Role Of Women In Dairy Activity In India Biology Essay

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Introduction:

Traditionally women played a dominant role in dairying. In many research studies, it is clearly stated that dairying has been a women activity. In the traditional villages women used to engaged with animal husbandry and with grazing and selling the milk as well as milk products. The women's income from the traditional dairying was considered as a major means to generate family income. In those days women were encourage by the society to participate with the dairying. But in recent times due to the mechanization and new innovations in dairying, most of the women were forced to leave this occupation. Because of the gender discrimination in the society, those traditional women milk sellers denied of the opportunities to develop the skills. Besides this, due to certain institutional changes in the society, women folk is not equipped with the necessary technological knowledge for their full participation in the modern dairy industry. Presently women's role is limited to graze the milk at milk collecting centers without any access and control over resources. So women are unable to involve at various stages such as Co-Operatives and industry. Women participation in dairying is restricted to the realm of rearing milk animals. Because of gender inequality existing in the society, the women denied of getting and developing skills to compete with the men.

Objective:

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The present study aim at analyzing the role of women milk sellers and

to find out the difference between the role of women milk sellers and men milk sellers in dairying activities.

Methodology:-

To study the socio-economic conditions of women milk sellers Nakkapalli village (Vizag District Andhra Pradesh) is selected in view of its importance for dairying. The study is mainly based on primary data. The size of the sample is an important aspect to be decided in the case of any research. A sample of 100 women milk sellers were selected on random sampling method. Out of the 100 sample women chosen for this study 50 were reselected to analyze and compared with 50 men milk sellers with regard to the gender relations both in the family as well as in the work. For the caring the analysis, simple statistical techniques like averages percentages are employed.

Women Milk Sellers in Dairy Activity:-

Dairy farming demands hard labour from dawn to dusk. The work ranges from cleaning of animal-sheds to marketing of milk, mainly by women. An attempt is made in this paper to assess the role of women in dairy activity faced by women milk sellers.

The data relating to the distribution of women milk sellers by dairy activity is presented in Table: 1

Table: 1

Distribution of women milk sellers by dairy activity

SI.No

Marginal

Small

Medium

Large

Total

Selection of

Animal

-

-

5

(83.33)

1

(16.63)

6

(6.00)

Breeding

-

5

(100.00)

-

-

5

(5.00)

Bringing fodder from field

102

(7.14)

15

(53.57)

-

1

(3.57)

28

(28.00)

Cleaning animal shed

10

(52.63)

9

(47.36)

-

-

19

(19.00)

Feeding

3

(23.07)

5

(38.46)

5

(38.46)

-

13

913.00)

Cleaning dairy Equipment

5

(50.00)

5

(50.00)

-

-

10

(10.00)

Health care

-

-

5

(83..33)

1

(16.66)

6

(6.00)

Marketing

-

-

1

(50.00)

1

(50.00)

1

(1.00)

Preparation of dung cakes

7

(57.50)

1

(12.50)

-

-

8

(8.00)

Collection of

money

-

-

3

(75.00)

1

(25.00)

4

(4.00)

Total

37

(27.00)

40

(40.00)

18

(18.00)

5

(5.00)

100

(100.00)

Source: Sample Data (The figures in brackets are percentage to total)

The data in the above table reveals that, women participation was found to be highest in bringing fodder from fields and cleaning animals shed, followed by feeding, cleaning dairy equipment, preparation of dung cakes, health care and selection of animals. The least participation is found in marketing and collection of money. From the above results it can be concluded that women participation is mostly in laborious dairy activities rather than in marketing and financial related activities.

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Among the four categories, marginal farmers was found in bringing fodder from fields, and cleaning animals shed followed by preparation of dung cakes, cleaning dairy equipment and feeding. The same pattern continued in the case of small farmers also. Most of the medium and large farmers, participation is found in selection of animals, feeding, health care, marketing and collection of money. From this it may be inferred that the medium and large farmer women are in a better off position when compared to small and marginal farmers.

Time Spent on various activities by women milk sellers:-

The data relating to the distribution of women members by time spent on various activities is presented in table:

Table: 2

Distribution of Women Milk Sellers by Time Spent On Various Daily Activities

Land holding

Selection of animals

Breeding

Cleaning animals & Shed

Cleaning dairy equip.

Health care

Milking

Marketing

Preparation of dairy cake

Collection of Money

Total

Total

Minutes

Total

Time

average

Marginal

(Below 1 accurse)

5

(3.45)

24

(16.55)

22

(15.17)

24

(16.55)

9

(6.21)

34

(23.45)

10

(6.90)

7

(4.83)

10

(6.90)

145

10020.00

167.00

69.10

Small

(1 - 2)

6

(4.80)

23

(18.40)

17

(13.60)

17

(13.60)

11

(8.80)

23

(18.40)

10

(8.00)

6

(4.80)

12

(9.60)

125

6480.00

108.00

51.84

Medium

(2 - 4)

3

(3.85)

15

(19.23)

11

(14.10)

10

(12.82)

5

(6.41)

14

(17.95)

8

(10.26)

4

(5.13)

8

(10.26)

78

3840.00

64.00

49.23

Large

(4 and above)

0

(0.00)

2

(25.00)

1

(12.50)

1

(12.50)

0

(0.00)

2

(25.00)

1

(12.50)

0

(0.00)

1

(12.50)

8

480.00

8.00

60.00

Total

14

(3.93)

64(17.98)

51

(14.33)

52

(14.61)

25

(7.02)

73

(20.51)

29

(8.15)

17

(4.78)

31

(8.71)

356

20820

347.00

58.48

Source: Sample Data (The figures in brackets are percentages to total)

The data in the above Table:2 reveals that women milk sellers spent more time all the activities, especially in breeding, milking, cleaning animals and sheds, dairy equipments. The least times is spent on selection of animals, preparation of dung cake etc.

Across respondents, marginal farmer spent more hours compared to small, medium and large farmers. From this it may be inferred that women milk sellers belonging to lower sizes of land holdings spend more hours of labour in various activities related to dairying.

Animal feeding pattern among respondents:-

The data relating to the distribution of women milk sellers by animal feeding pattern is presented in table. :3

Table: 3

Distribution of women milk sellers by Animal Feeding Pattern per Day/Kg

Land holding

Dry

Fodder

Kg

Green

Fodder

Kg

Cattle

Feed

Kg

Ground nut cake

Kg

Coconut

Cake

Kg

Sesame

Cake

Kg

Rice

Bran

Kg

Salt

Kg

TOTAL

Marginal

(Below 1 acres)

543

(61.85)

125

(14.24)

47

(5.35)

38

(4.33)

14

(1.59)

16

(1.82)

95

(10.82)

0

(0.00)

878

Small

(1 - 2)

583

(67.71)

7

(0.81)

94

(10.92)

13

(1.51)

31

(3.60)

18

(2.09)

115

(13.36)

0

(0.00)

861

Medium

(2 - 4)

279

(61.45)

11

(2.42)

34

(7.49)

21

(4.63)

31

(6.83)

14

(3.08)

64

(14.10)

0

(0.00)

454

Large

(4 and above)

85

(68.00)

5

(4.00)

17

(13.60)

0

(0.00)

0

(0.00)

0

(0.00)

18

(14.40)

0

(0.00)

125

Total

1490

(64.28)

148

(6.38)

192

(8.28)

72

(3.11)

76

(3.28)

48

(2.07)

292

(12.60)

0

(0.00)

2318

Source: Sample Data (The figures in brackets are percentages to total)

The data in the above table shows that the quantity and quality of milk is determined by breed and feeding of milch animals in general and cross breeds in particular require better feeding during location. The above table clearly reflects this concern among the respondents. Animal feeding pattern undertaken by women milk sellers reveals that in all the categories of landholdings, dry fodder dominates followed by rice bran, cattle feed, green fodder, coconut cake, groundnut cake and sesame. It is interesting to note that in pattern of animal feeding, salt has not been used. In fact salt is also one of the nutrition required for the animals. This suggest at the need for conducting more in depth studies to find out the reasons for missing some of the nutrient values required for the animals and to educate to women milk sellers for balanced feeding pattern through extension services.

4. Time spent in dairying activities by men and women:-

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The data relating to distribution of men and women by time spent in dairying activities is presented in table: 4

Table: 4

Distribution of men and women of milk sellers by time spent in dairying activities (hour per day) (Average)

(In hours)

Land Holding

Size

Male

Female

Marginal

(Below 1 accurse)

2.30

4.72

Small

(1 - 2)

3.25

4.35

Medium

(2 - 4)

3.15

2.92

Large

(4 and above)

2.15

3.10

Total

3.02

4.03

Source: Sample Data

From the above table it was being observed that, while the average time spent by the females is 4.03 hours, while the average time spent by males is only 3.02 hours. It is also interesting to note that across all the categories of land holding also the average times spent by females is relatively higher when compared to the average time spent by males.

From this it may be concluded that the females in the dairying activities are more hard pressed when compared to the males. This calls for the social transformation in the attitude of males to assist their partners (females) by sharing the work, so as to make gender equality more meaningful.

Conclusion:-

Dairy farming demands hard labour from dawn to dusk. The work ranges from cleaning of animals sheds to marketing of milk mainly by women. The analysis of women milk sellers in dairy activity and related problems, revealed that women participation was found to be highest in bringing fodder from fields and cleaning animals shed, followed by feeding, cleaning dairy equipment, preparation of dung cakes, health care and selection of animals. The least participation is found in marketing and collection of money. Hence it is concluded that women participation is mostly in laborious dairy activities rather than in marketing and financial related activities. Among the four categories, the women in medium and large farmers are in a better off position when compared to small and marginal farmers. The analysis of women milk sellers by time spent revealed that, they spent more time in all the activities, especially in breeding, milking, cleaning animals and sheds and dairy equipments. The least time is spent on selection of animals, preparation of dairy cake etc. Across the respondents, marginal farmer spent more hours compared to small, medium and large farmers. From this it may be inferred that women milk sellers belonging to lower sizes of land holdings spent more hours of labour in various activities related to dairying.

Animal feeding pattern undertaken by women milk sellers revealed that in all the categories of land holdings, dry fodder dominates followed by Rice Bran, Cattle Feed, Green fodder, coconut cake, ground nut cake and seasame. It is interesting to not that in the pattern of animal feeding, salt has not been used. In fact salt is also one of the nutrients required for the animals. This suggests at the needs for conducting more in depth studies to find out the reasons for missing some of the nutrient values required for the animals and to educate the women milk sellers for balanced feeding pattern through extension services.

The analysis of time spent by men and women in dairying activities per day revealed that the average time spent by the females is 4.03 hours, while the average time spent by males is only 3.02 hours. It is also interesting to note that across all the categories of land holdings, also the average time spent by females is relatively higher when compared to the average time spent by males.

Thus it may be concluded that the females in the dairying activities are more hard pressed when compared to the males. This calls for the social transformation in the attitude of males to assist their partners (females) by sharing the work, so as to make gender equality more meaningful.