ethical questions about the risks posed by such technologies-to animals, humans and the environment. If consumers feel unsafe about eating genetically modified foods farmers who are implementing this new technology into their products and large-scale businesses will suffer financially because only a small proportion of society will be purchasing their products.

Scientific impact (2)

- Organisms that contain new combinations of genetic information are more likely than others to play new ecological roles. Transgenic organisms are capable of reproduction,

and they have the potential to establish themselves in the environment as persistent populations, or to introduce transgenes into existing populations through introgression or other means. Consequently, transgenic organisms could have subtle and long-term effects on biological communities and natural ecosystems.

They will effect the scientific balance of the ecosystem.

The advance

Transgenic species allow scientists study the basic biological study of regulatory gene elements; in medical research, to identify the functions of specific factors in complex homeostatic systems through over- or under-expression, as models of human disease;

Gene-based biomedical research offers one of the best hopes yet for curing the major diseases which still afflict mankind. Transgenic (or genetically modified) animals are proving ever more vital in the discovery and development of new treatments and cures for many serious diseases by helping scientists to characterise the newly-sequenced human genome. Without them, the pharmaceutical industry's ability to discover new treatments would be significantly reduced. For example, in the for 1990's, transgenic species helped scientists conclude that the removal of enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2) prevented development of autoimmune arthritis. The Transgenic animals help test the safety of new medicines and vaccines because they respond like a normal human would. They demonstrate more clearly the possible side effects of new therapies. This is an advantage to human and we do not More importantly, the technological innovations used to develop transgenic organisms allow researchers to design laboratory organisms that mimic or duplicate many human diseases such as cystic fibrosis, diabetes, AIDS, cancer, or sickle-cell anemia. Such animals become valuable models to follow the sequelae and treatment possibilities for these diseases. Thus transgenic organisms provide exciting models to understand and perhaps to intervene in human disease processes. Ultimately this technology has potential for direct application to human beings. On the one hand, it holds out the promise of correcting debilitating genetic diseases. On the other hand, as our understanding of the interaction of genetics and human personality increases, the technology also has the potential radically to alter human nature.

7. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia (FSANZ) has specific guidelines on the treatment of transgenic animals that are checked regularly. Before new transgenic animals are made, their creation has to go under ethical review. The review has to take into account the suffering of the parent that goes through experimentation and the offspring with the new, expressed gene. Members and investigators must evaluate the ethical and technological aspects of the proposed creation, care and use of transgenic animals; to ensure that transgenic animals are used in accordance with the "Ethics of animal welfare investigation" and to ensure that the well being of Australians and the environment are protected. If the government were to legalize marketing food items such as poultry there will be greater demand for this product. Farmers will start to produce more food items in this method and there is evidence that genetically-modified soil bacteria contamination and genetic pollution can arise. A farmer who produces transgenic food for many decades will ultimately have his soil destroyed as Chemicals from genetic pollution do not break down into natural substances over time. This will directly affect Australians as they farmer's will then start to charge higher prices for both transgenic and non-transgenic food to compensate for their loss. If that soil contamination remains permanently, the consequences can be catastrophic as the land can not be used as it can cause health issues to individuals. There is a potential impact on all ecosystems if the whole of Australia is involved.


8. A subsistence farmer, whose farming are intended to provide for the basic needs of the farmer, with little leftover for marketing would be against the further development and production of transgenic species as farmers who can not finiancially afford the technology would suffer, and the farmers who did would profit immensly. If every single farmer such as a subsistence farmer does not implement the technology schism will develop in the industry and prices will go up.

The catholic church, although this article reflects transgenic specioes, if the knowledge of cloning and such is exeded they can develop

At the center of the issue is the perspective of the Church. And it is through human dignity that religion and cloning are linked. Genetic engineering, and, specifically cloning is deeply an issue of dignity. For example, the Catholic Church addressed human cloning in 1987, stating that cloning is contrary to the moral law, since it is in opposition to the dignity "both of human procreation and of the conjugal union" (2). Thus, cloning is contrary to our moral and theological beliefs since the normal reproduction does not take course: life is created through neither marriage nor sexual intercourse. God's plan for us is finding a mate-someone we spend the rest of our life with, have children, pass on our knowledge and genetic material.

Additional info:

Virtually every medical breakthrough in the 20th century came about as a result of research with animals and many more treatments and cures still await discovery. The list is almost endless but includes the discovery of insulin in the 1920s (research involving dogs), the successful polio vaccine developed in the 1950s (research involving monkeys), and the prevention of measles during the 1970s (research involving monkeys).

Soil: Bacteria are able to perform chemical transformations; including disease, and nutrient transformations inside roots (e.g. reducing bacteria in roots, bacteria cause nitrogen fixation).

Using genes from animals in plant foods may pose ethical, philosophical or religious problems. For example, eating traces of genetic material from pork could be a problem for certain religious or cultural groups.

Modern pigs have been bred to grow extra fast - some breeds now grow too fast for their hearts, causing discomfort when animals are too active

Broiler chickens are bred to grow fast - some now grow too fast for their legs