Risks And Types Of Contrast Media Biology Essay

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Clinical Diagnostic Radiology, diagnostic equipment and investigative techniques, as well as advances were made possible by the contrast with the otherwise rather than evidence of the internal organs of the structure and details may be visible. Resistance of ultra-modern contrast to the development of chemical technology is achieved by rapid pharmacology. In general, the physiological function of body weight of iodine at the top of the 2000 times without any side effects typically deleted from the system quickly and naturally, X-ray contrast media administration. 

The choice of contrast media is not always a matter of debate is ultimately the responsibility of the radiologist. Involved in physical and physiological factors may need to understand some of the principles, the choice of contrast agent to make rational decisions about the can. The goal of the background of a complex subject matter experts will provide non-specialists. 

 Why you need contrast 

X somewhere for changing the position of the beam within the body of the other organizations. Elements through the X-ray beam attenuation level of the main variables involved, but a dog, you can interact with is the number of electrons in the beam path.The number of electrons of the beam path depends on 3 factors: 

The thickness of the elements being reviewed. • 

Its density. • 

(Corresponding to the atomic number) the number of valence electrons for each of the elements 

Of course we are concerned about the patient's long-term component of the complex compounds strongly involved in the attenuation level of the average atomic number of all atoms can be affected. These tight muscles and heart, lung air density between the two independent institutions if there is a big difference between the description of the structure, due to the nature of the differences can be seen in X-ray pictures.Likewise, the atomic number and low atomic number elements such as partially composed of calcium is composed of soft tissue between the bones in the average number of atoms and the difference between two different networks have different structure and nature of the portrayal of high contrast and can not can. Because of the nature of the existing money, but the same density of two independent institutions, such as if you have an average atomic number, which distinguish them from X-ray pictures can not be. This situation generally, for example, or to identify the blood vessels of organs inside of the rock is impossible to describe the structure, which occurs in X-ray diagnosis of the aforementioned factors do not change in the open.And the contrast is more useful artificial organs, organs that can change the density of two atoms one important factor is the average of nine trillion. The density of hollow organs by creating a gas or air, and it can reduce the negative contrast is provided.Yet most of this historical significance, for example, when inserted on gas, or double-contrast barium examination will be used for the built-in. 

Compared with the blood vessels and hollow structure (such as iodine-containing contrast agents), high average atomic number of the liquid filling the cavity and can be improved is the average of the number of atoms. In fact, by the principle of the dye solution or suspension of a high atomic number of the non-depleting substances, usually containing a significant proportion of iodine is composed. 

3. What contrast is being used? Require the use of contrast media has a lot of radiation tests. Some of the most 

Generally described below. This volume, energy, and the contrast of the different types of media types and radiographic examination according to the needs of patients must be careful because there is a difference between. 

1. Angiography 

The study of blood vessels is a general term to describe. Arterial and venous enhancement is reviewed by the difference between the general blood vessel (artery or vein) is made depending on the type. 


1.1 arterial 

Ng X-ray opaque lumen catheter is inserted into large blood vessels to create a vascular contrast agent through the SA. The natural flow of contrast medium and long term roadmap for the image, similar to the blood supply to the legs to get the shot in a series of X-ray radiation and the doctor leads to the peripheral blood. Of localized tumors to shrink or occlusion of arteries or pathologic circulation can be found. In some cases, radiologists first introduced to evaluate the patient's treatment using catheter systems that can continue. Radiation Arteriografi some time and a half hours, depends on the complexity - two hours or courses may be required to. 

1.2 Intravenous contrast (intravenous contrast) 

Vascular injection of contrast medium through the root in the mind of man and the natural flow of blood in the veins of the dangers of lead can be achieved. Bigger and a lot of peripheral arterial blood flow to the size and the fact that he was slower than the intravenous radiologists in each location to another location, number of feet to take pictures of the X-ray is usually that means. Intravenous contrast is the most common guidelines leg confirmed the diagnosis of suspected deep-vein thrombosis is. Venous catheters for peripheral vascular angiography, introducing them to manipulate the body's long-term was conducted. 

1.3 Digitalization vessels (DSA) and 

Digital reducing blood vessel (DSA) of a particular type. This method generates a sequence of images, a special high-speed electronics, computer hardware and includes the use of X-ray. Figure DSA after the injection of contrast media and contrast in an image without reducing the electronic image is created. The results of this process, the structure of the intervention, compared to its satisfaction over the free will to reduce the visualization of the vessel. 

2. Venous urography (IVU), intravenous contrast can 肾盂 (IVP) and 

If the vein rapidly excreted through the kidneys after the injection of contrast medium injected into the most X-ray pictures taken of the series will be the urinary tract.Intravenous contrast 肾盂 available yet is the basis of a urinary tract imaging. Key indicators to assess the shape of the rock is. 

Also see: Kidney stones and calcification sa ureter, bladder, urine flow, hematuria patients evaluated Search (urine, blood travel) will interfere with the investigation.Children over a urinary tract can be explained naturally. Some investigation into uncomplicated infections, especially infections, abdominal ultrasonography and X-rays last few years, the first study of the urinary tract can 肾盂 intravenous angiography has replaced. 

3. Abdominal tomography (CT) 

Imaging technology known as CT scans at 1973 (CT) imaging is one of the most important in developed countries has been developed for. CT uses an X-ray beam cross-section images of the quarter, the traditional body to produce thin. X-ray tube and detector array for each patient examination pinch-round support to mount a framework. They are usually sent to the hospital to see the whole movie in a format that can be printed on paper, but, CT to generate a digital image. 

CT, high-contrast sensitivity by electronic means, the long-term growth as opposed to natural radiation forty-two. However, if you can not see the effect, not nature. CT is very sensitive to the contrast dye after intravenous administration of disability due to illness can be detected. This method tests "enhance" is known as. ct, including the use of contrast media about 43% of all procedures. CT is widely used throughout the body, in most cases, radiologic technology, neural (brain and spine), chest abdomen and pelvis were investigated by normal radiation. This is very helpful in the preparation of a diagnostic deadly disease continues. 

4. Myelography 

Spinal nerve roots coming out the tube without the use of contrast itself with the existing X-ray can not be visualized. They direct magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be visualized using. They contrast well as the CSF and spinal cord nerve roots radio opaque, rendering the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord (CSF), can be visible during injection. Contrast, was specifically developed for the evaluation.Conducted to assess the spine, the majority myelograms (or radiculograms) Check the disc herniation clinical suspicion. However, CT or MRI as the initial investigation of the spinal cord is replaced. CT, especially with the film in this test case still difficult, 颈 髄 or when used to investigate the neuromuscular and other academic or general classification. 


Intervention phase 

Many current therapeutic radiologists specializing in technology, bees use catheters and guide wires have been developed in the radiation diagnosis. These methods include: 

Pathological narrowing of the arteries expand • - angioplasty angioplasty (PTA) to. 

• barriers to the take away their own blood supply, tumors, aneurysms and vascular malformations, such as the arteries that supply is more than the field. 

• tubes and artificial blood vessels, bile ducts and the ureter stent narrowing of the pathological anger can be ignored. The evaluation of several tools to control the process of healing is required, so this method should be used mostly for high contrast media. 

 Security enhancement 

Almost all the doctors in contrast to the currently available drugs is one of the security was. It is not intended to have therapeutic activity is the error: In fact, no pharmacological activity and is the ideal contrast. For this reason, it can be applied to the medical regimen is not compatible with the concept of contrast. The initial design of molecular contrast agents in licensed product development takes a couple of years.Reasonable minimum period is assigned to the preclinical and clinical development of six years it takes the movement is not uncommon for more than 9 years. During this long period, the medium resistance is drastically different from product to form a profile of preclinical and clinical trials, the test is to collect data from. In an important area for development to ensure the incidence of complications. Side effects of iodine contrast agent on the market level is very low, these reactions occur - they are the same for all drugs. Adverse events related to contrast agents can be divided into 2 groups: the reaction obviously, given the amount and intensity of treatment they almost independent of the concentration of contrast medium in a dose-dependent. 

Capacity dependence primarily osmotic effects, such as electric charge is due to the contrast of the physical and chemical effects. Side effects can be fever, pain, blood vessels, heart, depression, and hypotension are included. Almost independent of the amount and intensity of adverse treatment reactions specific cardiovascular, bronchial and laryngeal (urticaria), such as nausea and vomiting, skin rashes, allergies and hypersensitivity is hardly any correlation antigenantibody record. Reaction is predicted that the state is the underlying cause is unknown. 


For clinical purposes, the media's reaction was divided into the following 3 categories is important to prepare: 

1. Shows a small example. Flushing, nausea, vomiting, itching, mild rash, sore throat cancer 

2. Moderate ago. More serious skin rashes, facial swelling, hypotension, bronchial 

3. Seriously shows. Hypotension, shock, laryngeal edema, convulsions, respiratory and heart 

Most of the reactions of small dye does not require treatment. Moderate reaction (about 1%) and severe reactions are very rare (0.1%) are rarely all moderate and severe reactions will require the appropriate treatment. Contrast of the death, the government is rare. Reported mortality rates among the other 10 000 1 169 000 1 Katayama of an average of about 75,000 inches. (628 in 1990 radiation 175:621) reduction of approximately four hours a vein-contrast media, adverse reactions and osmotic (HOCM) compared with injectable contrast media osmolality (LOCM) was used to lower. 

Of course, Japan and Australia, a series of large veins in the mortality difference between LOCM and HOCM are listed. Contrast, most of which are small "test amount" of a serious reaction to investigate the effect of it is impossible to predict. This guide is designed to use low-osmolality contrast agent. 


 Renal side effects 

Contrast the Kidney disease> 25% increase in 44 mole decreased renal function (defined as the induction of serum creatinine / blood vessel in the presence of alternative energy sources within 3 days after administration of contrast medium occurred in the left (0.5mg/dL) 

Risk factors of non-steroidal ant - such as anti-inflammatory drugs increase the level of serum creatinine, diabetes, kidney disease, especially with gold, dehydration, congestive heart failure, aged 70 years, concurrent administration of the drug include kidney toxicity 

Systematically effective 

1. After contrast administration is not recommended for oral hydration or intravenous saline hydration, sufficient for 24 hours, four hours before the start, at least 100 ml per hour (depending on the clinical situation). Nephrotoxicity of simultaneous administration of the drug should be discontinued at least 24 hours. An overdose of contrast medium, or high-osmolarity contrast dye for a short time, do some research. Does not require iodine dye injection technique is necessary to consider alternative imaging. Prevention of contrast induced renal failure and improve N - Blast jjiru 4-6 cysteines, including the use of sodium bicarbonate and various water treatment works of the last hope is a non-deterministic. No measurements are generally classified as right or chemotoxic patients.Non worsening of all the rocks are effective in preventing reactions.These.Parties (ie, allergic basis) reaction to an unexpected amount of independent agents to create density. Most of the activity of the allergic reactions associated with the release of a mediator. In contrast, the effect chemotoxic type molecular toxicity of each agent, the amount of contrast material (ie, osmotic pressure, viscosity, calcium and sodium content of the hydrophobic bond) were related to the physiological characteristics.Many patients with type likely to be more effective Chemotoxic weak or unstable medical 

By contrast, the reaction can be divided into media 2.Acute, elementary, middle and severe life-threatening. Small flare reaction, nausea, arm pain, itching, nausea, headache, mild skin rashes are included. This reaction selflimiting typically does not require special handling, usually a short period of moderate to mild. The severity of the reaction medium with the same symptoms, moderate degree of hypotension, is bronchial. This reaction is generally adequate to respond quickly to treatment. All symptoms, including severe symptoms of a serious life-threatening reactions with small reaction convulsions, loss of consciousness, laryngeal edema, severe bronchial, pulmonary edema, severe heart rhythm disorders, arrest, heart and lung blood vessels to explain the collapse. Osmolality contrast dye higher than the prevalence of adverse lowosmolar by a factor of 5-6. Reactionsrarely cancellation will occur. Less than 1 / 130000 of the actual risk of death in the most 

Important events 3.Setelah contrast, allergic asthma requiring treatment and the patient's previous response to increased side effects. If you use the agent to the ion pre-steroid medication is safe and effective in small high-risk patients to prevent adverse effects will prove 

4. These materials prevent the protective effects of corticosteroids less if you use a nonionic surfactant that I have suggested. If you are using a nonionic surfactant opinion is divided about the value of medication. Other systems have been granted to the different doses, number of doses, corticosteroids are the frequencies for the prevention of. 

5. (Skin rash, myalgia, fever, itching, nausea, vomiting, headache, etc.), to describe a variety of symptoms are not linked to much contrast. Allergic reactions such as skin and the influence of contrast medium in the range of about 2% to make sure welldocumented. Allergic reaction after exposure to contrast media, most skin reactions at the end of the T - cellmediated can. Patients at high risk of contrast reaction and the previous history of treatment with interleukin-2 are the ones. Most skin reactions are generally mild to moderate selflimiting tend to be completed within a week. Another contrast with the treatment of symptomatic reactions.Extravasation druginduced skin is like a well-known complications. The introduction of automatic power-on the collapse of the power of the mass in a short time can result in leaks may cause serious tissue damage has been increased.