Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer Biology Essay


Normally, different cancers have different risk factors. For instance, explore skin under hot sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. In addition, smoking is a risk factor for various cancers. Even though causes of prostate cancer are not fully discover, researchers have found some factors that might change the risk of getting it. Sadly, for some of these factors, the relation to prostate cancer risk is not clear, yet (Strom et al., 2008).

2.1 Nationality

Statistical data shown that, the prostate cancer is utmost common in North America, northwestern Europe, Australia, also on Caribbean islands. It had shown a lesser amount in Asia, Africa, Central America, and South America. The reasons for this distribution are unclear until today (Strom et al., 2008). On the othere hand, the prostate cancer happens more often in African-American men than in men of other races. The African-American men are also more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage. Moreover, the reasons for these racial and ethnic differences are not clear (Jemal et al., 2009).

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2.2 Diet

There are other factors are expected to be vital as well. For instance, lifestyle differences like diet are an important too. For male that prefer to eat lots of red meat or high-fat dairy products seem to have a slightly greater chance of getting prostate cancer. Moreover, for male that have a tendency to eat fewer fruits and vegetables also have slightly greater chance of getting prostate cancer. In addition, some studies also suggested that men who consume a lot of calcium may have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. However, until today, the link with the levels of calcium with prostate cancer is unclear too (Huncharek et al., 2008).

2.3 Inflammation of the prostate

Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate gland. It is believe that prostatitis may be related to a better risk of the prostate cancer. Whereas the link between the two is not yet clear, this topic is an active area of the research (Hosseini et al.).

2.4 Vasectomy

Some earlier studies had suggested that for men who had a done vasectomy during the ages younger than 35, may have a slightly increased risk for having prostate cancer. On the other hand, fear of an increased risk of prostate cancer should not be a motive to avoid a having vasectomy. Nonetheless, most current studies have not found any increased risk among men who have had vasectomy (Holt et al., 2008).


Age is believed to be the strongest risk factor for prostate cancer. For prostate cancer is very rare before the age of 40, but the chance of having prostate cancer rises promptly after age 50. Besides, almost 2 out of 3 prostate cancers are found in men above the age of 65 (Jemal et al., 2008).

Family History

Prostate cancer seems to be an inherited or genetic factor. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer will doubles a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. Additionally, the risk is higher for men with an affected brother than for those with an affected father. Furthermore, the risk is much higher for men with a number of affected relatives, predominantly if the relatives were young at the time the cancer was found (Ahn et al., 2008).

Genetic Factors:

Researchers have found numerous inherited genes that seem to increase risk of prostate cancer risk. However, genetic testing for most of these genes is not yet accessible. Lately, some common gene variations have been linked to the risk of prostate cancer. Furthermore, studies to confirm these results are needed to see if testing for the gene variants will be useful in predicting prostate cancer risk. Various inherited genes raise the risk for more than one type of cancer. For instance, inherited mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are the cause for breast and ovarian cancers in some families. Mutations in these genes may also raise prostate cancer risk in men, but then the genetic factor account for a very small percentage of prostate cancer cases. Also, there is evidence that a significant part of genetic predisposition to prostate cancer might be due to lower penetrance genes which are found by using genome-wide association studies which are MSMB, LMTK2, KLK2/3, MSMB and KLK2/3. Three of these loci have susceptibility genes: MSMB, LMTK2 and KLK2/3. The MSMB and KLK2/3 genes may be useful for prostate cancer screening, and the LMTK2 gene might make available a possible therapeutic target (Guy et al., 2008).

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Additional Risk Factors:

Other possible risk factors are still under study. Some researchers are investigating other factors in relation to prostate cancer risk in human like a number of environmental exposures, obesity and others.

Ahn, J., et al. 2008. Family history of prostate cancer and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. International Journal of Cancer, 123, 1154-1159.

Guy, M., et al. 2008. Identification of new genetic risk factors for prostate cancer. Asian journal of andrology, 11, 49-55.

Holt, S. K., Salinas, C. A., & Stanford, J. L. 2008. Vasectomy and the risk of prostate cancer. The Journal of urology, 180, 2565-2568.

Hosseini, M., et al. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran. Acta Medica Iranica, 48, 61-66.

Huncharek, M., Muscat, J., & Kupelnick, B. 2008. Dairy products, dietary calcium and vitamin D intake as risk factors for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 26,769 cases from 45 observational studies. Nutrition and cancer, 60, 421-441.

Jemal, A., et al. 2008. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 58, 71.

Jemal, A., et al. 2009. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 59, 225.

Strom, S. S., et al. 2008. Prostate cancer in Mexican-Americans: Identification of risk factors. The Prostate, 68, 563-570.