Sample For Physico Chemical Parameters Biology Essay


In the study of physico-chemical properties of water standard method described is (APHA, AWWA, BIS-1989) were used. Standard analytical reagents, corning glass wares, good stoppored sample collection bottles of 250 ml capacity, graduated pipette, sacchi disc, thermometer, pH meter, Ruttner water sampler, and other field accessories were kept in a box and carried to the different stations for the studies.

The sampling started after a few minutes of arrival at the"sampling station,to minimize the disturbance in water for the analysis of chemical characteristics samples are collected from the fixed stations of the sited which were being investigated. The data for the seasonal and monthly variation were collected directly as per defined in APHA,AWWA & PCF 1989 in polythene bottles of 2 liter capacity where as bottle samples for chemical analysis were collected by shallow Ruttner water sampler. The analysis of water for temperature, pH, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, chlorides,calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, dissolved oxygen were studied at the spot. The samples for phosphates, fluoride etc were brought to Narmada Mahavidhalaya (Hoshangabad). Laboratory and were studied with in 24 hours of collection.

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The samples were acidified using 6N nitric acid for sample preservation (APHA WWA,(1989), Holdal 1970). These preserved samples were used for the determination of BOD and COD values. For calculating the BOD values the method used by Trivedi & Goel (1986),

The following order of analysis was followed during the study-

1. Temperature


3.pH value




8 Total Alkalinity (TA).

9 Total Hardness

10Calcium Hardness


18.Bibarbonate (HCO-3)Alkalinity


20.Total Iron (Fe)


Physico-chemical characteristics


The temperature of water samples was measured in the field of at the

sampling site itself using thermometer having least count of 0.1°c (Goel & Trivedi


Transparencv :-

It was measured by a Sacchi disc of 20 cm diameter. It is marked. with

black and white pencil at right angle. It was lowered down till it just disappeared

from view and then lifting the plate and noting the depth at which it reappeared.

The average of these two readings on the graduated rope were considered the

limit of visibility. It is called Sacchi disc transparency. The dipping of Sacchi disc

was done on the shaded protected side of the boat to maintain uniform condition

for its use.

pH value (Hydrogen ion concentration) :

The pH value of the water samples had been determine at a constant temperature 25° C by making use of battery operated digital pH meter of Pentax make calibrated with standard buffer solution of strength pH=4.0 and pH=9.2 respectively.

Dissolved OXYGEN :

It was analyzed using Winkler's method: The samples of surface and middle water were collected in 200 ml Winkler's bottles and immediately Winklerize by manganese Sulphate and alkaline potassium Iodide solutions. The resultant Brown coloured precipitate was dissolved by one ml of con.H2S04 50 ml of this treated samples was created against N/40 Sodium thiosulphate Solution

using starch an Indicator (APHA 1976) Specific Electrical Conductance: The specific electrical conductance of the collected water samples had been determined at 25°C with the help of a battery operated digital conductivity meter of Pantex make calibrated by 0.01 N Solution of KCI (Potassium Chloride) as per the standard methods given in (APHA AWWA & WPCA, 1989)

Total Dissolved Solids:-

For the determination of total dissolved solids i.e. T.O.S., 250 ml of different samples were taken in different beakers. The samples were filtered using Whatman filtter paper -No- 4. The different filtrates were transferred to dried and weighed evaporating basins of 500 ml (Capacity).

These samples were evaporated on a water bath when all the water was evaporated the basins were cooled in desicator. The cooled 'basins were again weighed. The following formula was used for calculating the total dissolved solids (TOS) as given below:

TOS (g/l) = (A-B/V) X 1000

Where: A= Final weight of evaporating dish (after evaporation)

B= Initial weight of evaporating dish

V= Volume of the sample taken (ml)

Bicarbonates Alkalinitv (HC03};.

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For the determination of bicarbonate alkalinity in the water samples the standard sulphuric acid (N/50) strength and a mixture of a indicators (methylred, bromocresol green in ethyl alcohol) were used as titrant and indicator respectively.

Total Alkalinitv :

The total alkalinity was determined by titrating the known volume of sample with (.02 N) sulphuric acid as per the procedure laid down in standard methods (APHA,AWWA & WPCF, 1989)

Total Hardness:

Hardness in terms of calcium carbonate in water samples was found out by EDTA titrimetric method. In this method the sample was titrited by EDTA solution (titrant) using Eriochrome black-T as indicator. The pH of the solution was maintained to 10 pH to 10.5 pH by adding about 2 ml of ammonia buffer solution before titrating the sample (APHA, AWWA and WPCF, 1989).

Calcium (Ca2+) :

The calcium content of the samples was determined using EDTA as

titrant. pH of the water sample was maintained in the range of 12 during the titration by adding 5 - 6 drops of (2N),NaOH solution (Trivedi & Goel 1986). In this process readymade calcium indicator tablets were used as indicator. The amount of calcium (Ca2+) in mg/I had been calculated by using the following formula.

Calcium = calcium hardness x 0.40

(in mg/I ) (as CaC0, mg/I)

Chloride (Cl :

The chloride content of the water sample was determined by argentometric method. The samples were titrated using standard solution of silver nitrate (AgN03) of N/50 strength as titrant, potassium chromate was used as an indicator (NEERI manual for water & waste water analysis, 1989). The phosphate content in water samples was determined in laboratory by stannous chloride method of (APHA, 1985)11. Two ml of ammonium molybdate reagent was added into 50 ml of each water sample. Then 3 drops or 4 drops of freshly prepared stannous chloride solution were added which resulted into blue colour after sometime. Soon after, readings were recorded on a systronics spectrocolorometer at 690 nm wavelength against distilled water blank.

Total Suspended Solids (TSS):

The total suspended solids were determined by the residue on Whatman's filter paper after filtration of known volume of sample as per the procedure

defined in standard methods (APHA,AWWA and WPCF 1989).

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD):

For the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) water sample was refluxed with potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid in presence of mercuric sulphate and silver sulphate catalyst excess of potassium dichromate was titrated against ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS) using ferroin as an indicator. The amount of potassium dichromate required was noted and then

calculations were made so as to obtain the final result (standard methods, APHA,AWWA & WPCF, 1989,NEERI manual for water and waste water analysis,1989).

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):

For calculating the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) water samples

were collected in 200 ml of Winkler's bottles and immediately Winklerized by

Magnesium sulphate and alkaline potassium iodide (KI) solutions. A brown

coloured precipitate was appeared. To this precipitate one ml of concentrated

sulphuric acid (H2S04) was added. 50 ml of this sample was titrated against N/40

solution of sodium thiosulphate solution using starch as indicator.

(By the above method DO of the sampiss was determined)

The other samples were incubated at 20°C for five days (Golterman et ai,

1978). Dissolved oxygen of these samples were estimated as above .The

difference between the two values will give biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).

Micro-biological characteristics of water-

The following parameters were analysed for micro-biological examination:

(a) Test for Faecal streptococci

(b) Test for Faecal coliform



Study of Physico chemical characteristics -

Tapti & Narmada River suggest that various physical and chemical

characteristics are related to their seasonal variation are exhibited by most of the

physico chemical parameters. These parameters for Tapti and Narmada River

were studied for the year April 2008-09 and 2009-2010. The result obtained in

the study is summerised below:-


Temperature regulates all the chemical and biological reactions in water.

The increase in temperature reduces solubility of gases changes improves taste

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and odour of water. The aquatic organisms exhibit specific sensitivities towards

temperature. It is also related with various other parameters like pH,

Conductivity, saturation level of gases, Alkalinity, solubility, more prominently the

reactivity and toxicity of different heavy metals. Water temperature is lower than

surrounding air of the atmosphere. The former varies according to changes in the

later. The degree of variation in the temperature of water however is less that in

the surrounding air.

The temperature studies of Tapti river that during the study period.

Temperature studies of Tapti water show that at the Station I Maximum

temperature of 31 DC June 2008 & Station II maximum temperature of 30DC in

June 08 while a maximum of 28.SDC was recorded in station III in May 09 and

29.SDC in station IV in June 09, in station V and 30.DC in station in Ma"y 09.

The minimum temperature 14DC was recorded in Dec. 08 in station I,

13.SDC in station II in January 09, and 17DC in station III in Dec 09 while a

minimum temperature of 12.SDC was recorded in Dec 09 in station IV, 16DC in

January 10 in station V .



The average water temperature of Tapti at station \, II, III.IV, V. was

observed to be 21.6,21.3,21.4,21.3,21.7, °c respectively. It remains isothermal

throughout the year.

The temperature studies of Narmada river that during the study period.

Temperature studies of Narmada water show that at the Station IV Maximum

temperature of 30.6oC & Station VII maximum temperature of 29.SoC in may 08

while a maximum of 28.1°C was recorded in station VIII in April 09 and 31.6oC in

station IX, 29.7oC in station V and 30.6oC in station X in July 08.

The minimum temperature 12°C was recorded in Dec. 08 in station I,

13.6oC in station II in Nov 08, and 13.6oC in station III in Dec 09 while a minimum

temperature of 14.30C was recorded in Dec 09 in station IV, 11.7oC in Dec 07 in

station V.

The average water temperature of Narmada at station VI, VII, VIILlX, X.

was observe~ to be 21.2, 21.4, 21.2, 21.7, 20.8, respectively. It remains

isothermal throughout the year.


3. Hvdrogen ion concentration (Ph)

Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) is the most important and commonly

studied property of natural water and wastewater. It is the measure of intensity of

total alkalinity or acidity of water body and changes drastically with time due to

exposure to air, biological activates and temperature variations. The pH regulates

most of the biological processes and bio-chemical reactions. A large variety of

pollutants such as discharge from industries, thermal plants etc containing

detergents, heavy metals, solvents, bleaching materials, acids, alkalies, salt and

washings from agriculture fields, tanneries etc. affects pH of water considerably.

Sculthorpe (1967) has regarded that pH, Carbon-dioxide and ammonia are even

critical factors in the survival of aquatic plants and fishes than the oxygen supply.

The Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) for Tapti river station I was found.

Lowest value 7.3 in June 08 while highest value was found 8.9 in January 09.

Station II lowest value was found 7.3 in June 2009 and highest value was

found 8.6 in January 2009.

Station III lowest value of pH was found 7.2 in May 2009 while a highest

value was found 8.5 in February 2009.

Station IV lowest value of pH 7.2 recorded in July 2008 while a highest

value was found 8.6 in January 2010.

At station V lowest value of pH 7.3 was found in July 2009 while maximum

value 8.3 was found in January 2009.

The lowest pH values at the Narmada River five stations were found to be

7.4, 7.2, 7.3, 7.2, 7.4, respectively. In the month of Jan 09 the pH value from

station I to V were found to be higher i.e. 8.8, 8.9, 8.7, 8.9, 8.7, respectively.


---------- 4 _

4. Conductivity

Conductivity is an important factor the measurement of which gives the

idea of ionic concentration of dissolved inorganic substance. Dissolved salts

ionise in aqueous medium and the electricity charged ions conduct electric

current between two electrodes. This ability of conductance is dependent upon

the concentration, mobility and valency of ions. Temperature of the medium also

regulates this Inorganic substances show better conductance while organic

compounds are poor current conductors as they dissociate feebly.

In Tapti river station I the lowest conductivity value of 49 ).l mhos cm-1was

recorded in January 2010, while the highest value of 275 ).l mhos cm-1 was

recorded in July 2008.

In station II the lowest electrical conductance of 48 ).l mhos cm-1 was

recorded in December 2009, while conductance of 287 ~l mhos cm-1 was

recorded in July 2009.

The station III of Tapti river recorded highest electrical conductance of 293

).l mhos cm-1 in July 2009, while a lowest of 65 ).l mhos cm-1was observed in

January 2009.

In station IV lowest conductivity of 70 ~l mhos cm-1 was recorded in

FebruarY 2009, while the highest conductivity of 275 ).l mhos cm-1was recorded

in June 2009.

In station V the lowest electrical conductance of 43 ).l mhos cm-1 was

recorded in February 2010 w~ile conductance of 240 ).l mhos cm~1was recorded

in July 2009.


5.Total Dissolved Solid (TDS),

Total dissolved solid are simply dissolved solid of various salts of calcium,

Magnesium, sodium, Iron etc are present. They are chloride, carbonates, and

nitrates, Sulphates etc. Due to present of these salts water has a specific taste.

In presence of excess of any of these salts are used for irrigating the land, the

soil become unfertile due to salinity produced by these salts. The harmful

hazards and lethal heavy metals are also found in the dissolved solids.

The highest value of TDS at the Station I of Tapti river recorded to be 390

mg/I in the month September 2008 while the lowest value of 140 mg/I was

recorded in February 2009.

At the Station II recorded a Maximum TDS value of 325 mg/I in September

2008 while a minimum value of 40 mg/I Was recorded in February 2009.

The station III recorded a maximum TDS value of 340 mg/I in September

2009 while a minimum of 112 mg/I was recorded in February 2010. The Station

IV recorded a maximum TDS value of 385 mg/I in September 2009 while a

minimum value of 58 mg/l was recorded in January 2009.

The Station V recorded a maximum TDS value of 396 mg/I in September

2010, while a minimum value of 180 mg/l was recorded in February 2010.

The highest value of TDS at the Station VI of Narmada river recorded to

be 293 mg/I in the month September 2008 while the lowest value of 35 mg/I was

recorded in February 2010. At the Station VII recorded a Maximum T,DS value of

231 mg/I in September 2009 white a minimum value of 45 mg/I Was recorded in

February 2010.



The station VIII recorded a maximum TDS value of 265 mg/I in September

2009 while a minimum of 38 mg/I was recorded in December 2009. The Station

IX recorded a maximum TDS value of 273 mg/I in September 2009 while a

minimum value of 74 mg/I was recorded in January 2010.

The Station X recorded a maximum TDS value of 239 mg/I in September

2009, while a minimum value of 55 mg/I was recorded in January 2009.

Considerable variations were observed in dissolved solid concentration

between different sampling stations. The observed concentration in the winter

season was all the way low whereas in monsoon the value recorded was high

because of the runoff from the surface. During summer the TDS values showed

an increasing trend throughout the study period.

The higher values of chlorides, BOD and COD in different seasons and

sampling station also support the increase in dissolved solids accordingly. Thus

the present study is in conformity with the other studies carried out eles where by

different researchers ( Fulekar, 1983 : Thakre et ai, 1986, Gupta, 1988, Rao et ai,

1990 Garg et ai, 1990, Subramanian et ai, 1990).


6. Total Suspended Solid (T.S.S.l

Total suspended solid or simply suspended solids are that portion

of solids present in water which are not dissolved and can be held up on a filter

paper. It also included settable solids which settle down to the bottom if the

sample is kept in undisturbed condition for a certain period. Suspended solid may

due to clay humus and other fine debris or particulate matter discharges in to

aquatic system. Suspended solids are harmful physically reduce the visibility for

aquatic animals and retard light penetration. They make water unfit for drinking

and other domestic needs. The presence of susper;1dedsolid in water used for

irrigation is not suitable if it contains discharged from the factory but if it contains

humans or clay then it will be beneficial for the crops. Suspended solids reduce

the quality and usefulness of the water.

At the station I of Tapti the maximum suspended solid of 176 mg/l was