Role And Effects Of Intravenous Urogram Biology Essay

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Intravenous administration, all the organs of the body fluids to maintain health and body function, electrolyte balance is required. Dimer production and distribution of water and electrolyte balance is maintained by. May many factors are associated with diseases caused by imbalance. Healthy adult to maintain normal fluid's natural balance, you even a small loss of fluid can then. The body has been linked to the adjustment mechanism. However, the fluid drained and now darker and electric water balance in the body can maintain the ability to optimize the amount of blood loss, such as damage. These patients will require a recovery fluid. Intravenous fluid therapy for patients suffering from a lack of certain treatment. Peripheral venous catheter for vessel kanulasi give fluids and drugs were kept. This unit vein / getting access to data and explain the principles of maintaining differences, and precautions are associated with the process. Finally, the signal differences, we will introduce a line process must be established within the bones.


More than half of fluid in body composition. 60%, 80 (Potter and Perry, 1985)% between total body water percentage. Age, gender, variables that explain differences in body fat, body water. For example, a high percentage of young people in the kitchen sink.

Liquid circulation

In the second box, one between the external fluid and other cells in the fluid flow distribution is included.


Extracellular fluid and body fluids in the interstitial fluid contains some of the plasma. 17.5% 7.5% is a difference, and about 25% in the vascular space were found in the extracellular fluid present. Central fluid to fill the spaces between cells.

Solute of the liquid solution, it is important for fluid and electrolyte balance and metabolism. Between cell membranes throughout the body fluid contains cells. About 75% total water found in the cell body. Between cells of the contents of the container of liquid is much extracellular fluid space. However, the percentage of different materials. For example, cells in the large proportion of potassium in cells of the outer room.

Fluid movement

Liquid electrolyte body systems are not static, they move the box to box to meet metabolic requirements. Metabolic networks, oxygen, medication or therapy is modified in response. Osmosis and active transport of fluid and electrolyte movement through the development. Publishing, like molecules in a liquid solution through the membrane to deliver leading particle movement dissolved particles (or care), care is associated with a small area. Entry (ie, more soluble particles) at high concentration solution reflects the movement of water past the membrane. Water (infiltration) movement or move (place) to solve, it's sure to let the same concentration of particles to try to make a workaround. Carrier material to date that low-density area of high concentration areas can go against the concentration gradient will transport.

Size disease

Two diseases are the basic values, increase the size of liquid fluid volume deficit. Excess water or high humidity, external fluid volume set. Fluid losses to improve the regulatory system, water damage is beyond the capacity of nature. Intravenous therapy is the ultimate shock and drought management.


Drought is a condition that the fluid loss of body fluids increases. Patients (vomiting, diarrhea /), gastrointestinal (developed fever and hyperthyroidism) fluid, moving through loss could lose consciousness, increased sweating, interior (third space loss) or plasma loss (loss of an open wound or burn. ) In many cases, patients suffering from drought there is a need for intravenous treatment.


There are several classifications of trauma. Medical literature over 100 species have been discussed. For use in emergency treatment of shock due to AIDS is reflected in the general classification now. , A classification on the network's main flaw is inadequate blood flow. The body, which organs to remove waste means lack of blood flow supply. Medical equipment maintenance and air circulation, to breathe. The treatment needs through a vein in a patient.

General principles of intravenous therapy

Global recognition

If you are treated by injection of pre-hospital services, should use universal precautions. All content is considered the body and blood present in the transition should be expected. Working with the intravenous injection, you should always use gloves. Special attention should be given treatment and disposal of sharp. Most hand injuries can be avoided by not recap direction.

Ship signaling inhibitor to enter

Insertion of intravenous therapy for the management of patients suffering from serious illness or injury is important. There are indications that access to and differences are:


Fluid / drug adjust (liquid knockout lines or patient / stable medication may be necessary for the triumph)

Blood samples for laboratory analysis to obtain

Aggressive surveillance equipment (hospital) to include


Kanulasi feet burned in a given page to be contraindicated is difficult.

Or injection treatment efforts not enough for the transfer of critically ill hospital patients were injured late.

The type of venous cannula

The most common type of intravenous catheter are as follows:

Catheter needle (common in most areas of pre-hospital care);

Butterfly direction (only recommended for images of the blood samples);

Catheter, and through

Catheter was inserted through the plastic wire guide.

Sites to include

You can insert an intravenous cannula both central and peripheral pulse. EMT enter the peripheral cannula is leaking. Alberta EMT only drink out of the fourth and nerves can access. It is possible that as the site after entry. Are:

Hand vein;

Vein of your hand (elbow ulnar diameter stacked in ,...);

Jugular vein overseas.

Colloidal crystals and

Colloidal crystals: there are liquid two major categories.

Water, salt and sugar crystals as create a crystalloid solution. They have high molecular weight soluble proteins and other substances which are not included. The wall is spread through the network from the capillaries first, crystallization is only a short time left in the vessel lumen. For this purpose, the blood loss per one liter will deal with three liters of crystalloid fluid. Music saline (M) and fingers (RL) is an example of crystal. Lactic acid.

Colloids are large molecules like proteins are not easily move through the capillary membrane. Therefore, colloid intravascular space is now. As large molecules, causing fluid to interstitial space between cells and vascular spaces to move as well and increased osmotic pressure within the space ship. For this reason, many Koroidoboryumuekisupanda said. Colloids are expensive and short half-life, you need to be refrigerated. For this reason, the development of pre-hospital usually is not.

Vein Solutions

This type of intravenous solution used is important to understand. Tiyou Takashi solution hyperosmotic (ie, the scope and range of 0.45% D5W D5W and 0.9%) to cells. Hypotonic solution, the cells (ie, distilled water and 0.45% range) has a low osmotic pressure. Zhang solution that corresponds to the osmotic pressure of these cells.


Hospital care is used in the process, there are three types of nerves fluids.Saline music

Sodium and chloride ions in water, isotonic with extracellular fluid contains music. Given saline, the patient can be replaced with a fluid hipovolemik and dry. © you open you can use a number of extra small to extra copies for intravenous drug administration (main) are.

Water 5% dextrose (D5W)

D5W is enhanced. This has the effect of increasing the size of the initial outstanding. However, the body of water molecules of glucose through the membrane to take with them easily, and the net effect of the amount of the communication system can be ignored.

Competition is lactic acid

Lactic acid solution isotonic electrolyte competition. This water is sodium chloride, potassium, calcium lactate are included. It also is used to change the fluid. However, pre-hospital care, clear bell department and short-term gains, there are salted lactic acid. Your fluid (ie, more than four liters) replacement, if you need a lot of hospital 4 L saline lactic acid before and after the first bell had been transferred to service providers is needed. The condition for the hyperchloremic acidosis resulting from the provision of large amounts of salt is to stop.

 The procedure for inserting a catheter into a vein

EMT kanulasi a breath vein or P, you must do the following:

Patient should be identified, we propose a central vein for venous access, select the appropriate size cathalon IV.

All (Penrose / hemostasis, alcohol swabs, iodine, tape, gauze, IV saline lock canal intravenous solutions, surgical dressings owner Conference / exit) actions, the implementation of storage devices;

Check the appropriate pipe intravenous solutions and services.

30 seconds, a clear right-hand page (the first owner of iodine after alcohol) for use of a tourniquet;

Sterilization method to insert an intravenous vein (bevel side up) shot and a "flash" is obtained, and after several millimeters to move forward.

Fixed positions towards providing a catheter to leave.

Remove tourniquet from the patient's hand.

, Intravenous saline lock and intravenous catheter tubing connected to adjust the flow;

Venous catheter or surgical tape and secure dressing

Move the entire document.

To calculate flow rate

Adjust the level of fluid in medical care needs. A breath - the amount of P or EMT diinfus need to know, will, diinfus period should be liquid and group specifies the number of drop-mm implant offers. Flow can be calculated using the following formula is:

/ Ml drops = 10 Macrodrip, Microdrip = drop 60 / ml of

** In most cases, 10 macrodrip / liter, or 20 drops / 15 ml can be used to establish drops. Chamber has always drop / ml nerve to show it refers to.

/ Min, droplet volume = X / ml Drops an integral part of communication is set

                 Total time min infusion

For example, read as follows: 120 milliliters (mL / 10 drops using a set of) more than 1 hour pump

/ X-10drops/ml minimum = 120 mg of falls

                             60 minutes

                                                    20 = points / minute

Patients in the acceptance of a certain line nerve

Patients receiving intravenous patient on completion of transfer to be made. Therefore, patency of intravenous lines, where the right choice, a cannula, the size of an intravenous therapy significant potential complications. If necessary, the hospital needs to broadcast and, if you restart the vein of his departure.

 Intermittent Vascular Access

Be the arrival of a small number of preventative medicine, like injecting, obtained by, or a change in the patient's condition, traditional inch essential management and drug and fluid, 50 mg / 10 to be the time rate (TKVO) 5% flow in and dextrose solution. However, it often leaks (Jelco Deseret Burn cap or adapter) is used in the saline lock "to keep vein open."

Prepare 3 ml sterile saline syringe.

President of the salt cap / injection of two ml syringe in combination with the trend of salt about music. Leave a comment Jelco syringes and needles are included in the cap.

Normal procedures, follow the cannula inserted into a vein.

Center cap cannula (direction / orientation attached) is to copy them.

1 cc saline and washed with the direction of the image.

/ Remove the cover of salt in reverse.


Does not require priming - intermittent pulse, the process for the device to

Prepare 3 ml sterile saline syringe.

Normal process, insert an intravenous catheter.

Intermittent vascular access device central venous catheters connect.

Please wipe with an alcohol pad to reach the axis.

Insert the needle through the lid. Thailand multilateral defendant on January 2, during the copy.

And tape.

Access to blood vessels, early basic life support, advanced trauma life support in particular, a high priority to supporting children's lives remains. Vascular access and patient / disease or injury in spite of the general principles are the same age. Patients suffering children in the next section, we distinct trauma patients discussed issues related to vascular access.

You rely on the establishment of vascular access is an important step in the treatment of adults and children can. You resuscitation, vascular access if you check the first few minutes of inspiration and drug recovery can be more successful as possible. By intravenous infusion of intravenous drug administration is a preferred method, and bone marrow Basically, stay, especially if the trauma and addiction as a result of agreements at the heart of noncardiac causes.