Scientometric Analysis Of Publications Output Biology Essay

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This study analyses the research output of India in epilepsy research during 2002-11 on several parameters including the growth, rank and global publications share, citation impact, share of international collaborative papers and collaborative partners, subject-wise contribution, productive institutions and authors contribution and their impact, communication media and characteristics of high cited papers.

Methods: The Scopus Citation Database has been used to retrieve the data for 10 years (2002-11) by searching the keywords "epilepsy research" in the combined Title, Abstract and Keywords fields.

Results: Among 20 most productive countries in epilepsy, India ranks at 11th position with a 2.88% global publication share, rising from 2.06% in 2002 to 4.65% during 2011. It has achieved an average publication growth rate of 15.31% and citation impact per paper of 2.77 during 2002-11, decreasing from 3.48 during 2002-06 to 2.41 during 2007-11 and international collaborative publications share of 12.32% during 2002-11, decreasing from 12.45% during 2002-06 to 12.26% during 2007-11

Conclusions: India needs to increase both the quantity and quality of research and also the need to share research data and stimulate national and international collaborative research, besides building capacity at all levels of human resources for the management of epilepsy. It needs to develop a national program on epilepsy as a part of national health plan, besides suggesting the funding agencies to establish a more ambitious funding program into the causes, prevention, cure and care of epilepsy.

Introduction

Epilepsy was one of the first brain disorders to be described and mentioned in ancient Babylon more than 3,000 years ago. The strange behavior caused by some seizures has contributed through the ages to many superstitions and prejudices. The word epilepsy is derived from the Greek word for "attack." However, in 400 B.C., the early physician Hippocrates suggested that epilepsy was a disorder of the brain -- and we now know that he was right1.

The brain consists of millions of nerve cells, or neurons, and their supporting structure. Each neuron maintains itself in an electrically charged state. It receives electrical signals from other neurons, and passes them on to others. What actually happens is that a tiny quantity of a special neurotransmitter substance is released from the terminals of one neuron. This chemical excites an electrical response in the neuron next in the chain, and so the signal moves onward. All the functions of the brain, including feeling, seeing, thinking and moving muscles depend on electrical signals being passed from one neuron to the next, the message being modified as required. The normal brain is constantly generating electrical rhythms in an orderly way. In epilepsy this order is disrupted by some neuron discharging signals inappropriately. There may be a kind of brief electrical "storm" arising from neurons that are inherently unstable because of a genetic defect (as in the various types of inherited epilepsy), or from neurons made unstable by metabolic abnormalities, such as low blood glucose, or alcohol. Alternatively, the abnormal discharge may come from a localised area of the brain (this is the situation in patients with epilepsy caused by head injury, or brain tumour)2.

The best available classification of seizures is that proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy ("seizure" is an alternative term for "epileptic attack"). It starts by dividing seizures into partial seizures, where the abnormal electrical discharge originates from one specific area of the brain, and generalised seizures, where the whole brain is involved. What makes it a little confusing is that a partial seizure may occasionally go on to become generalised, if the epileptic discharge originating in one area of the brain is strong enough to then spread to the whole brain2.

The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy may vary widely because of their different causes. Parasitic, viral and bacterial infections have been suggested as important factors in the cause of epilepsy in developing countries, also infections, brain damage occurring at birth or in accidents, or other brain trauma. Some of these factors may be reduced in developing countries by improved prevention and treatment. In the affluent countries, reduction of strokes and brain tumors may lessen the incidence of epilepsy. Although it has a minor role, genetic counseling can also help to prevent certain types of epilepsy3.

Epilepsy affects about 50 million people throughout the world and is especially common in childhood and in elderly people. Epilepsy affects not only the individual, but also has consequences for the family and the rest of society. A minimum of 250 million people will experience at least one seizure in their lifetime and at least 2.4 million new cases of epilepsy occur each year. The incidence of epilepsy is generally taken to be between 40 and 70 per 100 000 people per year in industrialized countries, with estimates of 100 - 190 per 100 000 people per year in developing countries. The prevalence is between 5 and 40 per 1000 persons3. It is estimated that there are more than 10 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) in India. Its prevalence is about 1% of our population, this being higher in the rural (1.9%) as compared with the urban population (0.6%)4. 

The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy may vary widely because of their different causes. Parasitic, viral and bacterial infections have been suggested as important factors in the cause of epilepsy in developing countries, also infections, brain damage occurring at birth or in accidents, or other brain trauma. Some of these factors may be reduced in developing countries by improved prevention and treatment. In the affluent countries, reduction of strokes and brain tumors may lessen the incidence of epilepsy. Although it has a minor role, genetic counseling can also help to prevent certain types of epilepsy3.

Till today, no quantitative study at the global or country level on epilepsy research literature has been carried out in the past. However, few Indian scholars and the present author in collaboration with other scholars has carried out similar studies in Indian context on other diseases such as diabetes5-7, tuberculosis8-9, malaria10-11, AIDS/HIV12, cancer13, asthma14, typhoid15 and heredity blood disorder16.

Objectives

The main objective of this study is to analyze the research output of India in epilepsy research in national and global contexts, as reflected in its publications output during 2002-11. The study has the following objectives: (i) To study the Indian research output, its growth, rank and global publications share and citation impact, (ii) To study the patterns of international collaboration and identification of major collaborators, (iii) To study the contribution by sub-fields, (iv) To study the publications productivity and impact of leading institutions and authors of India and (v) To study the characteristics of highly cited papers.

Methodologies and Source of Data

This study used Scopus International Database [http://www.scopus.com/search/] to extract relevant data on Epilepsy research in India and other most productive countries for the 10 years (2002-11). An advanced search strategy involving Epilepsy research as the keyword was used to search and download data using Title, Abstract and Keywords fields together, resulting in downloading of 1550 records on India related to Epilepsy.

For citations data, three years, two years, one year and zero year citation windows have been used for computing average citations per paper in Epilepsy research during 2002-08, 2009, 2010 and 2011. For example, for papers published in 2002, citation window is three years from 2002-05. For papers published in 2009, citation window is two years from 2009-2011, and for papers published in 2010 citation window is one year 2010-11. For identifying India's international collaborative papers, a separate search strategy was prepared. For analyzing significant institutions, authors and journals, separate search strategies were developed, which later combined with the main string lead to the generation of the desired output. For generating high-cited papers, the main string was first run. Then, the tag "citation to" was ticked, to rearrange the entire output in the decreasing order of citations received by each paper with most high-cited papers at the top. Then the high-cited papers are marked and downloaded for analyses.

Analysis

Global Publication Share & Rank

The global publication share of the top 20 most productive countries in epilepsy research varies from 1.06% to 25.58% during 2002-11. The United States tops the list, with a publication share of 25.58% during 2002-11. The United Kingdom ranks second (with 8.67% share), followed by Germany (7.81% share), Italy (7.52% share), France, Japan, Canada, China, Spain and Netherlands (with publications share ranging from 3.01% to 5.68%). India, Brazil, Australia and Turkey ranks at 11th to 14th positions (their global publications share ranging from 2.25% to 2.88%). The countries that fall between 15th and 20th positions are Switzerland, Belgium, Sweden, South Korea, Poland and Austria with their global publications share ranging from 1.06% to 1.99% (Table 1).

The developed countries showing increase in their publications share are United States by 2.11%, followed by Turkey (1.04%), Italy and Australia (0.70% each), Poland (0.66%), Sweden (0.19%), Netherlands (0.18%), Belgium (0.17%), Switzerland (0.03%) and Austria (0.01%) from the year 2002 to the year 2011. In contrast, the developed countries showing decrease in their publications share during the same period are France by 1.29%, Germany (1.17%), Spain (1.02%), U.K. (1%), Japan (0.87%) and Canada (0.01%). All developing countries among the top 20 countries, on the other hand, have shown rise in their publications share in epilepsy research: China by 3.48%, followed by India (2.59%), South Korea (0.88%) and Brazil (0.55%) from the year 2002 to the year 2011 (Table 1).

Table 1. Publications Output, Share and Rank of Top 20 Countries in Epilepsy Research, 2002-11

S. No.

Country

Number of Papers

Share of Papers

Total

Citations

ACPP

2002

2011

2002-11

2002

2011

2002-11

2002-11

2002-11

1.

USA

1086

1749

13755

24.62

26.73

25.58

102845

7.48

2.

UK

422

561

4662

9.57

8.57

8.67

44386

9.52

3.

Germany

376

481

4198

8.52

7.35

7.81

34398

8.19

4.

Italy

302

494

4043

6.85

7.55

7.52

27826

6.88

5.

France

243

276

3055

5.51

4.22

5.68

21024

6.88

6.

Japan

249

312

2459

5.64

4.77

4.57

10770

4.38

7.

Canada

183

271

2408

4.15

4.14

4.48

21106

8.76

8.

China

77

342

1917

1.75

5.23

3.56

5188

2.71

9.

Spain

171

187

1663

3.88

2.86

3.09

8466

5.09

10.

Netherlands

117

185

1617

2.65

2.83

3.01

15980

9.88

11.

India

91

304

1550

2.06

4.65

2.88

4295

2.77

12.

Brazil

101

186

1538

2.29

2.84

2.86

6265

4.07

13.

Australia

84

170

1296

1.90

2.60

2.41

11960

9.23

14.

Turkey

62

160

1209

1.41

2.45

2.25

4061

3.36

15.

Switzerland

79

119

1068

1.79

1.82

1.99

9416

8.82

16.

Belgium

54

91

860

1.22

1.39

1.60

7895

9.18

17.

Sweden

49

85

670

1.11

1.30

1.25

8084

12.07

18.

South Korea

35

109

639

0.79

1.67

1.19

3495

5.47

19.

Poland

35

95

598

0.79

1.45

1.11

2582

4.32

20.

Austria

46

69

570

1.04

1.05

1.06

4416

7.75

World

4411

6543

53778

ACPP=Average Citation Per Paper

India ranks at 11th position among the top 20 most productive countries in epilepsy research with its global publications share of 2.88% during 2002-11. China, Brazil and South Korea ranked at 8th, 12th and 18th positions, with global publications share of 3.56%, 2.86% and 1.19%, respectively during 2002-11. India's global publications share increased from 2.06% to 4.65% from the year 2002 to the year 2011. China, Brazil and South Korea's global publications share increased from 1.75% to 5.23%, 2.29% to 2.84% and 0.79% to 1.67% from the year 2002 to the year 2011 (Table 1).

Considering the quality of papers published by these productive countries in terms of average citation per paper which varies from 2.71 to 12.07 during 2002-11. The highest citation impact is registered by Sweden with 12.07 citations per paper, followed by Netherlands (9.88), U.K (9.52), Australia (9.23), Belgium (9.18), Switzerland (8.82), Canada (8.76), Germany (8.19), Austria (7.75), USA (7.48), Italy (6.88), France (6.88), South Korea (5.47), Spain (5.09), Japan (4.38), Poland (4.32), Brazil (4.07), Turkey (3.36), India (2.77) and China (2.71) (Table 1)

India's Publication Output in Epilepsy Research

India's cumulative publication output in epilepsy research consisted of 1550 papers during 2002-11, with an average number of 155 papers per year and an annual average growth rate of 15.31%. The cumulative publications output of India in epilepsy research increased from 522 papers during 2002-06 to 1028 papers during 2007-11, witnessing a growth of 96.93% (Table 2). In terms of impact and citation quality, the average citation per paper registered by India's publication output was 2.77 during 2002-11. The average citation per paper of cumulative publications in epilepsy research of India has decreased from 3.48 during 2002-06 to 2.41 during 2007-11 (Table 2).

Table 2. Growth & International Collaboration Share of Indian Epilepsy Publications, 2002-11

Period

TP

TC

ACPP

ICP

%ICP

2002

91

185

2.03

5

5.49

2003

104

313

3.01

13

12.50

2004

90

357

3.97

13

14.44

2005

111

441

3.97

23

20.72

2006

126

522

4.14

11

8.73

2007

146

833

5.71

22

15.07

2008

175

665

3.80

27

15.43

2009

171

590

3.45

23

13.45

2010

232

309

1.33

21

9.05

2011

304

80

0.26

33

10.86

2002-06

522

1818

3.48

65

12.45

2007-11

1028

2477

2.41

126

12.26

2002-11

1550

4295

2.77

191

12.32

TP=Total Papers; TC=Total Citations; CPP=Average Citations per Paper; ICP=International Collaborative Papers

International Collaboration in India's Publication Output

The total number of Indian papers involving international collaboration during 2002-11 is 191, accounting for 12.32% share in the cumulative publications output of India in epilepsy research. India witnessed a decrease in the share of its international collaborative papers from 12.45% during 2002-06 to 12.26% during 2007-11 in epilepsy research (Table 2)

Among the major international collaborators (59 countries), 15 countries have published 4 or more collaborative papers with India during 2002-11 (Table 3). United States was the major collaborating partner of India during 2002-11 accounting for 41.88% of collaborative publications, followed by United Kingdom (with 24.61% share), Japan, Australia, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Belgium (varying its publication share from 4.19% to 7.85%), Malaysia, Brazil, Spain, Singapore, France and Austria (varying its publication share from 2.09% to 3.66%) during 2002-2011.

Of these top 15 international collaborative countries, India's collaborative linkages has decreased with two countries with largest decrease in USA by 15.80%, followed by Switzerland (3.72%) from 2002-06 to 2007-11. India's collaborative linkages have increased with 13 countries with maximum increase of 6.98% with UK, followed by Germany (4.06%), Belgium (4.02%), France (3.97%), Malaysia (3.22%), Austria (3.17%), Italy (2.48%), Brazil (2.43%), Spain (2.43%), Australia (1.79%), Canada (1.79%), Singapore (1.63%) and Japan 0.25%) from 2002-06 to 2007-11 (Table 3).

Table 3. Contribution of Major Collaborative Partners of India in Epilepsy Research during 2002-11

S. No.

Names of Collaborating Countries with India

ICP

% ICP

2002-06

2007-11

2002-11

2002-06

2007-11

2002-11

USA

34

46

80

52.31

36.51

41.88

UK

13

34

47

20.00

26.98

24.61

Japan

5

10

15

7.69

7.94

7.85

Australia

4

10

14

6.15

7.94

7.33

Canada

4

10

14

6.15

7.94

7.33

Germany

2

9

11

3.08

7.14

5.76

Switzerland

5

5

10

7.69

3.97

5.24

Italy

2

7

9

3.08

5.56

4.71

Belgium

1

7

8

1.54

5.56

4.19

Malaysia

1

6

7

1.54

4.76

3.66

Brazil

1

5

6

1.54

3.97

3.14

Spain

1

5

6

1.54

3.97

3.14

Singapore

1

4

5

1.54

3.17

2.62

France

0

5

5

0.00

3.97

2.62

Austria

0

4

4

0.00

3.17

2.09

Total*

65

126

191

ICP =International Collaborative Papers

*Total collaborating papers of India. In all collaborating papers of India, there are one or more foreign collaborating countries. As a result, the combined output of 15 foreign collaborating countries listed above in Indian international collaborative output will be more than its total international collaborative papers

Indian Epilepsy Research Output in Context of Different Subjects

India's publication output in Epilepsy research during 2002-11 has been published in context of 8 subjects (as reflected in database classification based on journal subject content), with highest publications output coming from Medicine (1150 papers and 74.19% publications share), followed by Neurosciences (497 papers and 32.06% publications share), Pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics (301 papers and 19.42% publications share), Biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology (179 papers and 11.55% publications share), Psychiatry and psychology (48 papers and 3.10% publications share), Chemistry (41 papers and 2.65% publications share), Immunology and microbiology (40 papers and 2.58% publications share) and Agricultural & biological sciences (32 papers and 2.06% publications share). On analyzing the quality and citation impact of epilepsy research under different subjects, it was found that Agricultural & biological sciences had scored the highest impact of 5.13 citations per paper, followed by Psychiatry and psychology (4.98 citations per paper), Neurosciences (4.02 citations per paper), Chemistry (3.95 citations per paper), Biochemistry, genetics & microbiology (3.78 citations per paper), Immunology and microbiology (2.85 citations per paper), Pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics (2.84 citations per paper), and Medicine (2.53 citations per paper)(Table 4)

Table 4. Subject-Wise Break-up of Indian Epilepsy Publications during 2002-11

Subject

2002-11

TP

TC

ACPP

Medicine

1150

2905

2.53

Neurosciences

497

1997

4.02

Pharmacology, Toxicology & Pharmaceutics

301

855

2.84

Biochemistry, Genetics & Molecular Biology

179

676

3.78

Psychiatry & Psychology

48

239

4.98

Chemistry

41

162

3.95

Immunology & Microbiology

40

114

2.85

Agricultural & Biological Sciences

32

164

5.13

Total*

1550

TP=Total Papers; TC=Total Citations; ACPP=Average Citations per Paper;

*Total of India in Epilepsy research. There is some overlapping of literature under different subject fields. As a result, the combined output of India under 8 subject fields will be more than its total research output

Research Profile of Most Productive Indian Institutions in Epilepsy Research

The top 15 most productive Indian institutions involved in epilepsy research have published 16 or more papers each during 2002-11. The publication profiles of these 15 Indian institutions along with their research output, citations received and h-index values are presented in Table 5. These 15 Indian institutions account for 42.64% share (661 papers) of the publications output of India with an average output per institution of 44.06. Five Indian institutions have registered higher publications share than the group average. These are All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi with 133 papers during 2002-11, followed by Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology, Thiruvanathapuram (122 papers), National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore (71 papers), Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (60 papers) and Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (51 papers). The average citation per paper registered by the total papers of these 15 Indian institutions is 3.72 on a three year citation window. Six Indian institutions have registered comparative higher impact than the group average. The highest impact of 7.57 citations per paper was scored by the Panjab University, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chandigarh, followed by King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (5.89 citations per paper), National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore (4.90 citations per paper), Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (4.22 citations per paper), Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana (4.13) and Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow (4.05). Measuring the performance of these institutions on the basis of h- index, seven institutions have achieved a higher h-index value than the group average of 9.0. These are Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology, Thiruvanathapuram and All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi with h-index of 16 each, followed by Panjab University, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chandigarh, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore and Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (12 each), Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (11), Christian Medical College & Hospital, Vellore (10) (Table 5).

Table 5. Productivity & Impact of Top Fifteen Indian Institutions in Epilepsy Research, 2002-11

S.No

Name

TP

TC

ACPP

H-Index

1

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

133

459

3.45

16

2

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology, Thiruvanathapuram

122

425

3.48

16

3

National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore

71

348

4.90

12

4

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education &Research, Chandigarh

60

178

2.97

11

5

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow

51

215

4.22

12

6

Christian Medical College & Hospital, Vellore

40

144

3.60

10

7

Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior

30

63

2.10

5

8

Jamia Hamdard, Delhi

28

104

3.71

8

9

Panjab University, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chandigarh

21

159

7.57

12

10

Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow

20

81

4.05

8

11

King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai

19

112

5.89

6

12

Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad

17

49

2.88

5

13

University College of Medical Sciences, Dehi

17

28

1.65

4

14

G.B.Pant Hospital, Delhi

16

27

1.69

5

15

Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana

16

66

4.13

5

Total

661

2458

3.72

9

TP =Total Papers; TC = Total Citations; ACPP = Average Citations Per Paper

Contributions and Impact of Most Productive Authors in Indian Epilepsy Research

Fifteen authors have been identified as productive authors who have published 18 or more papers in epilepsy research. These 15 authors together contributed 399 papers with an average of 26.60 papers per author and account for 25.74% of publications share in output of India during 2002-11. Six authors have published higher number of papers than the group average (26.60). These are: Kurupath Radhakrishnan with 59 papers, followed by S.V. Thomas (35 papers), Harinder Jaseja (30 papers), P. Satishchandra (29 papers), C. Kesavadas and M. Tripathi (28 papers each). Considering the quality/impact of papers, these productive authors have received a total of 1479 citations for 399 papers with an average of 3.71 citations per paper. Eight authors have registered higher impact than the average. These are: S.K. Kulkurni with ACPP of 8.0, followed by K. Kalita (5.0), P. Satishchandra (4.83), P.S.Sarma (4.58), U.K..Misra (4.55), S. Sinha (4.09), Kurupath Radhakrishnan (4.02) and S.V. Thomas (3.80). Measuring the performance of these authors on the basis of h- index, seven authors have achieved a higher h-index value than the group average of 7.33. These are Kurupath Radhakrishnan with h-index of 12, S.K. Kulkurni (11), S.V. Thomas, P. Satishchandra and M. Tripathi (9 each), P.S.Sarma and S. Jain (8 each)(Table 6)

Table 6. Productivity & Impact of Fifteen Most Productive Indian Authors in Epilepsy Research, 2002-11

S.No

Name

Address

TP

TC

ACPP

H-Index

1

Kurupath Radhakrishnan

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology, Thiruvanathapuram

59

237

4.02

12

2

Harinder Jaseja

Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior

30

62

2.07

5

3

S.V. Thomas

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology, Thiruvanathapuram

35

133

3.80

9

4

P. Satishchandra

National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore

29

140

4.83

9

5

C. Kesavadas

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology, Thiruvanathapuram

28

87

3.11

7

6

M. Tripathi

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

28

104

3.71

9

7

P.S.Sarma

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology, Thiruvanathapuram

24

110

4.58

8

8

S. Jain

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

23

82

3.57

8

9

S. Sinha

National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore

22

90

4.09

7

10

K. Kalita

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow

22

110

5.00

7

11

S. Gulati

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

22

36

1.64

5

12

U.K..Misra

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow

22

100

4.55

7

13

S.K. Kulkurni

Panjab University, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chandigarh

18

144

8.00

11

14

V.Kalra

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

19

40

2.11

5

15

R. Harikumar

Bannar Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam

18

4

0.22

1

Total

399

1479

3.71

7.33

TP =Total Papers; TC = Total Citations; ACPP = Average Citations Per Paper

Patterns of Research Communication

The 15 most productive Indian and foreign journals publishing Indian research papers together contributed 554 papers in epilepsy research, which accounts for 35.74% of the total output of India during 2002-11. The cumulative publications share of these 15 most productive journals showed a decrease in India's publications output from 41.57% during 2002-06 to 32.78% during 2007-11 (Table 7).

Table 7: List of Most Productive Journals Publishing Indian Papers in Epilepsy, 2002-11

S.No

Name of the Journal

Number of Papers

2002-06

2007-11

2002-11

1

Neurology India

70

42

112

2

Epilepsia

28

36

64

3

Annals of the Indian Academy of Neurology

4

47

51

4

Epilepsy and Behavior

10

37

47

5

Indian Journal of Pediatrics

22

20

42

6

Indian Pediatrics

21

18

39

7

Seizure

13

24

37

8

Journal of Indian Medical Association

12

16

28

9

Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences

0

28

28

10

Epilepsy Research

2

20

22

11

Medical Hypothesis

10

8

18

12

Journal of Child Neurology

6

12

18

13

Journal of Association of Physicians of India

9

8

17

14

Indian Journal of Pharmacology

10

7

17

15

Pharmacologyonline

0

14

14

High Cited Papers

India has published 13 high cited papers in Epilepsy research in last 10 years (2002-11) and these have received from 52 to 245 citations per paper. Of these 13 high cited papers, 6 appeared as articles, 5 as review paper, 1 as short survey and 1 as conference paper. Of these 13 papers, 6 were international collaborative (4 bilateral and 2 multilateral), 1 was national collaborative and remaining 6 have no collaboration. Of the international collaborative papers, Indian institutions were first author in 10 papers and foreign authors in 3 papers. In overall, Indian participation in these 13 papers was from 13 and these 13 papers appeared in 13 journals. (Table 8)

Table 8: High Cited Papers in Epilepsy Research during 2002-11.

Sr. No.

Author

Affiliation

Title

Journal Title

Citation

1.

Dolen G., Osterweil E., Rao B.S.S., Smith G.B., Auerbach B.D., Chattarji S., Bear M.F.

National Institute of Mental Health and Neuroscience, Bangalore.

Correction of Fragile X Syndrome in Mice

Neuron

2007;56(6);955-962

245

2.

Misra A., Ganesh S., Shahiwala A., Shah S.P.

Pharmacy Department, M.S. University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara ( Gujarat)

Drug delivery to the central nervous system: A review

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

2003;6(2);252-273

121

3.

Sonkusare S.K., Kaul C.L., Ramarao P.

Natl. Inst. Pharmaceutical Educ. R., S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali

Dementia of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders - Memantine, a new hope

Pharmacological Research

2005;51(1);1-17

111

4.

Mondal S., Bhavna R., Mohan Babu R., Ramakumar S.

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

Pseudo amino acid composition and multi-class support vector machines approach for conotoxin superfamily classification

Journal of Theoretical Biology

2006;243(2);252-260

94

5.

Govindarajan R., Vijayakumar M., Pushpangadan P.

Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow

Antioxidant approach to disease management and the role of 'Rasayana' herbs of Ayurveda

Journal of Ethnopharmacology

2005;99(2);165-178

83

6.

Nash T.E., Singh G., White A.C., Rajshekhar V., Loeb J.A., Proano J.V., Takayanagui O.M., Gonzalez A.E., et al .

Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab

Treatment of neurocysticercosis: Current status and future research needs

Neurology

2006;67(7);1120-1127

68

7.

Verma M., Pandeya S.N., Singh K.N., Stables J.P.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

Anticonvulsant activity of Schiff bases of isatin derivatives

Acta Pharmaceutica

2004;54(1);49-56

66

8.

Rajshekhar V., Joshi D.D., Doanh N.Q., Van De N., Xiaonong Z.

Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore

Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia: Epidemiology, impact and issues

Acta Tropica

2003;87(1);53-60

66

9.

Ganesh S., Puri R., Singh S., Mittal S., Dubey D.

Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Recent advances in the molecular basis of Lafora's progressive myoclonus epilepsy

Journal of Human Genetics

2006;51(1);1-8

57

10.

Iasemidis L.D., Shiau D.-S., Sackellares J.C., Pardalos P.M., Prasad A.

Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi

Dynamical Resetting of the Human Brain at Epileptic Seizures: Application of Nonlinear Dynamics and Global Optimization Techniques

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering

2004;51(3);493-506

55

11.

Sylaja P.N., Radhakrishnan K., Kesavadas C., Sarma P.S.

S. C. Tirunal Inst. Med. Sci./Tech., Trivandrum,

Seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy and its predictors in patients with apparent temporal lobe epilepsy and normal MRI

Epilepsia

2004;45(7);803-808

53

12.

Gupta Y.K., Veerendra Kumar M.H., Srivastava A.K.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

Effect of Centella asiatica on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling, cognition and oxidative stress in rats

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior

2003;74(3);579-585

53

13.

Yogeeswari P., Sriram D., Thirumurugan R., Raghavendran J.V., Sudhan K., Pavana R.K., Stables J.

Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, Pharmacy Group, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani

Discovery of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-substituted semicarbazones as anticonvulsants: Hybrid pharmacophore-based design

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

2005;48(20);6202-6211

52

Summary and Discussion

Indian scientists together have published 1550 papers in epilepsy research during 2002-11. India ranks 11th among the top 20 countries in Epilepsy research with a global publications share of 2.88% during 2002-11. India has witnessed increase in its global publications share from 2.06% in 2002 to 4.65% in 2011. It witnessed an annual average publication growth rate of 15.31% and registered an average of 2.77 citations per paper during 2002-11, which has decreased from 3.48 during 2002-06 to 2.41 during 2007-11. International collaboration of India in epilepsy research accounts for 12.32% share during 2002-11, which has decreased from 12.45% during 2002-06 to 12.26% during 2007-11. USA is India's major collaborative partner during 2002-11 with a share of 41.88%, followed by United Kingdom (with 24.61% share), Japan (7.85%), Australia and Canada (7.33% each), Germany (5.76%), Switzerland (5.24%), Italy (4.71%) and Belgium (4.19%), etc during 2002-2011.

The distribution of Indian epilepsy research under different subjects shows that the highest research output (1150 papers) coming from medicine with 74.19% publications share and highest citation impact of 5.13 citations per paper was scored by Agricultural & biological sciences.

The 661 cumulative publications from 15 most productive Indian institutions in epilepsy research accounts for 42.64% share in India's total publications output, registered an average citation impact of 3.72 citations per paper and an average h-index value of 9.0 during 2002-11. The 15 most productive Indian authors in Epilepsy research together contributed 399 papers and 25.74% publications share, registered an average impact of 3.71 citations per paper and an average h-index of 7.33 per author during 2002-11. The 15 most productive journals publishing Indian research papers in epilepsy research together accounts for 35.74% (554 papers) share of the total output of India during 2002-11, which decreased from 41.57% during 2002-06 to 32.78% during 2007-11.

In spite of 10 million people suffering from epilepsy in India, it had produced only 1550 papers during the last ten years from 2002-11. There is therefore an urgent need to increase both the quantity and quality of research. This can be achieved by government by taking number of steps. To begin with there is a need to develop a national program on epilepsy as a part of national health plan of the Ministry of Health and Family Planning, which should subsequently be monitored and evaluated regularly. Indian medical and social research funding agencies must establish a more ambitious funding program into the causes, prevention, cure and care of epilepsy. There is a need to build capacity at all levels of human resources for the management of epilepsy and training programs at all levels to educate and train staff involved in diagnosis, treatment, services, prevention and research of epilepsy.. For this purpose, the guidelines prepared by Indian Epilepsy Association in collaboration with Indian Epilepsy Society for the management of epilepsy should be strictly followed. There is also need to share research data and stimulate national and international collaborative research, which will increase both the quantity and quality of research in epilepsy. There is also need to bring scientists from diverse fields together to advance research on the mechanisms underlying epilepsy and translate into new human therapies.

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